Troy University Insects and Dichotomous Key Partial Lab Report

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All the content is in the file below. Only required introduction and method, it is a partial lab report.

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Introduction to Insect Behavior What is behavior  Behavior is any action that an individual carries out in response to a stimulus or its environment, especially an action that can be observed and described. Common Behavior of Insects  Attraction to light  WHY??  Phototactic What does this have to do with what we are doing? Light Trapping  Common method for collection of adults insects  Exploits insects phototactic behaviors Treatments What will we find?  Lepidoptera  Trichoptera  Neuroptera  Diptera Lepidoptera  Butterflies and Moths  Likely only going to see moths Trichoptera  Caddisflies Neuroptera  Lacewings (net-winged insects) Diptera  True flies  Almost everything you consider to be a fly and more Before set up Create a hypothesis and predictions  Develop a hypothesis within your group regarding the Density and Diversity between the two light treatments. Set up Report Section Criteria Possible Pts Header Name, Section, Title, Date, Location with coordinates, Physical Conditions 0.05 Appropriate introduction and explanation of background information that frames your experiment Introduction Methods References Total Reference and incorporation of published study (Minimum of 2) on a related study from a peer-reviewed journal Inclusion hypothesis and predictions in the appropriate position Complete coherent sentences, correct grammar and punctuation, proper word choice complete methodology for both field and Laboratory components Inclusion of images to depict methodology Appropriate references Proper format for journal article and other references. References should be in AMA Format. http://library.nymc.edu/informatics/amastyle.cfm 5 2 0.95 1 3 1 1 1 15 Points Earned z Introduction to Insects p2 z What makes an insect an insect? ▪ Six legs / three pairs of legs ▪ Three body sections ▪ Thorax ▪ Abdomen ▪ Head ▪ Compound eyes ▪ Two pairs of wings (One may be extremely reduced or May be hardened) z Anatomy of Insects z How do you identify an insect? ▪ Know what it is inherently ▪ Ask your local entomologist ▪ Look it up z Looking up an insect identification ▪ Pictures ▪ ▪ Pictures suck and are wrong most of the time Dichotomous key ▪ Best idea ▪ What entomologists will use z Using a dichotomous key ▪ Follow the instructions ▪ Open you order key Identify this insect’s order z z z z z What is it? ▪ Lepidoptera ▪ Luna Moth (Actias luna) Kentucky 4-H Entomology KEY TO COMMON INSECT ORDERS Objectives Kentucky 4-H entomology projects involve collecting, identifying, and labeling insects. The purpose of this guide is to help you: • accurately identify insect orders. • learn basic information about common insect orders. • gain experience in using a scientific key. What is a Key? In science and biology, a “key” is a written tool used for accurate identification of such things as plants, animals, and rocks. In this guide, the key is used to identify insect orders. What is an Insect Order? For your 4-H entomology collection, you need to know to which “order” each of your insects belongs. As you may have learned in science or biology class, an “order” is a group of related animals. All mammals, for example, belong to the order Mammalia. Because there are so many different kinds of insects (1 million and counting), they are divided up into over 30 different orders. You are probably familiar with many common insect orders already. All of the flies (including house flies, mosquitoes, horse flies, and others) belong to the order Diptera. All moths and butterflies are in the order Lepidoptera. The beetles are in Coleoptera. These are just a few examples. The key included in this guide will give you the characteristics to accurately tell the difference between insect orders. With a little practice, you will be able to recognize most insects without using a key. Taking a Closer Look Because insects are so small, seeing the differences between them is difficult, and from a distance many insects look very similar. But when you examine them more closely, the differences are easier to see. Keep this in mind when you are trying to identify insects in your collection: to get an accurate identification, and to see many of the characters mentioned in the key, you may have to hold an insect close to your eyes or use a magnifying glass or a microscope. Why Use a Key? Sometimes, you can identify an insect quickly by comparing it to pictures in field guides or on the Internet. Pictures are a great tool, but the use of a key is essential to guarantee that your identification is accurate. Why? Because some insects, even ones from separate orders, can look almost exactly alike. 