Please use 12 point, Times New Roman font, and 1” margins,6-FULL PAGES, Double-spaced
I attached the detailed paper instructions in the files, please read it carefully!!!!!
Report on Website:
The FINAL PAPER will be to explore the websites for various Global Justice Movement organizations. You should explore at least five global justice movement websites from the list below:
For this PAPER you will need to spend a number of hours on the web exploring these websites, reading some of the articles and commentaries,
and gaining an understanding of some of the popular literature and features on the web that have to do with the theme of globalization and resistance.
Then you will write up a report, between 6-FULL-PAGES, on your analysis of the exercise.
You should draw on course readings, lectures, and other materials to analyze the content of these web sites,relating that content to the course and what you have learned.
Demonstrate your analytical prowess and ability to apply what you have learned in the course.
(I already attached my course PPT)
Tags: Financial Stability banking industry international monetary fund University of California San Diego economic stability International Monetary Fund
Unformatted Attachment Preview
FINAL PAPEER INSTRUCTIONS: Report on Website: The FINAL PAPER will be to explore the websites for various Global Justice Movement organizations. You should explore at least five global justice movement websites from the list below: 50 Years is Enough! Campaign, http://www.50years.org/ The Dawn, http://www.thedawn-news.org/ Rebelión, https://www.rebelion.org/ (this site for Spanish readers) Left on the Move, https://portaldelaizquierda.com/en/ Mintpress News, https://www.mintpressnews.com/ The Global Exchange, http://www.globalexchange.org/ Socialist Alternative, https://www.socialistalternative.org/ The Maquila Solidarity Network, http://www.maquilasolidarity.org/ International Forum on Globalization, http://www.ifg.org/, Focus on the Global South: http://www.focusweb.org/ MADRE: http://www.madre.org/ Center for Research on Globalization: http://globalresearch.ca/ Transnational Institute: http://www.tni.org/ Third World Network, https://www.twn.my/index.htm Institute for Policy Studies: http://www.ips-dc.org/ Rainforest Action Network: http://www.ran.org/ Action for Solidarity, Equality, Environment and Development (A SEED), http://www.aseed.net/ Global Research: http://www.globalresearch.ca/about Food First (Institute for Food and Development Policy), http://www.foodfirst.org/ Friends of the Earth International, http://www.foei.org/ World War 4 Report, http://ww4report.com/dailyreport or http://countervortex.org/about Human Rights Campaign (LGBTQ rights worldwide): http://www.hrc.org/ Fightback!News, http://www.fightbacknews.org/ Information Clearning House, http://www.informationclearinghouse.info/ Toward Freedom: http://www.towardfreedom.com/home/ Global Women’s Strike: http://www.globalwomenstrike.net Los Despojados (most