UCI Asian Americans Ideologie

I’m working on a humanities writing question and need an explanation and answer to help me learn.

This is a group project that my classmates already finished their part. Everyone including me need to write one page about Asian American. Our paper would explore the ideologies that uphold white supremacy ideals and their influence mate selection through stereotypes.  Two work cited from my part. Thanks.

here is the part they wrote for reference 

(Audrey Nguyen) Intro and THESIS: The appropriation of Asian culture to fit in with American ideals has left Asian Americans singled out by stereotypes spread through generations when selecting mates.

(Kevin Cao)The American education system leaves out Asian Americans from issues due to the model minority stereotype. This is especially tough on Asian American gay men as they are not only harrassed due to to their race but also their sexual identities.

(Xing Liu) Stereotypes of Asian women have been shaped through experiences of imperialism, colonialism, and exploitation under capitalism, hypersexualized to cater to the dominant mainstream society. Through the Lotus blossom stereotype, hypersexulization and dehumanization are used to control this intersection of race and gender. Contributing to the perpetuation of white supremacy, media representation cling on to these racist and sexist stereotypes to preserve unequal power dynamics between Asian women and White Americans. 

(Hou Ieong Loi) According to data provided by Le’s research, In terms of husbands, the groups most likely to marry whites are Filipinos and Japanese, and among wives, the groups most likely to marry whites are Japanese and Koreans. However, in terms of overall figures, the intermarriage rate of Asian Americans is relatively low compared to other ethnic groups. NPR(2009) uses several cases to reveal Asian Americans’ concerns of mate selection.

(Grisel Hernandez) Asian American males tend to for the most part find themselves questioning what are their masculine identities. Asian American perceived their masculinity seen as less masculine due to the normalized and more pleasant form of White Hegemonic masculinity. They begin to try and imitate White hegemonic masculinity, to eradicate the misconceptions of how Asian American males are not recognized as masculine enough.

(Tyler Vo) Asian American gay men have in particular, have a harder time finding love then Asian American men. Like stated before, we know that Asian American men are seen less masculine; this stereotype carries on to Asian American gay men as well, but because they are gay, they are also stereotypically judged more than the straight male. Furthermore, Asian gay men will often times take on the feminine role to attract a masculine man. Other situations, they will completely avoid hegemonic masculine males, which completely ignores the stereotype.

(Hana Nip) In a comprehensive study based on 50 interviews conducted by Mi Ra Sung, et al., Asian American lesbian women face significant challenges to their male-counterparts in both their general and dating lives. These challenges arise from the intersection of their gender, race, and sexual orientation, all of which, when considered together, add up to the large oppression Asian American lesbian women encounter. Despite these challenges, Sung, et al. also mention ways Asian American lesbian women cope and deal with the oppression and stressors and how they can be positive influences on their lives, rather than negative. In regards to the dating scene, stereotypes about Asian American lesbian women make them feel more “wary” and “scared” to date within US society.

IX.        (Octavio Adame) Asian Americans have a bad representation throughout the media and government, which gives birth to stereotypes and racism, which in turn leads Asian Americans to be disadvantaged when it comes to finding a partner. So they try to fit in by somewhat assimilating and changing their culture, only to be met with no luck due to these negative asian american stereotypes being spread throughout multiple generations, and these stereotypes can’t be forgotten because of the media which is essentially never ending.

(Audrey) Historically, Asian Americans have struggled to fit in with the cultural mixing pot more commonly known as the United States. It’s important to earn a good status in a new country an immigrant knows almost nothing about. Based on observation and recommendations from the community, Asian Americans fit right into the stereotypes built over the years. These practices led to hypersexualization of Asian women with their bodies viewed as objects and left Asian men emasculated. Now, Asian American men are viewed as smooth, weak, and obedient, lacking the hegemonic masculinity that European males represent. Affecting the dating pool’s looking glass, Asian men struggle to represent the particular characteristics their significant other is searching for.

