Well 1 dissolved 1

I don’t know how to handle this Health & Medical question and need guidance.

Your initial discussion thread is due on Day 3 (Thursday) and you have until Day 7 (Monday) to respond to your classmates. Your grade will reflect both the quality of your initial post and the depth of your responses. Refer to the Discussion Forum Grading Rubric under the Settings icon above for guidance on how your discussion will be evaluated.

Overview of Systems

In this course, the 12 systems of the human body (skeletal, muscular, integumentary, nervous, special senses, endocrine, cardiovascular, respiratory, lymphatic/immune, gastrointestinal, renal, and reproductive) are explored. For this discussion, you will choose and locate two body systems. Then, for each chosen body system you will:

  • Briefly describe its major physiological functions.
  • Identify the associated organs.
  • Explain the relationship between normal system function and dysfunction.
  • Provide one example of how dysfunction can lead to disease.
  • Examine the interdependence of physiological systems in both health and disease.
  • Briefly describe the importance of homeostasis as it relates to our health.

Use medical terminology and two scholarly sources to support your research and findings (one may be your course text). All sources must be referenced and cited according to APA guidelines as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center. Your initial post should be at least 250 words in length.

Guided Response: Read several of your classmates’ posts and respond to two students who have chosen different systems. What did you already know about these systems, their functions, and organs? What research were you not aware of before studying your peers’ posts? Each peer response should be at least 100 words in length.

Dakota James

Skeletal System

The two well-known major physiological functions of the skeletal system are to protect and support the human body. The skeleton supports the body, gives us our shape, allows us to move, and additionally protects our internal organs (Silverstein, et al, 1994). These are not the only functions, however. Our skeletal systems store calcium and phosphorus; in fact, 99 percent of the calcium is stored within this struct while the remaining one percent is found in blood and other bodily fluids (Silverstein et al, 1994). There are four main organs in this system, which include: bones, cartilage, ligaments, and tendons.

Normal skeleton function occurs in most healthy human beings. When this system is operating properly it allows us to control our movement, support our body and give us the form we commonly see in others. Bones are critical to proper function as many of them act as levers, allowing us to walk, lift objects, etc. (Silverstein et al, 1994). When there is skeletal system dysfunction, severe side effects can take place. Osteoporosis is an example of a common bone dysfunction that causes damage to the skeletal system. This dysfunction lowers the density of your bones causing those with it to become more prone to fractures or breaks. In a study of 200 males over the age of 55, 40 percent of the patients had low bone mass indicating that this is a more common system dysfunction (Kotawal et al, 2020).

Cardiovascular System

Some of the major functions of the cardiovascular system include: protecting against disease and infections, provide nutrients to the cells, and circulating oxygen through the body. The organs that are responsible for ensuring this system operates smoothly are the heart, lungs, arteries and veins. The heart and circulatory system make up the cardiovascular system and it’s driving force is the heart. Our hearts push blood to our organs, tissues, and cells; this blood in turn carries oxygen and nutrients to the cells within our body (Anatomy of the Heart, 2020).

Normal system function ensures that oxygen, blood, and nutrients are pumped throughout the system while bodily waste products are removed. In a malfunctioning cardiovascular system, the most common issues we see stem from coronary heart disease, rheumatic heart disease, and peripheral arterial disease (Cardiovascular Diseases, 2020). Most dysfunctions are behaviorally created and can be mitigated with proper education and employment. For example, obesity can cause blood pressure, glucose, and lipids to rise within the body, this in turn can increase system dysfunction to the point of heart attack, heart failure, strokes, or other complications (Cardiovascular Diseases, 2020).

References

Anatomy of the Heart and Cardiovascular System. (2020, January 30). Retrieved August 04, 2020, from https://www.texasheart.org/heart-health/heart-info…

Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). (n.d.). Retrieved August 04, 2020, from https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/cardiovascular-diseases-(cvds)

Kotwal, N., Upreti, V., Nachankar, A., & Hari Kumar, K. (2018). A Prospective, Observational Study of Osteoporosis in Men. Retrieved August 04, 2020, from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC58389…

Silverstein, A., Silverstein, R. A., & Silverstein, V. B. (1994). Skeletal System: Vol. 1st ed. Lerner Publishing Group.

Tiana Friesen

My two body system choices are ­­­the Immune and Respiratory systems.

System #1:

A brief description of the major physiological functions of the Immune system:

“Much like the storm drain system of our city, this very important—but often forgotten—system is responsible for helping to maintain properfluid balance in our body and to protect it from infection” (Colbert, et al, 2013, 5.3). The Lymphatic and Immune systems are much like a “defense” system. They protect people from infections that occur through various methods of transmission.