entries are in English): http://losdespojados.tumblr.com/ http://avispa.org/ CorpWatch, http://www.corpwatch.org/ Truthout, https://truthout.org/ Left on the Move, https://portaldelaizquierda.com/en/ Organizing Upgrade, https://organizingupgrade.com/ For this PAPER you will need to spend a number of hours on the web exploring these websites, reading some of the articles and commentaries, and gaining an understanding of some of the popular literature and features on the web that have to do with the theme of globalization and resistance. Then you will write up a report, between 6-FULL-PAGES, on your analysis of the exercise. You should draw on course readings, lectures, and other materials to analyze the content of these web sites, relating that content to the course and what you have learned. Demonstrate your analytical prowess and ability to apply what you have learned in the course. (I already attached my course PPT) GENERIC GUIDELINES FOR PAPER 1. Your assignments should have strong, coherent thesis statements at the beginning of the paper. The thesis statement should be specific and clear. It should tie together the different points you will address in the paper. 2. Description is necessary, but not sufficient. You are advised to include a brief but specific summary of what you are writing about (eg, a film, a book, a website) that introduces the features on which your analytical arguments will focus. There is relevant and irrelevant information about your topic of discussion (e.g, a film); make sure that the information you include in your summary is relevant to a) explain the overall premise of what you are discussing in relation to the course and b) ground your analytical argument. DO NOT let description and summaries dominate your paper! 3. Instead, the bulk of your papers should be comprised of a serious analysis of the particular topic in relation to the course. Here you will want to employ the terms, concepts, theories, and insights garnered from the course in your analysis. a. What insights into globalization does the film, or website, or reading reflect? b. What concepts or terms doe the it illustrate, and how? 4. Citations should always include the author’s last name, year of publication, AND PAGE NUMBER. 5. Please use 12 point, Times New Roman font, and 1” margins, 6-FULL PAGES, Double-spaced THE GLOBAL ENVIRONMENTAL JUSTICE MOVEMENT GLOBALIZATION AND ENVIRONMENTAL JUSTICE ⚫ ⚫ ⚫ ⚫ SERIES HIGH PROFILE INT MEETINGS, 70s, 80s, CULMINATING UNCED RIO 1992 & 2002 RIO+10 SUMMITS, COPANHAGEN 2009, CANCUN, 2010, PARIS 2015 (COP = Conference of the Parties [UN Framework Convention on Climate Change, UNFCCC) RISE OF GLOBAL ENVIRONMENTAL MOVEMENT AS EXEMPLARY T.N. SOCIAL MOVEMENT, KEY CHALLENGES: ENVIRONMENT AND TN CORPORATE ORDER, ENVIRONMENT AND SOCIAL JUSTICE KEY CONCERNS OF GLOBAL ENVIRONMENTAL CRISIS: -DECREASING BIODIVERSITY (MILLIONS SPECIES ALREADY EXTINCT, SIGLO XXI – 30-50% ALL LIVING SPECIES WILL BE KILLED OFF) -GLOBAL WARMING, CLIMATE