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The cognitive school is part of the second force in psychotherapy. The beginnings of cognitive behavioral therapy can be traced to the develop- ment of behavior therapy during the early part of the 20th century, to the creation of cognitive therapy during the 1950s and 1960s, and to the subsequent merger of these two schools dur- ing the 1980s and 1990s. There is no easy line of demarcation between the history of behavior therapy and cognitive therapy. What was once labeled separately as behavioral and as cognitive has now become irretrievably linked together as cognitive-behavioral. The terms cognitive- behavioral therapy (CBT) and cognitive therapy are used interchangeably in this chapter to indi- cate they are one and the same. The cognitive-behavior therapy worldview operates on the principle that by fixing clients’ faulty beliefs, they learn how to behave more effectively, how to think differently, and how to act on such learning. Clients reject distorted cognitions that may have caused maladaptive behavior, and they replace them with more realistic and self-helping alternatives. At least 20 different therapies have been categorized as cognitive or “cognitive behavioral,” including rational emotive behavior therapy, cognitive therapy, multimodal therapy, schema-focused therapy, and dialectical behavior therapy (Dattilio, 2000; Dattilio & Padesky, 1990; Mahoney & Lyddon, 1988). Each theoretical approach has its own developmental history. There is no one father of the cognitive- behavioral school. This chapter focuses on three contributors: Albert Ellis, Albert Bandura, and Aaron Beck. Ellis and Beck are two theorists associated with a therapeutic approach, whereas Bandura is more of a bridge between behaviorism and cognitive therapy. Bandura did not create a formal therapeutic approach. Instead, his studies form an important part of cognitive counseling techniques. The chapter begins with outlining a discussion of the contributions of Ellis, because he has done a great deal to extend and popularize the cognitive approach to psychotherapy and counsel- ing in schools.