1 Example: there are many flies (order Diptera) that look almost exactly like wasps (order Hymenoptera). But if you use a key to identify your fly, you will find that it has 1 pair of wings: all flies have 1 pair of wings and wasps have 2 pairs of wings. Key to Adult Insects Only Remember – immature insects and adult insects are often very different. The key included in this guide is only useful for keying adult insects to order. Also, this key does not cover other creatures related to insects, like spiders, sowbugs, and centipedes. Note: there are a few insect orders which are not included on the key at all. These orders are either extremely rare, or are not found in Kentucky. Insect Body Parts To use this key you will need to know the basic anatomy – the body parts – of insects. Use this labeled picture of a grasshopper as a reference when the key asks you to look at certain body parts. Most insects will have all of these body parts, with a few exceptions (many insects don’t have wings, for example, and most insects other than grasshoppers and crickets do not have ears). How to Use a Key Scientific keys are designed like “choose-your-own-adventure” books. As you read the key, you will choose which part of the key to read next based on what your insect looks like. A key begins at number “1″ with a set of paired, numbered statements called a couplet. Each of the two statements in a couplet is lettered with an “a” or a “b: ” The statements are in contrast with each other: that is, they are different from each other. The insect you are looking at should agree with either “a” or “b,” but not with both. When you choose the statement that agrees with what your insect looks like, you will be given a different number. This number tells you what couplet you should read next. You then make another choice, and proceed in this way until the name of an insect order appears at the end of the statement you choose. You can then turn to the page of that insect order to check your accuracy in using the key. 2 It’s simpler than it sounds. With practice, you will find this key very easy to use. Let’s try it with something you already know: a butterfly. Start at couplet “1.” Read both “a” and “b.” Since the butterfly has wings, pick statement b. The end of b tells you to go to couplet number 17. Read 17: since a butterfly has 2 pairs of wings, choose b, which leads to couplet 18. Since the front and back wings are the same texture, pick b, which leads to couplet 24. Butterflies have scaly wings and coiled tongues, so pick a, which tells you the order name, Lepidoptera. Practice! Use the key to find out what order the insects pictures below belong to. The correct path through the key for the insect on the left is: 1a, 2b, 3b, 4a, 5b, 6b; this places the insect in the order PHTHIRAPTERA (lice). The correct path for the insect on the right is: 1b, 17b, 18b, 24b, 25b, 26b, 27a, 28a, 30b, 31a – MECOPTERA (scorpionflies). 3 Key to Order: Common Adult Insects 1 a. Without wings; all of the abdominal segments visible in a top view of the insect……………………………………..2 b. With wings; wings may be difficult to see because the flying wings are hidden by hard wing covers (as with beetles). In these cases, the wing covers lie over the back and hide all of or parts of the abdomen………………………………………………………………………17 2 a. Without legs, eyes, or antennae; living under a waxy or cottony covering and occurring in colonies firmly attached to tree twigs, fruit, or leaves (e.g. scale insects)……………………………………………………………………………………………Order 15 HOMOPTERA b. Legs, antennae, and (usually) eyes present…………………………………………………………………………………………..3 3 a. Abdomen ending in three long, thread-like tails; antennae long………………………………Order 2 THYSANURA b. Abdomen without long tails; antennae may be long or short…………………………………………………………………..4 4 a. Antennae are shorter than the head, and not easily seen; body flattened from side-to-side or from top-to-bottom; parasites on animals………………………………………………………………………..5 b. Antennae longer than the head, easily seen; not usually parasites…………………………………………………………….7 5 a. Body flattened from side-to-side; legs long and able to jump; with sucking mouthparts……………………………………………………………………………………..Order 21 SIPHONAPTERA b. Body flattened from top-to-bottom; legs short and not able to jump………………………………………………………..6 6 a. Abdomen sac-like and without distinct segments; eyes clearly visible; tarsi 5-segmented; about 1 cm long; sheep parasites……………………………………………………Order 20 DIPTERA b. Abdominal segments distinct; eyes small or absent; tarsi 1- to 2-segmented; less than 1/8 inch long…………………………………………………………………………………Order 