CHANGE, CATASTROPHIC WEATHER -DEPLETION OF OZONE LAYER -WORSENING OF LAND, AIR, AND WATER POLLUTION -DESTRUCTION OF REMAINING RAINFORESTS -ENVIRONMENTAL CATASTROPHIES (CHERNOBYL, BHOPAL, OIL SPILLS) -GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOODS -COLLAPSE OF AGRICULTURE -MASS DYING -WATER WARS OF 21ST CENTURY 2018 UN CLIMATE REPORT: THERE IS ONLY A DOZEN YEARS FOR GLOBAL WARMING TO BE KEPT TO A MAXIMUM OF 1.5C (2.7F), BEYOND WHICH EVEN HALF A DEGREE WILL SIGNIFICANTLY WORSEN THE RISKS OF DROUGHT, FLOODS, EXTREME HEAT AND POVERTY FOR HUNDREDS OF MILLIONS OF PEOPLE (WORLD NOW 1 DEGREE WARMER THAN PRE-INDUSTRIAL LEVEL) GLOBAL ECOLOGICAL HOLOCAUST Nobel Prize-winning atmospheric chemist Paul Crutzen coined Anthropocene, coming of new epoch in planetary history replacing Holocene (stable, interglacial geological epoch dating 10-12,000 years ago), Coevolution “earth systems” and “world systems”: world system now truly global system, transformations in natural systems brought about by human activity now begun, words of ecologist Peter Vitousek, to” alter the structure and function of Earth as a system.” Robinson: “It boggles the mind to comprehend that global capitalism now couples human and natural history in such a way as to threaten to bring about what would be the 6th mass extinction in the known history of life on earth (at current rates some 1/3rd of the millions of species on the planet will have gone extinct by 2100 Can capitalism be reconciled with nature? Imperative of accumulation (“growth”) makes this impossible CLIMATE WARS, NEW ‘DARK AGES;, AND SPECTER OF COLLAPSE ⚫ Many historical episodes of collapse when civilizations are unable to resolve contradictions that tear them apart – Easter Island, Mayan states, Roman empire, Chinese dynasties ⚫ SING CHEW – ‘DARK AGES’ (periods devolution human communities, socioeconomic and political decay and retrogression) ⚫ What makes capitalism unique is not that it is in fundamental contradiction with nature. Rather, it is scope and magnitude of this contradiction, such that human activity now threatens the earth system itself. The current moment is distinct in that this time collapse would be of global civilization. ⚫ 9 “planetary boundaries” crucial to maintaining earth system environment in which humans can exist, 4 now at onset irreversible environmental degradation, 3 (climate change, nitrogen cycle, biodiversity loss) at “tipping points,” (already crossed planetary boundaries). “SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT” ⚫ ⚫ ⚫ 1987 BRUNTLAND REPORT OUR COMMON FUTURE DEFINITION: “MEETING THE NEEDS OF THE PRESENT WITHOUT COMPROMISING THE ABILITY OF FUTURE GENERATIONS TO MEET THEIR OWN NEEDS” HOW TO ACHIEVE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT? -CONSERVING AND ENHANCING NATURAL RESOURCES -GRASSROOT INVOLVEMENT IN DEVELOPMENT -ADOPTING APPROPRIATE TECHNOLOGIES BUT QUESTIONS REMAIN: — –• IS RENEWAABLE NON-ENVIRONMENTALLY DESTRUCTIVE ECONOMIC ACTIVITY POSSIBLE? IS IT POSSIBLE UNDER GLOBAL CAPITALISM? WHAT ABOUT TRANSNATIONAL CORPORATIONS AND THE ENVIRONMENT? COMMISSION RECOMMENDS GROWTH TO REDUCE PRESSURE OF POOR ON ENVIRONMENT, HOWEVER: TWO OPPOSITING VIEWS ON ROOTS OF ENVIRONMENTAL CRISIS: 1) POOR GREATEST STRESS ON ENVIRONMENT – SOLUTION?