University of Maryland Colleg

An article abstract is due as part of the class requirements. Students should pick two articles, written by different authors that address one training topic (for example, needs analysis, evaluation, adult learning etc.)  Both articles should address the same topic.  Students can select the topic. Any topic found in the Subject Index of the Noe text (beginning on page 554) is permissible.  Students can find the articles on the web, in print magazines, at the Webster library, journals, etc. 

After reading the two articles, the student should write one six page paper  that covers the items noted below. The purpose of the article abstract is to increase awareness of current trends in Training and Development  and relate those trends to theories discussed in the texts.

The Abstract should provide a brief overview/summary of the two articles contents, distinguishing the main issues, accurately identifying the impact of each issue on today’s organizations and tying and discussing relevant information to issues found within the text.

Each complete abstract should include the following headings:

  • Overview/Summary of Both Articles (naming the Article Titles and Authors) 
  • Main Issues of Both Articles
  • Implied/Factual Impact of the Main Issues on Organizations (i.e. what is the impact of the main  issues on organizations)
  • Text Comparison/Contrast (i.e. how do the articles agree with the Noe text and how do the articles disagree with the Noe text.)

Completed abstracts should be no more than six pages double-spaced. The Abstract should be written using the APA format, including cover page, citations, references page, etc.)  The Cover page and References page are in addition to the six pages of your writing.

1. (PDF) Factors Influencing Training Effectiveness: Evidence from Public Sector in Bahrain ( and

2. Exploring the Factors That Affect Employee Training Effectiveness: A Case Study in Bahrain – Said Taan EL Hajjar, Madina Sughra Alkhanaizi, 2018 ( 

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Discussion 1 Questions:  “Victims and the Criminal Justice Response – Do No Harm:  Avoiding Revictimization”

  1. What is ONE common belief about domestic violence that you believe is NOT true?
    • Why do we believe it and why do you think it is false?                                                                                  
  2. What was the most significant message you got from viewing the resource videos on the criminal justice response to victims?  Be sure to justify why you viewed it as most significant.   
  3. What are two things you believe the criminal justice system can do to be more responsive to the needs of domestic violence victims? 
    • Justify why you chose those two areas as a priority and describe what they will accomplish. 
    • Which one is your top priority and why?                                                                                                         

4.  Review the 12 minute film, “Us vs. Them” and explain how the approach presented applies to domestic violence and a criminal justice response.  Include an analysis of how the video approach connects to an effective criminal justice response.

5.  Global Perspective:  On January 28, 2017, the USA Today – The Arizona Republic published an article titled, “Russian parliament decriminalizes domestic violence.” Russia Parliament voted 380 to 3 to decriminalize domestic violence cases when it does not involve “substantial bodily harm” and does not occur more than once a year.  In the article, a survey by a state-run pollster found that “19% of Russians said ‘it can be acceptable’ to hit one’s  wife, husband or child ‘in certain circumstances.'”  For more information go to (Links to an external site.).

  • What is your opinion about this article?
  • Should we be concerned with what happens in other countries related to domestic violence and victims?
  • Is domestic violence a human rights issue?  Justify your position.

6.  Word Profile: The importance of victim empowerment has been introduced and will be reinforced throughout the class.  Empowerment is a broad word and can come in many forms.  Helpful Hint – Doing research on the definition of empowerment will be helpful in addressing these questions.

  • Why is empowerment important when dealing with domestic violence victims?
  • Provide an example of an empowerment approach relate to victims of abuse. 
  • Describe what it accomplishes and how is promotes empowerment. 


