University of California San Diego Global Inequalities Food and Hunger Paper

Question Description

12 point, Times New Roman font, and 1” margins, 7-FULL pages , double spaced ,

I attached detailed paper instructions in the files, please read it carefully!!!!!!!

PAPER INSTRUCTIONSFor this PAPER you will explore the websites for various organizations that deal with issues of this course – development and underdevelopment, global inequalities, and the struggle for social justice. You should explore at least fivewebsites. At least one of these sites should be considered “pro” global capitalism/conservative. Below are some suggestions, but you are not limited to these suggestions.

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PAPER INSTRUCTIONS For this PAPER you will explore the websites for various organizations that deal with issues of this course – development and underdevelopment, global inequalities, and the struggle for social justice. You should explore at least five websites. At least one of these sites should be considered “pro” global capitalism/conservative. Below are some suggestions, but you are not limited to these suggestions. Those considered “PRO” are indicated as well: World Development Movement: http://www.wdm.org.uk/ The Dawn, http://www.thedawn-news.org/ “50 Years is Enough! Campaign, http://www.50years.org/ The Global Exchange, http://www.globalexchange.org/ The Maquila Solidarity Network, http://www.maquilasolidarity.org/ Zianet, http://www.zmag.org/ZNETTOPnoanimation.html International Forum on Globalization, http://www.ifg.org/, Focus on the Global South: http://www.focusweb.org/ Third World Network: http://www.twnside.org.sg/ Transnational Institute: http://www.tni.org/ Institute for Policy Studies: http://www.ips-dc.org/ World Trade Organization: http://www.wto.org/ (PRO) Open Society Institute (George Soro’s website) http://www.soros.org/about/bios/a_soros (PRO) Globalizaton Research Center: http://www.cio.com/research/global/ (PRO) Global Research: http://www.globalresearch.ca/about. Global Issues: http://www.globalissues.org/ World Bank homepage: http://www.worldbank.org/ (PRO) The Globalist: http://www.theglobalist.com/ (PRO) World Economic Forum: http://www.weforum.org/ (PRO) International Monetary Fund: http://www.imf.org (PRO) International Relations Center: http://www.irc-online.org/ Food First: http://www.foodfirst.org/ MADRE: http://www.madre.org/ AllAfrica: http://allafrica.com/ Center for Civil Society (South Africa): http://www.nu.ac.za/ccs/ Green Left: http://www.greenleft.org.au/ Toward Freedom: http://www.towardfreedom.com/home/ Upside Down World: http://upsidedownworld.org/main/ Monthly Review: http://mrzine.monthlyreview.org/ The Real News Network: http://therealnews.com/t2/ AlterNet: http://www.alternet.org/ World War 4 Report: http://www.ww4report.com/taxonomy/term/17 Truthout, http://www.truth-out.org/ Rebelion (in Spanish), https://www.rebelion.org/ The Dawn, http://www.thedawn-news.org/ Socialist Alternative, https://www.socialistalternative.org/ Organizing Upgrade, https://organizingupgrade.com/ Food First (Institute for Food and Development Policy), http://www.foodfirst.org/ Los Despojados (most entries are in English): http://losdespojados.tumblr.com/ http://avispa.org/ You will need to spend a number of hours on the web exploring these websites, reading some of the articles and commentaries, and gaining an understanding of some of the popular literature and features on the web that have to do with the theme of development and global inequalities. Then you will write up a report, 12 point, Times New Roman font, and 1” margins, 7-FULL pages , double spaced , on your analysis of the exercise. GENERIC GUIDELINES FOR PAPER 1. Your assignments should have strong, coherent thesis statements at the beginning of the paper. The thesis statement should be specific and clear. It should tie together the different points you will address in the paper. 2. Description is necessary, but not sufficient. You are advised to include a brief but specific summary of what you are writing about (eg, a film, a book, a website) that introduces the features on which your analytical arguments will focus. There is relevant and irrelevant information about your topic of discussion (e.g, a film); make sure that the information you include in your summary is relevant to a) explain the overall premise of what you are discussing in relation to the course and (I already attached my course PPT) b) ground your analytical argument. DO NOT let description and summaries dominate your paper! 3. Instead, the bulk of your papers should be comprised of a serious analysis of the particular topic in relation to the course. Here you will want to employ the terms, concepts, theories, and insights garnered from the course in your analysis. a. What insights into globalization does the film, or website, or reading reflect? b. What concepts or terms doe the it illustrate, and how? 4. Citations should always include the author’s last name, year of publication, AND PAGE NUMBER. GLOBAL INEQUALITIES, CREATION OF WORLD CAPITALIST SYSTEM: EASTERN EUROPE AND RUSSIA ◼ EASTERN EUROPE & LATIN AMERICA INCORPORATED EARLIEST INTO EMERGING WORLD CAPITALIST SYSTEM ◼ BOTH AS PERIPHERAL AREAS SUPPLYING RAW MATERIALS ◼ BOTH THROUGH COERSED FORMS OF LABOR (SLAVERY AND FEUDAL/SERF-TYPE LABOR – “COERSED CASH CROP LABOR”) IN LATIN AMERCA, & THE “SECOND SERFDOM” IN EASTERN EUROPE STAVRIANOS: “THE THIRD WORLD COMMONLY IS THOUGHT OF AS COMPRISING OVERSEAS TERRITORIES, YET IT MADE ITS FIRST APPEARANCE IN EASTERN EUROPE. THE ECONOMY AND SOCIAL ORGANIZATION OF THE EAST EUROPEAN LANDS WERE THE FIRST TO BE SUBORDINATED AND REMOLDED TO MEET THE NEEDS OF THE NORTHWEST EUROPEAN MARKET” YET EASTERN EUROPE