… MORE ECONOMIC GROWTH… LIBERATE MARKET 2) GLOBAL INEQUALITY AND CONSUMPTION OF AFFLUENT GREATEST STRESS – SOLUTION… MARKET ITSELF SOURCE OF ENVIRONMENTAL DESTRUCTION; REIGN IN ON MARKET….RESTRUCTURE SOCIETY WORLD’S POOR GREATEST STRESS ON ENVIRONMENT? ARE THE WORLD’S POOR OR THE WORLD’S AFFLUENT RESPONSIBLE FOR RESOURCE DEPLETION AND ENVIRONMENTAL STRESS? TRASNATIONAL CORPORATE AGENDA FOR THE ENVIRONMENT: LIBERATE TRANSNATIONAL CORPORATE CAPITAL FROM ANY CONSTRAINT ⚫ ⚫ ⚫ ⚫ ⚫ ⚫ ⚫ ⚫ EARTH SUMMIT 1992 IN RIO – UNCED, LARGEST DIPLOMATIC GATHERING EVER, TO REVIEW BRUNDLAND REPORT PROGRESS “AGENDA 21” – DETOURING QUESTION OF GLOBAL INEQUALITIES: ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION THROUGH “DEVELOPMENT” “DEVELOPMENT” = PRIVATE INVESTMENT PRIVATE INVESTMENT = INCREASED GROWTH INCREASED GROWTH = “FREEING UP MARKET”, THE “MARKET SOLUTION” TO ECOLOGICAL HOLOCAUST SOLUTION = NEO-LIBERAL CAPITALIST GLOBALIZATION! TNCs WILL RESOLVE ENVIRONMENTAL CRISIS….REALLY??? “BIG BUSINESS HIJACKED CLIMATE TALKS”: “CLIMATE BUSINESS” AND “CARBON MARKETS” ⚫ AT RIO: CARBON MARKETS = COMMODIFICATION OF ENVIRONMENTALISM, MARKETING THE “RIGHT TO POLLUTE” ⚫ 1990s – GLOBAL CLIMATE COALITION (GCC), FRONT FOR 50 MAJOR OIL, COAL, AUTO, AND CHEMICAL CORPORATIONS AND TRADE ASSOCIATIONS – PLAYED KEY ROLE IN WEAKENING AND UNDERMINING INTERNATIONAL AGREEMENTS – THEY COME TO EVERY UN MEETING, HOST DELEGATIONS! ⚫ SINCE RIO – CHANGE IN STRATEGY TO “CARBON MARKETS” ⚫ AL GORE REPRESENTED US IN LATE 1990s CLIMATE NEGOTIATONS – INSISTING ON “CLEAN DEVELOPMENT MECHANISM”, IN WHICH TNCs COULD “BUY EMISSIONS REDUCTIONS” FROM GLOBAL SOUTH ⚫ BY 2010, GLOBAL CARBON MARKET WORTH OVER $100 BILLION ⚫ NOTE – OFFSETS NOT REDUCTIONS IN CARBON EMISSIONS ⚫ AS NOEMI KLEIN HAS POINTED OUT, UNDER THE CARBON MARKETS REGIME, EMISSIONS HAVE STEADILY INCREASED! CORPORATE COUNTER-OFFENSIVE AGAINST GLOBAL ENVIRONMENTAL MOVEMENT ⚫ CORPORATE COUNTEROFFENSIVE – TN CORPORATE COMMUNITY HIJACKS ALL SUBSEQUENT UN SPONSORED INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCES AND NEGOTIATIONS [CLIMATE PROCESS COINCIDES WITH CORPORATE GLOBALIZATION PROCESS] ⚫ ⚫ ⚫ ⚫ ⚫ ⚫ ⚫ ⚫ UNCED/CONFERENCES LEGITIMATE VERY PROCESSES AND FORCES THAT GENERATE ECOLOGICAL HOLOCAUST JOHANNESBURG 2002 – RIO + 10, RATIFIED “MARKET SOLUTION”, SO DID SUBSEQUENT MEETINGS U.S. WITHDRAWS FROM KYOTO PROTOCOL AND CONVENTION ON BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY TRUMP WITHDRAWS US FROM PARIS ACCORD WHY FAILURE OF RIO/J’BURG? FOSTER: “MAIN LESSON…NO POSSIBILITY FOR EFFECTIVE MOVEMENT FOR SOCIAL JUSTICE AND SUSTAINABILITY SEPARATE FROM STRUGGLE TO CREATE ALTERNATIVE SOCIETY” SHARP DETERIORATION OF ENVIRONMENT 1992-2002-2015 