  1. One common belief about domestic violence that I don’t believe is true is that women are always the victim in domestic violence situations.
  • A majority of cases involving domestic violence, is where the woman is the victim. Approximately one in four women experience violence by a partner, compared to one in thirteen men. So while it is more common for women to experience domestic violence that is not always the case. Domestic violence is not only from couples, but it can also be from former spouses, people who share custody of a child, roommates, children etc.
  1. The most significant message that I got from reviewing the resource videos on the criminal justice response to victims would be how you conduct yourself initially when responding, and the communication skills that you possess when dealing with victims. Using open ended questions to the victims to allow them to tell you what happened is important. Knowing the tools your department has and utilizing them, by setting victims up with counseling or victims advocates to ensure that they have resources available to them to help them in this time of need. Understanding trauma, having a calm demeanor, and explaining that you are sorry that happened to them it should have never happened goes a long way. Trying to make them feel as comfortable as possible, having empathy, and reassuring that you are there to help and everything is going to be ok. I believe this is most significant, because the main objective is making them feel comfortable, trusting of you, and that you are there to help. Without these tools, they may not be able to provide the necessary information for you to help the best way that you can, and can cause more pain to the victim obtaining their desired outcome or to seek justice.
  2. Two things that the criminal justice system can do to be more responsive to the needs of domestic violence victims, is being trained and certified in crisis intervention training, and following up with a victim after a report for domestic violence has happened.
  • A lot more officers are being mandated to be trained in crisis intervention training and become certified in that area to help deal with certain situations that arise. It may be geared more towards mental illness, and substance abuse, but learning de-escalation tools, and how to respond in certain situations can provide the officer with necessary tools that they otherwise would not have to respond to these sensitive calls. The second one is following up with a victim after a report, or the “case being closed.” Once a case is closed, it’s over and done with, so having a follow up window with the responding officer to meet up with the victim to check on them could potentially lead to something more, or them actually wanting to get help. It shows that someone is on their side, and they are not alone in this matter.
  • The top priority for me would be more training, the more training an officer has under their belt, can help them identify certain characteristics that someone without the training may not have, and aid to the response the officer has, and how they can be of service to the victims’ to help them obtain the desired outcome that is needed to keep the victim safe and serve the community.
  1. After watching the TED talk of “Us vs Them” it was a great video. The approach that Kim Bogucki was talking about is building the trust in the community by breaking down the unconscious bias that is between the police officers and the public to gain that trust. And with this the “If” program was developed. I believe this can be applied to the domestic violence and criminal justice approach because “if” something could happen what would their desired outcome be. Gaining insight to this question of the victims of domestic violence can be essential in obtaining the help that they may not understand that they need. Having cops and victims of domestic violence work together can maybe influence and or help someone that is in need because they feel comfortable that someone else was in the position they may have been in and showcases that the criminal justice system was able to help them and they themselves will be more inclined to ask for that help. The powerful statement said by Kim is “we need to find as much value in the others experience as we do our own.”This is how we can connect to an effective criminal justice system by taking us and them and putting it together.
  2. My opinion about the article “Russian parliament decriminalizes domestic violence” was rather disturbing to me. The fact that they want to decriminalize domestic violence where it “does not cause substantial bodily harm” and does not occur more than once a year is just absurd to me. Domestic violence isn’t always about bodily harm as we have learned. It can be emotional, mental, and take many other forms which can be just as detrimental as physical.
  • We should definitely be concerned with what happens in other countries related to domestic violence and victims. We are the melting pot of the world, and people from all different backgrounds come to live here. With that being said if it is acceptable in their home country to take part in these acts they will see it as ok and the cycle will continue, instead of trying to break it.
  • I do think that domestic violence is a human rights issue. Human rights are moral principles or norms for certain standards of human behavior and are regularly protected in municipal and international law. They are commonly understood as inalienable, fundamental rights “to which a person is inherently entitled simply because she or he is a human being” and which are “inherent in all human beings”, regardless of their age, ethnic origin, location, language. And because of this definition it fits the standards that are related to domestic violence. No one deserves to be hurt or go through something as traumatic as domestic violence where they feel helpless and that nothing can be done about it. No one deserves to think that it is ok that they are being abused regardless of what form it is in, or ultimately blame themselves for this occurrence, and should be protected from it.
  1. Empowerment is absolutely important when dealing with domestic violence victims, one definition that I found was that empowerment “is the process of enhancing the capacity to individuals or groups to make choices that lead to desired actions and outcomes.” So reiterating to victims that they do have empowerment and do not feel stuck or helpless in these situations is of the upmost importance.
  • An example of an empowerment approach related to victims of abuse, is making sure they believe it is not their fault this is happening to them, and that they have the power to make it stop, they are not helpless and there are services out there for them to help them. Having a survivor of domestic abuse speak with someone who is going through it and telling them their success story, may give that victim the empowerment that they need to help end the cycle and be able to move on and get the help that they need.
  • Aforementioned above, it can accomplish the confidence in someone to be able to make that decision and stand up for themselves, and having these people reinforce that they have the capability of empowerment and that they can be in control despite how helpless they feel is the first step on how it can promote their own empowerment to make that change.