NOT FORMALLY CONQUERED OR COLONIZED EARLY DIVERGENCES EASTERN AND WESTERN EUROPE: 1300s-1500s ◼ 1300s/EARLY 1400s – WESTERN AND EASTERN EUROPE SIMILAR ◼ WHAT WOULD BE KEY DIFFERENCE SENDING THEM DOWN SEPARATE PATHS? ◼ MARX: “CLASS STRUGGLE IS THE MOTOR FORCE OF HISTORY” ◼ KEY DIFFERENTIATING FACTOR: TATAR, MOGHOL [1240-1480] AND OTTOMAN EXPANSION AND CONQUEST OF EASTERN EUROPE WEAKENS CENTRAL STATES, STRENGTHENS LOCAL LANDLORDS AND LOCAL COMMERCIAL AGENTS WHO BENEFIT FROM NEW PERIPHERAL RELATION TO WESTERN EUROPEAN CORE ◼ LATE MIDEAVAL PERIOD: DEVELOPMENT OF BALTIC SEA REGION – FIRST MASS TRADE IN NECESSITIES/BULK GOODS & FIRST INT. DIVISION OF LABOR: EASTERN EUROPE [POLAND, LITHUANIA, HUNGARY] SENDS LUMBER (FOR SHIPBUILDING), RYE, WHEAT, OTHER GRAINS (FOR MASS CONSUMPTION), CATTLE, FURS, HEMP, POTASH, COPPER NORTH-WESTERN EUROPE SENDS: TEXTILES AND OTHER MANUFACTURES “SECOND SERFDOM”, 1500s-1600s, INCOMPLETE CAPITALIST DEVELOPMENT, 1700s-1800s ◼ LANDLORDS REIMPOSE SERFDOM ON PEASANTS TO EXTRACT SURPLUS FOR TRADE WITH N.W. EUROPE ◼ STAVRIANOS: “IN POLAND, FOR INSTANCE, PEASANTS HAD BEEN REQUIRED BEFORE 1500 TO GIVE ONE DAY TO SIX DAYS OF LABOR SERVICE PER YEAR. BY 1550, THIS HAD BEEN RAISED TO THREE PER WEEK. AND BY 1600 TO SIX DAYS….PEASANTS WERE MADE COMPLETELY SUBJECT TO THE WILL OF THE LORD RATHER THAN TO THE JURISDICTION OF THE STATE” ◼ IN SUBSEQUENT CENTURIES, E. EUROPE FOLLOWS PATTERN SIMILAR TO RUSSIA – INCREASING PENETRATION BY CAPITALISM THAT DOES NOT FULLY DEVELOP EASTERN EUROPE 20TH & 21ST CENTURIES ◼ ◼ ◼ ◼ ◼ WWI: BREAKUP OF AUSTRIO-HUNGARIAN & OTTOMAN EMPIRE 1919-1939: MASS INTER-WAR REVOLTS SOVIET OCCUPATION AFTER WWII SINCE 1989 – MASSIVE INTEGRATION INTO GLOBAL CAPITALISM, NEO-LIBERAL GLOBALIZATION PRECIPITIOUS DROP IN LIVING CONDITIONS, NEW EASTERN EUROPEAN CAPITALIST CLASS AND MIDDLE STRATA LEGACY OF SOVIET ERA: CHEAP AND EFFICIENT MASS PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION MEDIEVAL CHARLES BRIDGE OVER THE VLTAVA RIVER IN PRAGUE. PRAGUE CASTLE IN BACKGROUND, DATING BACK TO 870. PRAGUE WAS A COMMERCIAL CENTER IN MEDIEVAL EUROPE. TELL-TALE SIGNS OF CAPITALIST GLOBALIZATION E. EUROPE: MALLIFICATION IN PRAGUE, SOCIAL POLARIZATION T.N. CORPORATE CAPITAL INVADES E. EUROPE CURIOUS STORY: ARCHITECTURE AND HISTORY RUSSIA ◼ RUSSIA REMAINS OUTSIDE EMERGING SYSTEM, 1400s-1500s [MOSCOW PRINCIPALITY] “IVAN THE TERRIBLE” EASTERN EXPANSION INTO ASIA, RUSSIAN TRIBUTARY/FUEDAL EMPIRE ◼ DEVELOPS INTO LARGELY SELF-SUFFICIENT INTERNAL ECONOMIC UNIT – REGIONAL SPECIALIZATION AND INTER-REGION TRADE SIBERIA: FURS, FOREST PRODUCTS, METALS UKRAINE: FOODSTUFFS MOSCOW AND OLD CENTERS: MANUFACTURED GOODS COMMERCE WITH IRAN, OTTOMAN EMPIRE, CHINA, UZBEK AND CENTRAL ASIA ◼ NOTE: (1) UNTIL 1700s, CAPITALISM HAS MINIMAL IMPACT; (2) MERCHANT CLASS NEVER VERY POWERFUL, DUE TO POWER OF CENTRAL STATE AND LANDED NOBILITY AND GENTRY; (3) NEW