CORPORATE GREENWASH MANIC AND IMPLACABLE LOGIC OF GLOBAL CAPITALISM – LAWRENCE SUMMERS, THIRD WORLD “UNDERPOLLUTED” ENVIRONMENTAL RACISM, ENVIRONMENTAL IMPERIALISM LAWRENCE SUMNERS, WORLD BANK CHIEF ECONOMIST MEMO TO BANK PRESIDENT, 1994 • “THE ECONOMIC LOGIC BEHIND DUMPTING A LOAD OF TOXIC WASTE IN THE LOWEST WAGE COUNTRIES IS IMPECCABLE, AND WE SHOULD FACE UP TO THAT…JUST BETWEEN YOU AND ME, SHOULDN’T THE WORLD BANK BE ENCOURAGING MORE MIGRATION OF DIRTY INDUSTRIES TO THE LDCs?…I’VE ALWAYS THOUGHT THAT THE UNDERPOPULATED COUNTRIES OF AFRICA ARE VASTLY UNDERPOLLUTED; THEIR AIR QUALITY IS PROBABLY VASTLY INEFFICIENTLY LOW COMPARED TO LOS ANGELES OR MEXICO CITY” • GOES ON TO EXPLAIN: SINCE CHILD MORTALITY HIGH AND LIFE-EXPECTANCY LOW, POLLUTION SHOULD BE LESS OF A PROBLEM • MOVED TO TREASURY DEPT. AS DIRECTOR OF INT. AFFAIRS FOR CLINTON, THEN HARVARD, THEN TO OBAMA CAMPAIGN, THEN CHIEF OF WHITE HOUSE ECONOMIC COUNCIL • GLOBAL CAPITALISM & ENVIRONMENTAL RACISM ENVIRONMENTAL RACISM ENVIRONMENTAL DEVASTATION THIRD WORLD, GLOBAL CLIMATE REFUGEES ⚫ ⚫ ⚫ ⚫ ⚫ EFFECTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE MOST IMPACTS ALREADY-VULNERALBE THIRD WORLD NATIONS THAT HAVE NOT SIGNIFICANTLY CONTRIBUTED TO GLOBAL WARMING (E.G., SAHEL IN AFRICA, CENTRAL AMERICA) E.G., LAT, 9/23/18: “IN AFRICA, HERDERS AND FARMERS ARE FIGHTING AS LAKE CHAD EVAPORATES, WHILE DROUGHT HAS NEARLY WIPED OUT ZIMBABWE’S STAPLE CROP, MAIZE. IN INDIA, RAINS FLOODED KERALA STATE AT RECORD LEVELS, WHILE RISING SEAS ARE NIPPING AWAY AT LOW LYING ISLANDS IN THE CENTRAL PACIFIC” 65 MILLION REFUGEES NOW AROUND GLOBE – MANY OF THEM CLIMATE REFUGEES “REFUGEE INTERNATIONAL”: AN ESTIMATED 20 MILLION PEOPLE ARE UPROOTED ANNUALLY BY ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS GLOBAL CLIMATE REFUGEES FACE HOSTILE ENVIRONMENT IN RICH COUNTRIES, AND EVEN REGIONALLY AND WITHIN THEIR NATIONS WHEN THEY BECOME CLIMATE REFUGEES GLOBAL ENVIRONMENTAL MOVEMENT: 5 APPROACHES ⚫ MAINSTREAM ELITE ECOLOGY (GROUP OF 10) – ⚫ DEFENDERS OF WILDLIFE, ENVIRONMENTAL DEFENSE FUND, AUDUBON SOCIETY, NATIONAL WILDLIFE FEDERATION, NATURAL RESOURCE DEFENSE COUNCIL, SIERRA CLUB, WILDERNESS SOCIETY NON-CONFRONTATIONAL, SOCIOECONOMIC SYSTEM ACCEPTABLE, JUST REGULATE RESOURCES HEGEMONY IN GLOBAL ENVIRONMENTAL MOVT., WITH NEXT (E.G, AL GORE) HEAVILY FUNDED BY CORP0RATIONS – INVITE CORPORATE CEO’S TO THEIR BOARDS, THEY INVEST IN ENERGY COMPANIES, FINANCED BY FOUNDATIONS TIED TO ENERGY (KLEIN, THIS CHANGES EVERYTHING) POPULIST MIDDLE-CLASS ECOLOGY – – CHANGE LIFESTYLE SLIGHTLY SOLUTIONS NOT COME FROM CHANGING POLITICAL, SOCIAL, AND ECONOMIC STRUCTURES, BUT FROM NONCONFRONTATIONAL, “INDIVIDUAL RESPONSIBILITY” APPROACH (BE FRUGAL, RECYCLE, BIKE TO WORK, ETC.) ESSENTIALLY – PERSONAL BEHAVIOR MODIFICATION RATHER THAN SOCIAL CHANGE COMPLEMENTS HEGEMONY OF ELITE ECOLOGY MOVT. 5 APPROACHES, CONT… ⚫ RADICAL ECOLOGY – ⚫ ENVIRONMENTAL JUSTICE MOVEMENT – ⚫ MORE MIDDLE-CLASS UTOPIAN THAN RADICAL DEEP ECOLOGY EARTH