Please write a 2,000-word essay with MLA format on the following prompt:
Critically assess the notion of “environmentalism of the rich.” To what degree, if at all, is it helpful in thinking about how to respond to climate change?
USE ONLY simple language! NO fancy words or sentences! No outside sources ALLOWED!!!
All the sources you can use are attached!! Please ONLY refer to those!
Let me know if you have any questions!!
Tags: climate change global warming MLA Fair Trade Environmentalism
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CLIMATE CHANGE SCIENCE: WHAT EVERYONE NEEDS TO KNOW Jane Teranes, PhD Associate Teaching Faculty Scripps Institution of Oceanography Useful Island, Antarctic Peninsula. Credit: Maria Stenzel Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Your readings is from a recent Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Assessment Report 5 (AR5), which was finalized in 2013 and 2014. The reading is from Working Group 1 (WG1), The Physical Basis of the Climate System, Summary for Policy Makers (SPM). I will also be showing you updates from the IPCC Special Report, Global Warming of 1.5°C, that was released in 2018. 3 THE IPCC • The IPCC was established by the United Nations Environmental Program (UNEP) and the World Meterological Organization (WMO) in 1988 to provide the world with a clear scientific view on the current state of knowledge in climate change and its potential environmental and socio-economic impacts. • The IPCC reviews and assesses the most recent scientific, technical and socioeconomic information produced worldwide relevant to the understanding of climate change. It does not conduct any research nor does it monitor climate related data or parameters. 4 THE IPCC PROCESS • As an intergovernmental body, membership of the IPCC is open to all member countries of the United Nations (UN) and WMO. • Currently 195 countries are Members of the IPCC. Governments participate in the review process and the plenary Sessions, where main decisions about the IPCC work program are taken and reports are accepted, adopted and approved. FOURTH NATIONAL CLIMATE ASSESSMENT REPORT 1. IT’S WARMING. 2. IT’S US. 3. WE’RE SURE. 4. IT’S BAD. 5. WE CAN FIX IT. 6. WE HAVE TO ACT FAST. Salton Sea. Credit: Tyler Huston 1. IT’S WARMING. Tasiilaq, Greenland, during a record hot July 2019. Photo: James Holt “Warming of the climate system is unequivocal, and since the 1950s, many of the observed changes are unprecedented over decades to millennia.” “Each of the last three decades has been successively warmer at the Earth’s surface than any preceding decade since 1850. In the Northern Hemisphere, 1983–2012 was likely the warmest 30-year period of the last 1400 years, (medium confidence).” 1. IT’S WARMING. • “Each of the last three decades has been successively warmer at the Earth’s surface than any preceding decade since 1850.” • “The surface temperature data show a warming of 0.85 °C over the period 1880 to 2012.” IPCC WG1 AR5 SPM. 1 1. IT’S WARMING. “The surface temperature data show a warming of 1.0 °C over the period 1880 to 2018.” https://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/cag/global/timeseries/globe/land_ocean/ann/8/1880-2018 1. IT’S WARMING. • “In the Northern Hemisphere, 1983–2012 was likely the warmest 30-year period of the last 1400 years, (medium confidence).” National Climate Assessment 4 – climate science Figure 1.8 1. IT’S WARMING: OTHER INDICATORS OF A WARMING WORLD 2. IT’S US. Professor Ralph Keeling, Scripps Institution of Oceanography Photo Credit: Rob Monroe “Human influence on the climate system is clear. This is evident from the increasing greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere, positive radiative forcing, observed warming, and understanding of the climate system.” 2. IT’S US. Three factors determine Earth’s climate: Figure: IPCC AR4 WG1 FAQ 1.3 1) 1) The amount of incoming solar radiation. 2) 2) The albedo of the planet. 3) 3) How much greenhouse gas is in the atmosphere. 2. IT’S US: THE KEELING CURVE “Carbon dioxide concentrations have increased by 40% since pre-industrial times, primarily from fossil fuel emissions and secondarily from net land use change emissions.” 2. IT’S US: ICE-CORE MEASUREMENTS OF PAST ATM CO2 CONC • scripps.ucsd.edu/programs/keelingcurve “The atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide have increased to levels unprecedented in at least the last 800,000 years.” 3. WE’RE SURE. Project Aware in Antarctica, 2016. Credit: Jeff Aquilina “Warming of the climate system is unequivocal, and since the 1950s, many of the observed changes are unprecedented over decades to millennia. The atmosphere and ocean have warmed, the amounts of snow and ice have diminished, sea level has risen, and the concentrations of greenhouse gases have increased .” 