SERFDOM IMPOSED ON PEASANTS BUT DUE TO ITNERNAL TRADE, KNOWN AS “FORBIDDEN DECREES”, THROUGHOUT 1500, 1600s INTO 1700s ◼ UNDER “PETER THE GREAT” (1689-1725) BEGINNINGS OF CAPITALIST DEVELOPMENT & INDUSTRIALIZATION ◼ BY 19TH CENTURY, RUSSIA MAJOR ECONOMIC PLAYER….WOULD IT BECOME CAPITALIST CORE OR PERIPHERALIZED? RUSSIA PERIPHERALIZED ◼ KEY TURNING POINT: CRIMEAN WAR (1854-56), CZARIST REGIME LOSES TO WESTERN ARMIES ◼ RUSSIA FORCED TO OPEN UP TO WESTERN CAPITALISM & INTEGRATE INTO WORLD MARKET, RAPID DEPENDENT INDUSTRIALIZATION ◼ EMANCIPATION DECREE 1861 – SERFS EMANCIPATED, CAPITALIST ORIENTED AGRICULTURE (GRAINS), AND MINING RAW MATERIALS FOR W. EUROPE [SAME TELL-TALE THIRD WORLD PATTERN] ◼ “DEVELOPMENT OF UNDERDEVELOPMENT” IN RUSSIA STAVRIANOS ON RUSSIAN BECOMING PART OF THIRD WORLD “THE INSTITUTIONAL AND POLICY CHANGES FOLLOWING THE CRIMEAN WAR QUICKENED THE RUSSIAN ECONOMY AND IMPELLED IT INTO THE INTERNATIONAL CAPTIALIST WORLD ORDER. THE GROWING DEPENDENCE OF RUSSIAN AGRICULTURE ON WESTERN MARKETS AND OF RUSSIAN INDUSTRY ON WESTERN CAPITAL AND TECHNOLOGY SIGNIFIED THE EXTENSION OF THE THIRD WORLD TO INCLUDE THE GREAT EUROASIAN LAND MASS BETWEEN THE BALTIC SEA AND THE PACIFIC OCEAN “FOREIGN INVESTORS BY 1914 OWNED 40 PERCENT OF THE RAILWAY MILEAGE, 40 PERCENT OF THE ENGINEERING PLANS, 42 PERCENT OF THE BANKING STOCK, 50 PERCENT OF THE CHEMICAL INDUSTRY, 50 PERCENT OF THE COAL AND OIL OUTPUT, 60 PERCENT OF THE COPPER AND IRON ORE OUTPUT AND 80 PERCENT OF THE COKE OUTPUT….ALSO, FOREIGNERS HELD ALMOST 50 PERCENT OF THE RUSSIAN NATIONAL DEBT OF 8.9 BILLION RUPLES IN 1914, MAKING RUSSIA EUROPE’S LARGEST DEBTOR FROM THIRD TO SECOND WORLD ◼ ◼ ◼ ◼ ◼ 1905 REVOLUTION 1917 BOLSHEVIK REVOLUTION, LENIN & SOCIALISM 1920s – COUNTERREVOLUTIONARY/CIVIL WARS & ISOLATION 1930s – RISE OF STALINISM – COLLECTIVE AGRICULTURE & RAPID INDUSTRIALIZATION AND DEVELOPMENT 1939-1945 – WWII, 20 MILLION RUSSIAN DEATHS. SOVIET UNION DEFEATS NAZIS LATE 1950s – DESTALINIZATION 1960s – RAPID DEVELOPMENT & ADVANCEMENT 1970s – STAGNATION, DEBT AND ECONOMIC REINTEGRATION INTO WORLD CAPITALISM ◼ 1980S – GLASTNOST AND PERESTROIKA ◼ 1992 – DISINTEGRATION OF USSR ◼ 1992 – 20012 – MASSIVE DE-INDUSTRIALIZATION & NEOLIBERAL “SHOCK” INTEGRATION INTO GLOBAL CAPITALISM: RISE OF NEW CAPITALIST AND STATE OLIGARCHY; MASSIVE DECLINE IN LIVING STANDARDS & SOCIAL FABRIC “THIRDWORLDIZATION” OF MOST ALONGSIDE NEW MIDDLE CLASSES AND CONSUMER SOCIETY ◼ ◼ ◼ Greek Orthodox Church in Kremlin compound, Moscow, Nov. 2003 Upscale Mall in Moscow. The global economy has arrived in Moscow as manifest in extreme inequalities and luxury shopping. McDonalds in Moscow – largest McDonalds in Europe, November 2003. GLOBAL INEQUALITIES, CREATION OF WORLD CAPITALIST SYSTEM: MIDDLE EAST & ASIA NEW WAVES OF EXPANSION ◼ 1492 – 1750: “ATLANTIC/EUROPEAN WORLD ECONOMY” PROGRESSIVE EXPANSION AFTER FIRST INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION (LATE 1700s) – LATIN AMERICA & EASTERN EUROPE ◼ THEN AFTER SECOND INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION (MID-LATE 1800s) APPLYING SCIENCE – STEEL, RAILROADS, CHEMICALS, ETC. – HYPER-EXPANSION AND NEW WAVE OF COLONIZATION – MIDDLE EAST, ASIA, AFRICA, RUSSIA ◼ WHY THIS EXPANSION? -NEW NEEDS (MOTIVES) AND -NEW MEANS (POSSIBILITIES) -NEEDS: INDUSTRIAL OVER COMMERCIAL (MERCANTILE) CAPITALISM REQUIRES NEW MARKETS, RAW MATERIALS, OUTLETS FOR INVESTMENT, ETC. -NEW MEANS OF EXPANSION = MILITARY & ECONOMIC POWER GLOBAL INEQUALITIES TAKE OFF FROM MID-1800s AND ON – RISING STANDARDS OF LIVING IN FIRST WORLD AND STAGNATION OR REGRESSION ELSEWHERE QUOTES FROM CECIL RHODES AND ANDREW CARNEGIE CAPTURE THIS EPOCH CECIL RHODES (1882): “IN ORDER TO SAVE THE 40 MILLION INHABITANTS OF THE UNITED KINGDOM FROM A BLODDY CIVIL WAR, WE COLONIAL STATESMEN MUST ACQUIRE NEW LANDS TO SETTLE THE SURPLUS POPULATION, TO PROVIDE NEW MARKETS FOR THE GOODS PRODUCED BY THEM IN THE FACTORIES AND MINES” ANDREW CARNEGIE (1896): “ALWAYS WE ARE HOPING THAT WE NEED EXPAND NO FURTHER. YET EVER WE ARE FINDING THAT TO STOP EXPANDING WOULD BE TO FALL BEHIND, AND EVEN TODAY THE SUCCESSIVE IMPROVEMENTS AND INVENTIONS FOLLOW EACH OTHER SO RAPIDLY THAT WE SEE JUST AS MUCH YET TO BE DONE AS EVER. WHEN THE MANUFACTURER OF STEEL CEASES TO GROW HE BEGINS TO DECAY, SO WE MUST KEEP EXTENDING” ALSO, RISE OF SOCIAL DARWINISM AND SCIENTIFIC RACISM TO JUSTIFY NEW EUROPEAN EXPANSION AND DOMINATION….PERNICIOUS THEORIES OF RACIAL MANIFEST DESTINY. CECIL RHODES: “I CONTEND THAT WE ARE THE FIRST RACE OF THE WORLD AND THAT THE MORE OF THE WORLD WE INHABIT THE BETTER IT IS FOR THE HUMAN RACE…IF THERE BE A GOD, I THINK THAT WHAT HE WOULD LIKE ME TO DO IS TO PAINT AS MUCH OF THE MAP OF AFRICA RED AS POSSIBLE…” MIDDLE EAST • FLOURISHING ARAB CIVILIZATION (7TH – 13TH CENTURIES) DURING EUROPE’S “DARK AGES”; (CENTERED CAIRO AND BAHGDAD, IBERIAN PENINSULA), IBN KHALUN (1332-1406) – GREAT PHILOSOPHER, SOCIOLOGIST, AND POLITICAL ECONOMIST • PRE-WWI – OTTOMAN EMPIRE, HISTORIC SUMMARY: -RISE OF EMPIRE, 1280-1453 -ZENITH – 16TH CENTURY (TODAY’S IRAQ, EGYPT, TURKEY, SYRIA, LEBANON, ISREAL/PALESINE, JORDAN [LATTER FOUR “GREATER SYRIA”], NOT IRAN/PERSIA -DECLINE – 17TH – 18TH CENTURIES -“THIRD-WORLDIZATION, PERIPHERALIZATION – 19TH CENTURY -WWI – BREAKUP OF EMPIRE AND EUROPEAN COLONIZATION OF MIDDLE EAST • ZENITH IN 16TH CENTURY (MIDDLE EAST, NORTH AFRICA, SOUTH-EASTERN EUROPE). VENETIAN AMBASSADOR IN ISTANBUL, 1525: “I KNOW OF NO STATE WHICH IS HAPPIER THAN THIS ONE; IT IS FURNISHED WITH ALL GOD’S GIFTS. IT CONTROLS WAR AND PEACE WITH ALL, IT IS RICH IN GOLD, IN PEOPLE, IN SHIPS AND IN OBEDIENCE; NO STATE CAN BE COMPARED WITH IT. MAY GOD LONG PRESERVE THE MOST JUST OF ALL EMPORERS” MIDDLE EAST, CONT… WHY DECLINE BEGINNING 18TH CENTURY ? • – BY 18TH CENTURY, INFLUENCE