The associated organs of the Immune system include:

The organs associated with the immune system include the spleen, lymph nodes, lymph vessels and ducts, tonsils, and the thymus gland. The lymphatic system also produces lymphocytes, which are white blood cells, that specialize in fighting diseases.

Normal Immune system function includes:

When the body is in homeostasis, lymph nodes remove extra fluid (lymph) and cleanse possible infections. A normal immune system will act as a “filter” and protect from possible pathogens.

Dysfunction in the Immune system occurs when:

Dysfunction in the immune system can be caused by several things. Immune dysfunction can result from an overactive, or underactive immune response. A person can also be born with a weak immune system (congenital). There are times that a certain disease can also weaken and immune system permanently.

Dysfunction in the Immune system can lead to disease when:

According to the John’s Hopkins, immune diseases are caused by different factors and can lead to different diseases. A person can: “Be born with a weak immune system. This is called primary immune deficiency. Get a disease that weakens your immune system. This is called acquired immune deficiency. Have an immune system that is too active. This may happen with an allergic reaction. Have an immune system that turns against you. This is called autoimmune disease” (Disorders of the Immune System).

To maintain good health, all body systems must function properly. The Immune system is dependent upon other systems in the body because:

The Immune system is very dependent on other systems. While it is filtering lymph, it is depending upon systems such as the circulatory system and urinary system. The circulatory system helps to move the waste while the urinary system (kidneys) excrete the waste.

When the Immune system is not functioning properly, or diseased, it can negatively impact other body systems due to:

When the immune system is impaired, several systems can be put at risk. All systems can be affected by different pathogens. Each of these pathogens can affect the body differently from parasitic infections in the GI tract, to meningitis, to pneumonia, etc. Immune dysfunction can lead to whole systemics diseases beyond infection including lupus, eczema, and asthma.

The Immune system helps our body maintain homeostasis by:

By defending against diseases and pathogens the immune system helps the body maintain homeostasis. When a pathogen takes over the body, the immune system will release different white blood cells that can help to mitigate the infection from taking over by producing a febrile response.

System #2:

A brief description of the major physiological functions of the respiratory system:

“Our lungs eliminate the carbon dioxide created as a result of cellular metabolism. The respiratory system filters, warms, and moistens air as itis inhaled. The mucous lining of the airway helps trap foreign particles and germs. This system also helps to maintain the proper acid balance of the blood and aids in the elimination of ingested alcohol” (Colbert, et al, 2013, 5.3).

The associated organs of the respiratory system include:

The organs associated with the respiratory system are the pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchial tubes, and lungs.

Normal respiratory system function includes:

When the respiratory system is functioning properly, the lungs will expel carbon dioxide and inhale oxygen. Oxygen is essential for organs, and muscles to continue to function.

Dysfunction in the respiratory system occurs when:

Dysfunction of the respiratory system can occur when there is a blockage, a pulmonary embolism, a lung cancer or disease. Several infections and diseases can also affect the respiratory systems ability to properly function.

Dysfunction in the respiratory system can lead to disease when:

Dysfunction can lead to a disease when the airways become damaged. Permanent damage can be caused from pollution, smoking, past infections, etc. and can cause cardiopulmonary obstructive disorder (COPD), emphysema, and or cancers.

To maintain good health, all body systems must function properly. The respiratory system is dependent upon other systems in the body because:

The respiratory system relies heavily on the cardiovascular system to bring blood cells to the lungs to partake in the gas exchange. When the red blood cells hemoglobin binds with oxygen (in the lungs), the cardiovascular and circulatory systems then send the cells to the rest of the body to complete a different gas exchange.

When the respiratory system is not functioning properly, or diseased, it can negatively impact other body systems due to:

Different systems can be affected by the respiratory system not working when the body is not able to complete gas exchange. As previously stated, each system relies on oxygen, and elimination of waste (carbon dioxide) to properly function. “Respiratory failure is a serious condition that develops when the lungs can’t get enough oxygen into the blood. Buildup of carbon dioxide can also damage the tissues and organs and further impair oxygenation of blood and, as a result, slow oxygen delivery to the tissues” (Respiratory Failure).