3. WE’RE SURE: RADIATIVE FORCING “Total radiative forcing is positive, and has led to an uptake of energy by the climate system. The largest contribution to total radiative forcing is caused by the increase in the atmospheric concentration of CO2 since 1750.” IPCC WG1 AR5 SPM.5 3. WE’RE SURE: DETECTION AND ATTRIBUTION OF CLIMATE CHANGE Figure 3.1 from the U.S. Climate Science Special Report, 2017 https://science2017.globalchange.gov/chapter/3/ Similar to Fig. SPM.6 “It is extremely likely that human influence has been the dominant cause of the observed warming since the mid-20th century.” 4. IT’S BAD. “Warming of the climate system is unequivocal, and since the 1950s, many of the observed changes are unprecedented over decades to millennia. The atmosphere and ocean have warmed, the amounts of snow and ice have diminished, sea level has risen, and the concentrations of greenhouse gases have increased” 4. IT’S BAD: SNOW AND ICE ARE MELTING • “Over the last two decades, the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets have been losing mass, glaciers have continued to shrink almost worldwide, and Arctic sea ice and Northern Hemisphere spring snow cover have continued to decrease in extent (high confidence).” Figure SPM.3 4. IT’S BAD: SEA LEVEL IS RISING • “The rate of sea level rise since the mid-19th century has been larger than the mean rate during the previous two millennia (high confidence). Over the period 1901 to 2010, global mean sea level rose by 0.19 [0.17 to 0.21] m.” • Update: over the period of 1880 to 2016 global mean sea level has risen about 20–23 cm. Figure SPM.3 4. IT’S BAD: PRECIPITATION TRENDS • Wet areas are getting wetter and dry areas are getting drier. Fig. 1.7 from the NCA4. Surface annually averaged precipitation change (in inches) for the period 1986–2015 relative to 1901–1960. 4. IT’S BAD: THE OCEAN IS WARMING AND BECOMING MORE ACIDIC • “Ocean warming dominates the increase in energy stored in the climate system, accounting for more than 90% of the energy accumulated between 1971 and 2010 (high confidence). It is virtually certain that the upper ocean (0−700 m) warmed from 1971 to 2010 (see Figure SPM.3), and it likelywarmed between the 1870s and 1971.” IPCC AR5 WG1 SPM.3c and SPM.4b 4. IT’S BAD: EXTREME WEATHER EVENTS ARE INCREASING 4. IT’S BAD: EXTREME WEATHER EVENTS ARE INCREASING The frequency and intensity of extreme heat and heavy precipitation events are increasing in most continental regions of the world (very high confidence). The frequency and intensity of extreme high temperature events are virtually certain to increase in the future as global temperature increases (high confidence). Extreme precipitation events will very likely continue to increase in frequency and intensity throughout most of the world (high confidence). Observed and projected trends for some other types of extreme events, such as floods, droughts, and severe storms, have more variable regional characteristics. Increased intensity of tropical cyclone activities (low confidence). 5. WE CAN FIX IT Imperial Beach flooding, Jan. 2019. Credit: Center for Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation “Continued emissions of greenhouse gases will cause further warming and changes in all components of the climate system. Limiting climate change will require substantial and sustained reductions of greenhouse gas emissions. ” 5. WE CAN FIX IT: KEEP WARMING BELOW 1.5°C • “An IPCC special report on the impacts of global warming of 1.5 °C above pre-industrial levels and related global greenhouse gas emission pathways, in the context of strengthening the global response to the threat of climate change, sustainable development, and efforts to eradicate poverty.” 6. WE HAVE TO ACT FAST. “To limit warming to 1.5 ºC, global CO2 emissions have to start to decline from 2020. Emissions have to decline by about 45% by 2030. Emissions have to reach net zero in 2055 or 2040.” “Limiting non-CO2 radiative forcing is also important to limiting warming to 1.5 ºC.” ” https://www.cmu.edu/gelfand/images/climate-change/carbonbathtub-infographic.pdf Look at the relative sizes of these three reservoirs and associate flux rates. Sediments and rocks is a HUGE carbon reservoir (but flux rate is tiny), The Ocean Reservoir is BIG (but the flux rate per year is medium), Plants and soil – the land-based ecosystem- is a smaller reservoir with a large flux rate is large, so the reservoir fills up fast. https://xkcd.com/1379 34 UC San Diego Climate Action March QUESTIONS? INTL 101 Prof Andy Lamey Today’s lecture • • • • Environmentalism of the rich Environmentalism of the Rich vs. Luxury Conservation Greenwashing vs. external monitoring Discussion: applying Dauvergne’s theory • Reminders: please always email me on a UCSD account • Laptop ban in effect (flat tablets tentatively OK) Prompt Three • Critically assess the notion of “environmentalism of the rich.” To what degree, if at all, is it helpful in thinking about how to respond to climate change? Tip: Principle of charity • Charity is an important principle to employ in writing