OF EUROPEAN COMMERCIAL EXPANSION PULLS MIDDLE EAST – LIKE AFRICA – INTO GRADUAL RELATIONS OF SOCIOECONOMIC AND POLITICAL SUBORDINATION – FROM REGION OUTSIDE SYSTEM TO GRADUAL PERIPHERALIZATION 4 FACTORS STAND OUT: 1) POWERFUL RULING CLASS DID NOT REST ON CAPITAL ACCUMULATION AND COMMERCE, BUT ON LAND AND TRIBUTE; GREEKS, JEWS, ARMENIANS CONTROL DOMESTIC TRADE…. LATER RISE OF LEVANT COMPANIES (FRENCH, DUTCH, ENGLISH) MARX’S FAMOUS DICTUM: “CLASS STRUGGLE MOTOR FORCE OF HISTORY” HENCE, OTTOMAN EMPIRE LACKS INTERNAL AGENT OF INDEPENDENT CAPITALIST DEVELOPMENT 2) SHIFT IN GLOBAL TRADE ROUTES FROM MIDDLE EAST TO OCEANIC – M.E. FROM CENTER OF GLOBAL TRADE TO MARGINAL BACKWATER 3) WESTERN EUROPE APPLIES POLITICAL AND MILITARY PRESSURE TO BLOCK INDUSTRIALIZATION AND INDEPENDENT DEVELOPMENT 4) EXPANDING EUROPEAN COMMERCIAL PENETRATION IN WORDS OF ONE TURKISH HISTORIAN (STARIANOS): “THE IMPACT OF NEW WORLD BULLION AND OF WESTERN MANUFACTURED GOODS REPRESENTED THE INTRUSION OF ‘HIGH PRESSURE ATLANTIC ECONMY’ INTO THE ‘LOW TENSION OTTOMAN ECONOMY’.” MIDDLE EAST, CONT… • BY 18TH CENTURY, OTTOMAN EMPIRE BECOMES RAW MATERIALS PROVIDER FOR EUROPE – WHEAT, MAIZE, COTTON, WOOL, SILK, TOBACCO, DIE-STUFFS: – TELL-TALE STRUCTUAL RELATIONSHIP – TURKISH HISTORIAN: “THE COMMERCE OF THE LEVANT CHANGED TO A ‘COLONIAL COMMERCE’, TURNING TURKEY INTO A CLIENT FOR THE EUROPEAN INDUSTRY WHICH WAS ITSELF TO FURNISH ONLY PRIMARY MATERIALS, NO LONGER TO EXPORT FINISHED GOODS” – ALSO, SERIES OF LOANS AND DEBT PEONAGE – EAROPEANS CONTROLING FINANCE: FAMOUS 1830 – “ANGLO-TURKISH COMMERCIAL CONVENTION” – FORCED OPEN EMPIRE TO WESTERN FINANCE AND COMMERCIAL CONTROL. THIS IS BEGINNINGS OF EUROPEAN COLONIALISM, BEGINNINGS OF BREAKUP OF EMPIRE. • 18TH AND 19TH CENTURIES SEE EUROPEAN ANNEXATION OF NORTH AFRICA, SPAIN IN MOROCCO, FRENCH IN ALGERIA AND TUNISIA, ITALIANS IN LYBIA, ETC. • BREAKAWAY PROVINCES OF EGYPT, YUGOSLAVIA, BULGARIA, GREECE, RUMANIA BRITISH COLONIALISM IN EGYPT: MOHAMMED ALI (1769-1849), OTTOMAN OFFICIAL, COMES TO POWER 1813, WAKE OF 1798 NAPOLEANIC INVASION LEADS BREAKAWAY PROVINCES FROM OTTOMANS, TURNS EGYPT INTO REGIONAL POWER 1838, ALI DECLARES INDEPENDENCE FROM OTTOMANS, TRIES TO LAUNCH INDEPENDENT MODERNIZATION (INDUSTRY, ETC.) ALI DEFEATED IN EGYPT, DIES 1849, EGYPT OCCUPIED BY BRITISH …SEMICOLONY UNTIL 1956, NASSER AND SUEZ CANAL • MIDDLE EAST: FROM OTTOMAN COLLAPSE TO POSTWWII • WWI: BREAKUP OF EMPIRE – BRITISH AND FRENCH COLONIZE REGION, WESTERN VICTORS CONCERNED WITH: 1) NEW BOLSHEVIK REVOLUTION; 2) VAST OIL WEALTH; 3) BRITISH LOOKING FOR “ROAD TO INDIA” • LEAGUE OF NATIONS MANDATE SYSTEM, ESTABLISHES ARTIFICIAL BORDERS, FICTITOUS STATES, INC. KUWAIT • FRENCH TAKE CONTROL OF SYRIA AND LEBANON, BRITISH OF IRAQ, JORDAN, PALESTINE, BAHRAIN, EMIRATES KNOWN AS UAR, OMAN [EGYPT PREVIOUSLY SEMICOLONIZED BY BRITISH] • BRITISH, FRENCH, U.S. ORCHESTRATE