The respiratory system helps our body maintain homeostasis by:

When the body cannot expel carbon dioxide it increases acidity. When the acidity rises and the pH of the blood is thrown off, it can lead to acidosis and sepsis. The respiratory system maintains homeostasis by providing supplemental oxygen and excretion of waste, being carbon dioxide. In the reverse, if too much carbon dioxide is being expelled (hyperventilation), the body can go into a state of respiratory alkalosis. Either way the pH of the body must be in homeostasis for all organs to continue to properly function.

Conclusion:

Each system in the body places an integrative role in aiding each other. Homeostasis is essential for all systems to work properly. The body works very hard to achieve and maintain homeostasis. While several organs make up different systems, they are all dependent upon each other.

References:

Colbert, B. J., Ankney, J., & Lee. K. T. (2013). Anatomy, physiology, & disease: An interactive journey for health professionals (2nd ed.). Boston: MA. Pearson Education.

Disorders of the Immune System. (n.d.). Retrieved August 04, 2020, from https://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/health/conditions-…

Respiratory Failure. (n.d.). Retrieved August 04, 2020, from https://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health-topics/respirator…

milie Mccarthy

The Nervous System:

The major physiological functions of the nervous system is to be “the master control and communication center of the body.” (eScience Labs, 2013) The nervous system communicates with different parts of the body to relay the proper functions that are permitting themselves at different points and times of any action being performed by the human body. The associated organs of the nervous system are the brain, spinal cord, the inner ear, the eyeball, and sensory organs.

The nervous system, when working properly, takes in information through our senses, processes the information, and triggers reactions, such as making your muscles move or causing you to feel pain. It uses the CNS (central nervous system) and the PNS (peripheral nervous system.) When dysfunctions occur in the nervous system it regulates nonvoluntary body functions, such as heart rate, blood pressure, and sweating. One example of dysfunction in the nervous system would come from an irregular heart rate and blood pressure that can lead to a stroke or even become a stroke in itself.

When it comes to the interdependence of the nervous system in health and disease, it depends on other the other systems in our bodies. For example, the nervous system mostly depends on the cardiovascular system because it is also a master control of the human body. When the two work together they create a healthy and functional body for us. The two also can cause diseases like strokes, when the cardiovascular system is in distress it sends signals to the nervous system then has to send the proper signals to the nerves and senses in the body to create the proper response needed in that time of distress. “The nervous system controls virtually all body activities, and the endocrine system secretes hormones that regulate these activities. Functioning together, the organ systems supply body cells with all the substances they need and eliminate their wastes. They also keep temperature, pH, and other conditions at just the right levels to support life processes.” (Foundation, n.d.) This is how the nervous system helps maintains homeostasis in our bodies.

The Cardiovascular System:

The major physiological functions of the cardiovascular system are responsible for the transportation of water, oxygen, nutrients, and other life-supporting substances to all the cells in the body; the cardiovascular system is also responsible for transporting waste products and materials away from these cells for disposal. The associated organs of the cardiovascular system are the heart, blood, and blood vessels.

The cardiovascular system, when working properly, consists of the heart pumping blood through the network of blood vessels, transporting oxygen, nutrients, water, etc to almost all of the body’s tissues. “Blood vessels can be further classified. Vessels that carry blood away from the heart are called arteries. These main vessels branch outinto even smaller vessels called arterioles, which eventually become capillaries.” (Colbert et al. 2013.) When dysfunction occurs in the cardiovascular system its because there is a clog or congested arteries. If these arteries in the body continue to be clogged or congested, it can disrupt the normal flow of blood, causing the heart to have to work harder. For example, the clogged arteries cause the heart to work harder causing increased blood pressure known as hypertension. Long term hypertension can have may crippling effects on the organs of the body including the kidneys and blood vessels themselves.

When it comes to the interdependence of the cardiovascular system in health and disease, it depends on other the other systems in our bodies. For example, the cardiovascular system is mostly dependant on the nervous system because it is the master control of the brain. When the two work together they create a healthy and functional body for us. The two also can cause diseases like heart attacks, when the cardiovascular system is in distress it sends signals to the nervous system then has to send the proper signals to the nerves and senses in the body to create the proper response needed in that time of distress. The cardiovascular system needs all of the important organs to work together at the same time to help create and maintain homeostasis within the human body.

References:

Escience labs, all rights reserved, 2013

Colbert, B. J., Ankney, J., & Lee. K. T. (2013). Anatomy, physiology, & disease: An interactive journey for health professionals (2nd ed.). Boston: MA. Pearson Education.

Foundation, C., n.d. CK12-Foundation. [online] CK-12 Foundation. Available at:

[Accessed 4 August 2020].

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