  1. One common belief regarding domestic violence is that the abuser just has an anger management issue and they cannot help themselves. People may believe this to be true because of societal norms. It is generally seen as acceptable that men express anger, usually by yelling or a show of force, and they are comfortable doing it; in fact sometimes they are more likely to express anger than their feelings. And females may be more likely to express their control over others through manipulation or coercion. (Understanding Domestic Abusers) Because a common punishment, or corrective action, decided in the court system is anger management, it shows many people believe this will fix the underlying motivations by the abuser.
    1. I do not believe this myth is true. “Domestic violence is the result of the need to control and gain power in a relationship – it is not uncontrollable anger.” (Mitchell 2018) If it was truly just an issue of failure to manage anger, the abusers would also have violence issues in other aspects of their lives, not just their relationships. There would be violent outbursts by the abuser during disagreements at work, or even in public disagreements with strangers, this is usually not the case. Abusers are able to disagree in a civil manner with people outside of their relationships. “The abuser’s anger is a tool, not a true emotion, brought out after psychologically abusing the victim to the point of deep, consuming fear.” (Holly 2012)
  2. The most significant message I received from the videos was the importance of the manner in which victims are talked to following a traumatic event. The elderly couple, who were robbery victims, felt the counselor’s help put them at ease and provided them with the opportunity to begin healing within themselves. Yet the gentleman who saw his son get shot and pass away was upset when someone else was trying to explain grief to him because he didn’t feel the grief that was being explained matched the current emotions he was experiencing. Even though people may have experienced similar traumatic events, they will likely not have the same reactions because of their different past experiences. The most important thing we can do for victims is to show them they are safe and are going to be helped. That comes with acknowledgment of both the incident and their feelings, being respectful by being honest and warning them of questions they may be asked, and by giving them the information they request. (National Victim Assistance Academy 2005) I believe this is the most significant message because if a victim feels unsafe or that they will not be believed, they are not going to report the abuse and will likely remain in the cycle of violence.
  3. I think the criminal justice system can be more responsive in providing domestic violence victims information about their cases as well as creating a central outreach point for all resources which are available to them.
    1. It is important for victims to be provided with information along all steps of the criminal justice procedure for domestic violence because they should be included so they feel they are gaining control of their life back. Victims should know when their abusers get arrested, as well as when they are released. This information should be automatically set up and not another program the victim will have to enroll in. In the state of Nevada, once a victim decides to get help it usually starts with calling the police to make a report. It is then up to them to go through with the following: go to the courthouse to apply for an order of protection, if they want to be alerted when their abuser is released from jail they must register with VINE separately, apply for emergency financial services such as TANF, welfare and food stamps, find a place to live. Having to call many different places to create a sense of safety can be exhausting and overwhelming for someone who is already emotionally drained.
    2. My top priority out of these two would be to find a way the victim can be set up with all of the available resources in one appointment to ensure safety for domestic violence victims. Because the whole process can seem overwhelming, having one place for victims to visit can assist victims with being set up with resources and can expose them to services they may not have even known about.
  4. The main point I got from the video is that if we are able to communicate with people who belong to different groups than we do, we will learn a lot about the other person no matter our differences or biases we may have. Kim Bogucki was able to have a conversation with people from different groups than what she belonged to and was able to learn about the people within the groups (homeless teens and incarcerated women) to see past her beliefs and realize they are just humans trying to survive. As each side shared information about the way they do things, trust began to build in place of opposition and the dialogue began to shift from “us vs. them” to “we”. Bogucki was surprised when she first walked into the prison because the females looked like her and her friends and not the typical depiction of a convict that she was expecting. That relates to domestic violence victims because there is no stereotypical “look” of who that victim is, instead victims can be anyone. Until we take time to ask them questions and really listen to their answers and their needs to be able to escape the domestic violence cycle, barriers will continue to stay in place. The main relation from this video to domestic violence is that two-way communication needs to be opened up and embraced by each side. If all parts of the criminal justice response (police, prosecutors, advocates, courts, etc.) listens to the needs of the victims rather than pushing them through a ‘one size fits all’ template of the process, the victim may trust the system more. As well as if the system is able to provide information to the victims along the process so they know what stage their case is in, victims may be more trusting of the system.
    1. I am a little shocked at the margin of votes this bill had passed by. However, in 2017, Russia’s Duma was only 15% women, which shows they are a mostly male dominated government. (Women’s share in national parliaments…) With only 19% of Russians surveyed stating it can be acceptable to hit someone with a familial bond, it’s surprising the parliament voted to pass this bill. I don’t think it is right that Russia has chosen to focus on ‘traditional family rights’ while at the same time taking away from individual human rights. Just because the crime is decriminalized, does not mean the crime no longer occurs; “16 million Russian women, every fifth woman in the country, have experienced domestic violence, and 8,500 women died as a result of domestic homicide in 2017.” (Usanova 2020)
    2. We should be concerned with what happens in other countries related to domestic violence because when people move to the United States from other countries, they bring their culture with them. Understanding the culture someone was raised in can help when offering services to help victims. If Russian women who grew up believe domestic violence was not a crime and are now living in the United States, they may not know what their options are if they continue to experience domestic violence. Also understanding one’s culture can help to answer some of the questions for why someone doesn’t seek help.
    3. I do believe domestic violence is a human rights issue. Human rights are basic rights that everyone is born with regardless of age, gender, religion, ethnicity. Studies conducted by the United Nations have reported that the most common form of violence against women is caused by an intimate partner. (Hasselbacher 2009) Domestic violence was once viewed as a private family matter that should be resolved within the family, in supporting this view, we lose the ability to support rights for individuals. In countries, such as Russia, where women’s rights have been denied in order to support what they consider family rights, protecting the rights of women has become a human rights issue. As stated by Radhika Coomaraswamy as she was investigating domestic violence, “the role of State inaction in the perpetuation of the violence combined with the gender-specific nature of domestic violence require that domestic violence be classified and treated as a human rights concern rather than merely as a domestic criminal justice concern.” (Hasselbacher 2009) No one should lose any of their rights just because their spouse or intimate partner disagrees with them or feels they have to enforce punishment for the victim to be obedient. No one person should be able to have control over another person.
    1. The Department of Justice defines domestic violence as a pattern of abusive behavior that is used by one partner to gain or maintain power and control over another intimate partner. Empowerment is the authority or power given to someone to do something. Because victims of domestic violence have been abused by having their control over their own life stripped from them, it is important to empower them and give the authority back to the victims so they can regain control of their life. If victims of domestic violence are not allowed to have input in their healing process, they may continue to feel trapped and that there was just a change in the person who makes the decisions for them.
    2. There are two empowerment approaches that come to mind. First is setting up a victim with their own housing because some victims feel they cannot leave and they have too much of a reliance on their abuser. This is part of the abuser’s way to control them, by making the victim think they cannot survive without the abuser. Another approach is job training and employment workshops.
    3. By providing victims with both housing, and job training, they are able to see they can survive without the reliance on the abuser. A study published in 2008 found that 99% of domestic violence survivors had experienced some form of economic abuse, which included the abuser keeping them from going to work, making them leave work, keeping financial information from them. (Postmus 2010