INSTALLATION OF HOUSE OF SAUD IN SAUDI ARABIA, AND HUSSEIN MONARCHIES IN IRAQ AND JORDAN IN THIS WEAY, WESTERN COLONIALIST PLACE IN POWER FEUDAL MONARCHIES • FORMAL INDEPENDENCE AFTER WWII – REGION INCORPORATED WITH DEPENDENT ECONOMY AND FEUDAL STRUCTURES INTO WORLD CAPITALIST SYSTEM • PALESTINE COLONIZED AND DENIED NATION-HOOD: BRITISH, 1921, DIVIDE TRANSJORDAN INTO “JORDAN” AND “SMALLER PALESTINE”… ALLOW JEWISH IMMIGRATION IN “SMALLER PALESTINE” 1936-1939: PALESTINIAN GENERAL STRIKE AND ARMED UPRISING AGAINST BRITISH COLONIALISM, DEMANDING INDEPENDENCE BRITISH SUPPORT ISREALI STATE IN 1947 [UN PARTITION PLAN] PALENSTIAN EXPELLED, ISREALI TERROR, ALLIANCE OF ZIONISTS AND WESTERN CAPITALIST STATES MIDDLE EAST: NATIONALIST STRUGGLES TO 21ST CENTURY GLOBALIZATION SUMMARY: POST WW II: RISE OF NATIONALIST REGIMES, ARABISREALI WARS, ISREALI EXPANSIONISM, INCREASED U.S. PENETRATION; CONTRADICTION BETWEEN CAPITALIST DEVELOPMENT AND FEUDAL POLITICAL STRUCTURES • GAMIL NASSER IN EGYPT, 1956 SUEZ NATIONALIZATION, BRITISH, FRENCH, ISRAELIS ATTACK (ISREALI ROLE AS SUB-IMPERIALIST POWER) • 1960s – RISE OF BATHIST REGIMES IN IRAQ AND SYRIA, 1963, 1968, 1973 CIA COUP D’ETAT AND PUTCH TO SUPPORT SADAM • IRAN – AFTER BREAKUP OF PERSIAN EMPIRE, 1953 CIA COUP D’ETAT, SHAH UNTIL 1979 • 1948, 1967, 1973 ARAB-ISREALI WARS, FOLLOWED BY ISREALI EXPANSION AND OCCUPATION • 1991 – IRAQI INVASION OF KUWAIT • 2003: INVASION AND OCCUPATION OF IRAQ SPEARHEAD OF NEW U.S.ORGANIZED POLITICAL-MILITARY CAMPAIGN TO BRING MIDDLE EAST MORE FULLY INTO GLOBAL CAPITALISM PROGRESSIVE ISREALI EXPANSION, 1947 – 21ST CENTURY 4,000+ YEARS OF HISTORY IN TURKEY, FROM HITTITE TO ROMAN/BYZANTINE, TO OTTOMAN TO REPUBLICAN ERA GLOBALIZATION ASIA • • • • • • • • DUTCH, FRENCH , BRITISH PRINCIPAL COLONIALISTS, ALSO SPAIN, PORTUGAL, U.S. AND JAPAN IN 19TH CENTURY EUROPEAN EXPANSION FACES POWERFUL EMPIRES: CHINESE, INDIAN, INDONESIAN CIVILIZATIONS, KINGDOMS OF KOREA & JAPAN – STRONGER THAN EUROPEAN 15TH TO 18TH CENTURIES: BEST EUROPEANS MERCHANT AND MILITARY FLEETS COULD ACHIEVE = TRADING BEACHHEADS AND SEACOAST FORTS 17TH AND 18TH CENTURIES – GROWING MILITARY AND ECONOMIC STRENGTH OF EUROPE, CRISES OF ASIAN TRIBUTARY EMPIRES; 18TH AND 19TH CENTURIES: DECISIVE 200 YEARS OF CONQUEST AND COLONIZATION ROLE OF EAST INDIAN TRADING COMPANIES (DUTCH, ENGLISH, FRENCH, IN PARTICULAR) BY LATE 1800s – ASIA SUBORDINATED AND BROUGHT INTO WORLD CAPITALISM WHAT DOES WESTERN COLONIALISM IN ASIA INVOLVE? -DIRECT OR INDIRECT POLITICAL CONTROL -DESTROYING LOCAL INDUSTRY -NEW ROUND OF SLAVERY -SYSTEMS OF COERSED LABOR -REPRODUCING PLANATION SYSTEM FROM AMERICAS TO ASIA, GENERATING NEW RAW MATERIALS FOR WORLD MARKET INDIA • • • • • INDIA MAINTAINS STATUS UNTL LATE 18TH CENTURY – MOGHUL EMPIRE DETERIORATING SINCE 1740s – WARFARE THROUGHOUT SUB-CONTINENT GRADUAL ENGLISH ENCROACHMENT 1757 – DECISIVE MILITARY BATTLE IN PLASS …