       The American education system also created further issues, intentional or not. Seen as a “model minority”, Asian Americans are left out of certain stereotypes and statistics, such as bullying or struggling. They tend to be the bullied students, yet seen as the “teacher’s pets”. It adds another challenge to the plate for Asian Americans, especially gay Asian Americans, who struggle with harrassment for not only their race but also their sexuality as well. It’s already a struggle to balance American identities with Asian traditions, but to add on a lack of identity only further complicates the problem. The traits they possess are not always viewed as attractive in the dating pool and find it difficult to match with other mates. Lesbian Asian Americans also struggle with fitting into their status. Their sexual orientation and identity is pushed down by Asian traditions and expectations to marry a male while engaging in more feminine activities. When a Asian American woman does not fit the hegemonic femininity, she’s viewed as “exotic” and “different”, leaving her also as an outcast in the dating scene. The appropriation of Asian culture to fit in with American ideals has left Asian Americans singled out by stereotypes spread through generations when selecting mates.

       (Xing) Stereotypes of Asian women have been shaped through experiences of imperialism, colonialism, and exploitation under capitalism, hypersexualized to cater to the dominant mainstream society. Through the Lotus blossom stereotype, hypersexulization and dehumanization are used to control this intersection of race and gender. Contributing to the perpetuation of white supremacy, media representation cling on to these racist and sexist stereotypes to preserve unequal power dynamics between Asian women and White Americans.

       Hegemonic masculinity entails the subordination of women, femininity is racialized and standardized through the experiences of white women. The creation of hegemonic femininity in Pyke and Johnson’s paper demonstrates how this racial hierarchy dictates and affects mate selection within the United States. Because gender is shaped by culture and the social structures that encase the individuals, Asian American women face scrutiny because society deems them weak and passive. Contrasted with white women, who possess the idealized performance of femininity, they lack the attractive traits. These feelings of inadequacy are internalized, as most women reject this labeling. As seen in Pyke and Johnson’s paper, the women confirm with the expected white femininity in dominant white spaces. This separation of asian ethnic spaces, like family. and mainstream caucasion spheres, such as primarily white institutions, lead to some women “code-switching” as they adjust their behavior to comply with the gender expectations. Focusing on White spaces, the respondents in the study seem to be more outspoken than their ethnic spaces, believing they have more freedom and equality compared to the constricting traditional patriarchy Asian women perform under. However, it is important to note the expectations that form around Asian women, thrusting racist and sexist caricatures on them.  

       The purpose of a racial stereotype is to control the perception of the race, stripping them of nuance and dehumanizing them. These images perpetuate myths that benefit white supremacy, permeating every aspect of an individual’s life. (Collins 517) For Asians, the creation of stereotypes trace back to white supremacy, artificially legitimizing their status during a time of high immigration. The ability to control the Other through orientalism affects mate selection. In a paper by Võ and Sciachitano, they comment on the historical treatment of Asian women: “The commodification of our [asian women] bodies is a global phenomenon that supports global capitalism, imperialism, and militarism”  (Võ and Sciachitano 3). Focusing on the Lotus blossom stereotype, crafting a passive, weak, hyper sexual, and submissive women caters excessively towards white men. With imperialism, White Americans exploited the sex industry, forcing poor immigrant women into prostitution, benevolantly occupying in their countries during war times, and poverty under global capitalism (Võ and Sciachitano 4). Through these stereotypes, women are expected to “serve” white men, seeing men as the prince charming to latch on to and escape their poor material conditions, like traditional Asian patriarchy.

This dated representation of the lotus blossom woman lingers in media and culture. Today, it is used to commodify Asian bodies and sell products by appealing towards the dominant white society. Looking at  “multiculturalism,” in the media, Kim and Chung look at the perpetuation of orientalism, concluding that these racist tropes evolve with the dominant culture rather than change and shed themselves of problematic representations. This is particularly troubling, but is to be expected when considering the power structures in mainstream American society, dictated by capitalism. (/Xing)

       (Hou Ieong) According to data provided by Le (2012), among Asian Americans, Japanese Americans have the highest marriage rate with whites, while Vietnamese Americans have the lowest marriage rate with whites. This is related to the reason why Vietnamese Americans have arrived recently, and the author believes that they need more time to be ‘maritally assimilated’. Le also pointed out that in terms of husbands, the groups most likely to marry whites are Filipinos and Japanese, in terms of wives, the groups most likely to marry whites are Japanese and Koreans. However, in terms of overall figures, the intermarriage rate of Asian Americans is relatively low compared to other ethnic groups. In Asian Americans’ mate selection, social integration is also an important factor. According to Le’s research and ajnalysis on the year 2000 census data, most Asian American men are immigrants or live in states with large Asian communities, such as California, Hawaii, New York. This allows them to live in Asia. Asian-American communities and preserving Asian culture in the community, will also make them more inclined to marry Asian-Americans living in the same community.