essays, regardless of prompt • When outlining an argument or concept you will go on to criticize, outline it in its strongest possible form • This ensures your criticism will be relevant and cannot be rebutted by someone pointing out you misunderstood the argument or idea Week one questions • “Is there a conflict of interest for big corporations and is that why the government hasn’t taken action?” • Dauvergne would say big companies do have interests that come in conflict regarding climate change • As we will see net time, Brown is slightly more optimistic about a role for business Proctor and Gamble in China • World’s largest consumer goods firm and maker of Pampers • Entered Chinese diaper market in 1998 • Parents in China either never used diapers, or used cloth version for first six months only • After six months parents would use pants with open back, no diapers, or sundresses Changing Chinese parenting • P&G sought to convince Chinese parents to use plastic diapers • First attempt involved cheap low-quality version of Pampers, which failed • Second attempt involved ad firm Porter Novelli • 2007 ad campaign told parents Pampers gave babies ‘a golden sleep’ Golden sleep campaign • Ad message: researchers working with Beijing chindren’s hospital have found that babies in Pampers: • Fall asleep more quickly • Sleep 30 minutes longer • Sleep more soundly with fewer sleep disturbances • Improves child cognitive development (and parental sleep quality) Outcome • By 2010 Chinese disposable diaper market worth $3 billion • By 2016 Pampers annual sales in China reach five billion diapers • Other brands now competing for diapers market that by 2013 matched that of U.S. • Sales predicted to hit 2 billion diapers a month by next year. Next target: India Business vs. environmental impact • From a business point of view, this outcome is fantastic • P&G actions were little different from that of other big companies, all of which also seek to maximize growth • But diapers go to landfill or are incinerated • Production method also releases greenhouse gasses into the atmosphere Downside of diapers • Some Western parents have adopted traditional open-cut Chinese pants on environmental grounds • Vanuatu, tiny Pacific island state, has announced (but not yet introduced) diaper ban • In parts of China, disposable diapers now a sign of being modern P&G: Sustainability leader • During this same period P&G has presented itself as committed to sustainability • ‘As a global citizen, we are concerned about the negative consequences of climate change and believe governments, industry, and consumers all have a role to play in reducing greenhouse gas emissions to the atmosphere.’ • https://us.pg.com/policies-andpractices/environmental-policies-andpractices/ Environmentalism of the rich • This juxtaposition illustrates Dauverge’s notion of ‘environmentalism of the rich’ • The interest P&G has taken in sustainability is not all bad, and has likely made a difference in some areas • But it exists alongside a deeper commitment to unsustainable growth • P&G’s sustainability commitment is itself used as a marketing tool to achieve more growth Problems • Environmentalism of the rich is a shallow form of environmentalism • Allows environmental work only to the degree that it serves the interests of the well-off • Environmentalism takes a back-seat to growth and consumption, particularly of disposable goods • Environmental language masks, or even contributes to, an overall unsustainable system Clicker question • Recall that the golden sleep campaign was based on a study conducted with Beijing Children’s Hospital • Suppose further studies confirm that all claims in the golden sleep campaign were true • Would that address Dauvergne’s concern about P&G? • A = entirely B= to a large degree • C = to a small degree D = not at all E. of the rich vs. false marketing • Note that the golden sleep campaign was based on one study • There is a possibility that claims about ‘golden sleep’ could be false • But note that the issue Dauvergne is highlighting is one of environmental unsustainability • That will still hold even if golden sleep claims are 100% true • So answer D is (arguably) most likely Not just businesses • ‘For [Non-governmental organizations] environmentalism of the rich manifests in business partnerships, eco-product fundraising, and market solutions. For individuals it surfaces in a belief in the power of eco-consumerism and small lifestyle changes [recycling, shorter showers] . . . Even as overall consumption continues to rise.’ (4) Luxury conservation • Argument against cloning long-extinct species fails to show it should be absolutely ruled out • Sandler concludes that it is best viewed as a form of ‘luxury conservation’ • OK to pursue, so long as it does not interfere with or compromise ethically important goals • ‘Deep’ de-extinction permissible but not a priority Clicker question • How do environmentalism of the rich and luxury conservation compare? • A = they are different terms for the same idea • B = Environmentalism of the rich is worse • C = Luxury conservation is worse • D = Don’t know, pass Comparison • It seems that Environmentalism of the Rich can sometimes put a green veneer on environmentally destructive activity • Luxury conservation, while a low priority, is not destructive • This suggests that environmentalism of the rich is (arguably) worse Similarities • Both concepts warn us away from shallow forms of environmentalism • Meant not to foster ‘eco-pessimism’ but to make us more effective in choosing how we respond to environmental threats • So what actions avoid Environmentalism of the Rich? • Dauvergne suggests forms that break from consumerism Buy Nothing Day • Started in Canada in September 1992 “as a day for society to examine the issue of overconsumption.” • In 1997 it was moved to Friday after Thanksgiving (Black Friday) • Promoted by Adbusters magazine • ‘Overconsumption is in some sense the mother of all our environmental problems.’— Adbusters editor Kalle Lasn Buy Nothing Day Cont. • Buy nothing days has been criticized on multiple grounds • Unfair criticism: individual action is not enough to address climate change • Could also be called ‘earn nothing day,’ as many people, including many poor people, would make no money that day • Seems to have become less popular since 1990s Greenwashing • Environmentalism of the Rich is similar to the notion of ‘greenwashing,’ or creating a false impression that a product is more environmentally friendly than it really is • Let’s watch a short Youtube video from the channel, Our Climate Change: • https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mOpa8k d6fBI Greenwashing cont. • Note detail about lack of clean water in Fiji • A bad consequence of false environmental claims is that consumers become cynical about green marketing • ‘Buying intentionally’ is also time-consuming, especially for people working two jobs, parents etc. • Better solution may be to ask whether a company’s claims involve any external monitoring or verification External monitoring • The meat industry appears to have provided an example of an effective external monitoring program (albeit for animal welfare rather than environmental reasons) • Consider how it became normal for slaughter facilities that supply fast food restaurants to be audited by outside observers Peter Singer vs. McDonald’s • Our week six author, Peter Singer, endorses a philosophy of ‘animal liberation’ • In 1989 a former student of Singer’s (Henry Spira), and then Singer himself, began meeting with McDonald’s executives about animal welfare standards • After three years of meetings Spira said there was ‘nothing to show for it’ (Singer 1998: 170) • ‘Farm animal well-being is not high on McDonald’s priority list’—McDonald’s executive in 1997 McLibel trial • In 1990 McDonald’s sued London Greenpeace over a pamphlet, ‘What’s wrong with McDonald’s’ • Resulted in longest trial in British history • McDonald’s technically won the case, but suffered a major PR setback – Seen as bullying two poor activists – Judge ruled that some claims in the pamphlet, including animal cruelty charges, were true After McLibel • After the trial McDonald’s suddenly became very responsive to Singer and Spira • It brought in new animal welfare policies in 1999 • Executive who met with Singer and Spira said he wanted to make a difference before he retired in six months • But the company also had a self-interested incentive to change: improve its image after McLibel Temple Grandin • Grandin is a designer of slaughterhouses and author who rose to prominence in 1990s – Profiled by Oliver Sax in The New Yorker (1993) and An Anthropologist on Mars (1995) • Grandin is possibly the most famous autistic person alive • Has appeared at philosophy of mind conferences to describe her thought processes Thinking like an animal • ‘I think my emotional life may appear more similar to those of animals than humans, because my feelings are simpler and more overt, and like cattle, I have emotional memories that are place specific.’ (94) • Grandin identifies with animals and seeks to design slaughterhouses and systems that are less painful than traditional models Grandin’s Design Features • Grandin’s slaughterhouses thus have many design elements based on animals’ natural behaviours • Curved handling chutes • Solid walls • No shadows or drains • No mirrors or reflective objects • No entry by handlers into animal’s flight zone McMahan vs. Grandin Auditing slaughter • Grandin now conducts audits for McDonald’s and other companies • Auditors show up unannounced and count things like: • What percentage of cattle rendered insensible with one shot of a bolt gun when properly administered (95% minimum passing rate) • How many animals are jolted with cattle prod • How many animals have trouble walking, etc. Spread of humane slaughter • Burger King, We …