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This assignment is designed to give you an inside perspective on the decision making process of correctional officials. It should also help you understand how these officials use discretion.

Find someone local in your area who works in a correctional profession. Examples could be:

  • Parole officer
  • Warden
  • Probation officer
  • Correctional officer
  • Jail/prison mental health professional
  • Jail staff
  • The assignment requires you to interview this official for five minutes using the following questions. You may also ask any additional questions that relate to the course. The interview should be a minimum of five minutes.

    Questions to Ask:

    • What types of decisions are you required to make in your profession?
    • What things, characteristics, or events influence these decisions?
    • Do you work on individual cases? If so…
      • What metrics are you required to use when making decisions on your cases?
      • Where are you able to depart from these?
      • Where are the gray areas?
    • Are there extra-legal characteristics that affect your decisions in your job?
    • Is there a specific case that you remember in your career, where discretion played a large role, or was particularly difficult? Why?

    Grading Criteria:

    You will be graded on the completion of the interview, how well it was transcribed, the analysis of the content, length of the essay, and language mechanics. Your references must also be in APA format.

  • Please include the job title and/or specific field of the interviewee.
  • You will need to turn in a transcription of the interview.
    • It may be helpful if you ask permission to record the interview so you can transcribe it afterward. Please note, you MUST GET PERMISSION before you record. Reassure them that the information collected is not for official research purposes and will not be shared with anyone outside the context of this assignment.
  • Write a 500-word essay commenting on the interview. Address the following in your essay:
    • Summarize the interview. What stood out to you as most interesting?
    • Note whether the interviewee works at the federal, state, or county level. (And in which state or county are they located?) How might their level of discretion change, if they were working in a different jurisdiction or level of government?
    • Compare and contrast the content of the interview with the required reading for Module 8. What was similar? What was different?
    • In your opinion, does the level of discretion they are allowed to use have any potential unintended consequences that may or may not be harmful?

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