        In NPR’s article, the author quoted from sociologist Keiko Yamanaka “Asian marriage is often decided based on an obligation to the family, whereas in America, you choose the partner based on your interests”. (NPR, 2009) Family is an important consideration for Asian Americans when choosing a spouse, and family members’ opinions are especially important in the decision making process. Because of filial piety, most Asian Americans hope to be recognized by their families on mate selection. The author uses Jessica, who is an UC Berkeley student, as an example. Jessica is a descendant of Vietnamese immigrants. She dated whites and Latinos guys in high school. Now her boyfriend is an Asian American who speaks Vietnamese. She thinks so The relationship is more suitable for her, because her boyfriend can communicate with her family in Vietnamese, therefore, her family is satisfied and more receptive to her boyfriend. (/Hou Ieong)

       (Hana Nip) In a comprehensive study based on 50 interviews conducted by Mi Ra Sung, et al., Sung studied the multiple minority statuses of Asian American lesbian women and how it shapes their lives, beliefs, and cultures within US society. Sung, et al. found that Asian American lesbian women face significant challenges to their male-counterparts in both their general and dating lives. These challenges arise from the intersection of their gender, race, culture, and sexual orientation, all of which, when considered together, add up to the large oppression Asian American lesbian women face. In regards to the dating scene, stereotypes about Asian American lesbian women make them feel more “wary” and “scared” to date within US society.

       When considering race and culture, Asians, out of all other ethnic groups, express the most conservatism when it comes to homosexuality. Asian cultures tend to value family and family obligations to continue the family line through marriage and bearing children (Sung, et al.). Along with these values, they have rigid gender roles and beliefs that homosexuality is a sin; heterosexuality is heavily enforced in Asian cultures (Sung, et al.). Essentially, Asian cultures clearly discriminates against homosexuality and, particularly, Asian lesbian women. As a result, Asian American lesbian women are rejected from Asian families and cultures due to the fact that they bring “shame” to the family for not adhering to Asian values. On top of the external oppression that Asian American lesbian women face from their own cultures and families, the women themselves tend to internalize the oppression (Sung, et al.), often reporting that they have to hide their “true selves” from their families, which makes them feel like their sexual identity is shameful. Additionally, notable stressors that Asian American lesbians deal with are the conformity to traditional gender roles, difficulties with disclosure of sexual orientation to their families and friends, conflicts with their parents and extended families, and the feeling of being invisible (Sung, et al.).

       In the context of dating within the White American society, Asian American lesbian women are heavily objectified and sexualized, oftentimes being sought after by white men. This is a stark constrast to the oppression that Asian American lesbian women face in their own Asian societies; in Asian societies, they are shunned, not sought after. However, the objectification that Asian American lesbian women face are neither empowering or encouraging. Asian American lesbian women are seen as “exotic” and are constantly fetishsized. Heavily portrayed in the media, they are expected to be overly sexual constantly and to desire white males or females; and that leads to the idea that Asian American lesbian women are “freaky.” One participant even mentioned “‘I come across a lot of fetishization of Asian, usually in the form of telling me I’m exotic or look like Mulan. So every time I date someone, I have to take into consideration that it might be ‘yellow fever’” (Sung, et al.). Here, it shows how Asian American lesbian women have to be wary and worried for their own sake when entering the dating scene. Dating becomes more of a struggle than a romantic process for Asian American lesbian women, displaying the heavy disadvantages they have in the dating world due to the stereotypes.

Additionally, Asian American lesbian women, when trying to find a partner, are often “invisible” in the dating scene. White women and other ethnic women tend to dismiss Asian American women as potential partners because of the stereotype that Asian American women are never homosexual; rather, they are stereotyped to be conservative and submissive. Their race puts them at a disadvantage for finding a partner as they are often ignored. Coupled with Asian cultural strict values of maintaining heterosexuality and the objectification of Asian American lesbian women within US society, Asian American lesbian women are constantly

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