FIRST! ECO-FEMINISM (SPIRITUALITY) SOCIAL ECOLOGY GAIA – CYBERNETICS KEY POINT: NO CONFRONTATION WITH POWERS THAT BE, NO MASS SOCIAL MOVILIZATION, NO CRITIQUE OF GLOBAL CAPITALISM, NO LINKAGE TO POPULAR AND WORKERS’ STRUGGLES AROUND WORLD ENVIRONMENTAL AND SOCIAL CRISES ONE AND THE SAME LINKS CREATION OF JUST SOCIETY FREE FROM EXPLOITATION AND DOMINATION AND ECONOMIC SYSTEM WHICH IS SUSTAINABLE AND ENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY NOTE: MOST HIGHLY POLLUTING ACTIVITIES LOCATED IN POOR AND RACIALLY MINORITY COMMUNITY AND/OR IN THIRD WORLD (NATIVE AMERICAN, BLACK INNER-CITY AND RURAL, CHICANO, BORDER, MISSISSIPPI AND CANCER ALLEY, THIRD WORLD SOCIAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL RESISTANCE MOVEMENTS – TRANSFORMATION OF GLOBAL ECONOMIC SYSTEM MASS SOCIAL MOVEMENTS E.G., CHIPLO MOVT. IN CENTRAL HIMALAYA REGION OF INDIA, MILITANT SMALL FARMERS MOVEMENT FOR COMMUNITY RIGHTS AND CONTROL OF FORESTS IN THAILAND; GREEN BELT MOVT. IN KENTY, OGONI IN NIGERIA, INDIGENOUS IN ECUADOR, CHICO MENDEZ AND RUBBER TAPPERS, ETC. Growth of foundation support for the Environmental Movement, 1970-2000 Year Total Amount Given (in millions USD) Distribution of Grants (in percentage) Number of G 1970 0.8 — 1980 2.9 — 1990 17.6 — 2000 71.6 — Preservation 27.6 38.5 Liberal Environmentalism 19.9 27.8 Conservation 8.7 12.2 Wildlife Management 3.6 5.1 Environmental Justice 1.1 1.5 Deep Ecology 0.8 1.2 Ecotheology 0.5 0.6 Ecofeminism 0.1 0.2 Discursive frame for 2000 Grants ENVIRONMENTAL JUSTICE MOVEMENT RISE OF GLOBAL ENVIRONMENTAL MOVEMENT AS EXEMPLARY T.N. SOCIAL MOVEMENT, KEY CHALLENGES: ENVIRONMENT AND TN CORPORATE ORDER, ENVIRONMENT AND SOCIAL JUSTICE NOEMI KLEIN, “THIS CHANGES EVERYTHING: CAPITALISM VS THE CLIMATE: “NO ONE IS COMING TO SAVE US…CLIMATE CHANGE HAS BECOME AN EXISTENTIAL CRISIS FOR THE HUMAN SPECIES”….DEADLY CONVERGENCE OF “SAVAGELY UNJUST ECONOMIC SYSTEM AND A DESTABILIZED CLIMATE SYSTEM” SUNRISE MOVEMENT: YOUTH CLIMATE CHANGE ACTIVISTS GREEN NEW DEAL EXTINCTION REBELLION MOVEMENT AGAINST DAPL STANDING ROCK 2016 DAKOTA WATER PROTECTORS GLOBALIZATION AND RESISTANCE: FEMINISM AND THE GLOBAL WOMEN’S MOVEMENT WOMEN’S STATUS IN GLOBAL SOCIETY ◼ ◼ ◼ ◼ ◼ ◼ INEQUALITY BETWEEN MEN AND WOMEN FUNDAMENTAL FACT OF GLOBAL SOCIETY SYSTEMS OF MALE DOMINATION AND GENDER INEQUALITY PREDATE CAPITALISM BUT WOMEN’S STATUS DETERIORATED STEEPLY UNDER COLONIALISM AND WORLD CAPITALISM CONTRADICTORY EXPERIENCE UNDER GLOBALIZATION – DEEPENING INEQUALITY ALONGSIDE FORMAL EQUALITY, + INCREASING CLASS DIFFERENTIATION AMONG WOMEN (CLASS AND GENDER) WOMEN = 2/3RDS OF WORLD’S WORK, 1/10TH OF WORLD’S INCOME, – 1/100TH OF WORLD’S PROPERTY 75% OF MEN’S WAGES WOMEN ABSENT FROM TOP DECISION-MAKING POSITIONS PRODUCTION & REPRODUCTION: GENDERED DIVISION OF LABOR Reproductive labor that is unpaid Centrality of economic control, control over women’s labor and bodies, to systems of male domination AND to systems of capital accumulation class and gender are inseparable NOTE: social reproduction labor part of creation of value…it is a subsidy to capital! Occupational sexsegregation profitable: Reproduction and production of workers and reproduction of workers for capital. Patel and Moore: “the demands for this care to be performed cheaply helped to refashion older patriarchies and produced modern categories of sex and gender difference in capitalism’s ecology” Excerpts from Engels “The Origins of the Family, Private Property, and the State” “The first class opposition that appears in history coincides with the development of the antagonism between man and woman in monogamous marriage. In the great majority of cases today, at least in the possessing classes, the husband is obliged to earn a living and support his family, and that in itself gives him a positon of supremacy, without any need for special legal titles and privileges. Within the family, he is the bourgeois and the wife represents the proletariat…. With the transfer of the means of production into common ownership, the single family ceases to be the economic unit of society. Private housekeeping is transformed into a social industry. The care and education of the children becomes a public affair; society looks after all children alike, whether they are legitimate or not. This removes all the anxiety about the consequences, which today is the most essential social – moral as well as economic – factor that prevents a girl from giving herself completely to the man she loves…. What we can now conjecture about the way in which sexual relations will be ordered after the impending overthrow of capitalist production is mainly of a negative character, limited for the most part to what will disappear. But what will there be new? That will be answered when a new generation has grown up; a generation of men who never in their lives have known what it is to buy a woman’s surrender with money or any other social instrument of power; a generation of women who have never known what it is to give themselves to a man from any other consideration than real love, or to refuse to give themselves to their lover from fear of the economic consequences.” WOMEN IN THE GLOBALIZATION PROCESS ◼ ◼ ◼ ◼ ◼ ◼ ◼ CONSENSUS: GLOBALIZATION AFFECTS MEN AND WOMEN DIFFERENTLY. TRENDS UNDERWAY: “FEMINIZATION OF WORK”: MASSIVE ENTRANCE OF WOMEN INTO FORMAL LABOR FORCE PROLETARIANIZATION, DECLINE IN WAGES AND SOCIAL WAGE PUSHES WOMEN TO SEEK JOBS CONCENTRATION IN GLOBAL ECONOMIC CIRCUITS, NIDL SEXUAL DIVISION OF LABOR IN FAMILY EXTENDED TO GLOBAL LABOR MARKET, SEX-SEGMENTED LABOR MARKETS SEX-SEGMENTED GLOBAL LABOR MARKETS – TN CAPITAL TAKES ADVANTAGE DOUBLE SEGMENTATION – SEX AND INTERNATIONAL (SEE NEXT SLIDE] : WOMEN DISPROPORTIONATELY IN INFORMAL SECTOR NEO-LIBERALISM AND DETERIORIATION OF STATUS OF WOMEN AND INTENSIFICATION OF “DOUBLE” AND “TRIPLE” BURDEN “FEMINIZATION OF POVERTY” THESIS (CRISIS OF FAMILY SOCIAL REPRODUCTION, ESTIMATED 70% OF POOR ARE WOMEN) WOMEN AS OPTIMAL LABOR …