13 PHTHIRAPTERA 7 a. Body strongly constricted between the thorax and abdomen……………………………Order 24 HYMENOPTERA b. Thorax and abdomen broadly joined……………………………………………………………………………………………………8 8 a. Body scaly; a coiled tongue sometimes visible; usually found on tree trunks…………………………………………………………………………………………………………..Order 23 LEPIDOPTERA b. Body not scaly………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….9 4 9 a. With a sucking beak; the beak of some may seem to come from between the front legs………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………10 b. Beak absent, chewing mouthparts……………………………………………………………………………………………………11 10 a. With 2 tube-like projections near the end of the abdomen; soft-bodied and living in colonies on plants; antennae long; beak arises near the front legs…………………….Order 15 HOMOPTERA b. Without tube-like projections on abdomen; beak arises from front of head…………….Order 14 HEMIPTERA 11 a. Tarsi either 5-segmented or the hind legs adapted for jumping……………………………………………………………12 b. Tarsi with less than 5 segments and the hind legs not adapted for jumping…………………………………………..14 12 a. Hind legs adapted for jumping…………………………………………………………………………Order 5 ORTHOPTERA b. Hind legs not adapted for jumping…………………………………………………………………………………………………..13 13 a. Body flattened from top-to-bottom, head hidden from above by thorax……………………Order 8 BLATTARIA b. Body stick-like, not flattened; head not hidden by thorax…………………………………………Order 6 PHASMIDA 14 a. Ant-like appearance, except with soft, white bodies; 4-segmented tarsi; eyeless; antennae resemble a string of round beads; thorax and abdomen are broadly joined…………………………………………………………………………………………………Order 9 ISOPTERA b. Not fitting the description of 15a; eyes usually well-developed…………………………………………………………..15 15 a. With a forked tail near the end of the body used for jumping; this tail may be folded under the body…………………………………………………………………..Order 1 COLLEMBOLA b. Without a forked tail………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………16 16 a. Oval-shaped and louse-like in appearance; antennae long, thread-like…………………Order 12 PSOCOPTERA b. Body narrow; found on leaves and flowers…………………………………………………Order 16 THYSANOPTERA 17 a. With only one pair of wings, the hind pair reduced to small structures that resemble golf tees…………………………………………………………………………………………..Order 20 DIPTERA b. With two pairs of wings, although the first pair may be hardened and do not function in flight (as with beetles)……………………………………………………………………………………………………18 5 18 a. Front wings thicker in texture than hind wings for all or part of their area……………………………………………19 b. Front and hind wings both of the same texture throughout………………………………………………………………….24 19 a. Front wings hard or leathery in texture throughout and almost always meeting in a straight line down the center of the back…………………………………………………………………………………….20 b. Front wings parchment-like or leathery throughout or on the basal half only – they do not meet in a straight line down the center of the back. In the lace bugs, the entire top of the insect resembles lace………………………………………………………………………….21 20 a. Front wings short, leaving much of the abdomen exposed; a pair of pincher-like appendages extend from the end of the abdomen…………………………..Order 10 DERMAPTERA b. Front wings usually cover all of the abdomen; never with abdominal appendages…………………………………………………………………………………………………..Order 18 COLEOPTERA 21 a. With a jointed beak; basal part of the wing thickened and the tip membranous. Antennae with 5 or less segments………………………………………………………………………Order 14 HEMIPTERA b. With chewing mouthparts; front wings parchment-like throughout; antennae with many segments………………………………………………………………………………………………………….22 22 a. Hind legs adapted for jumping…………………………………………………………………………Order 5 ORTHOPTERA b. Hind legs not adapted for jumping…………………………………………………………………………………………………..23 23 a. Front legs adapted for capturing prey (praying mantises)……………………………………….Order 7 MANTODEA b. Front legs not adapted for prey; body flattened from top-to-bottom; head hidden from above by thorax……………………………………………………………………….Order 8 BLATTARIA 24 a. Wings with scales on all or part of their area; mouthparts in the form of a coiled “tongue”…………………………………………………………………….Order 23 LEPIDOPTERA b. Wings without scales, although they may have hairs………………………………………………………………………….25 25 a. Wings long, narrow, veinless, and all 4 are of equal size and have fringes with long hairs; small insects about 1/10 inch long; tarsi 1- or 2-segmented……………………………………………………………………………..Order 16 THYSANOPTERA b. Not fitting the description in 22a……………………………………………………………………………………………………..26 6 26 a. Mouthparts composed of a beak arising far back on the underside of the head near the front legs; wings held roof-like over the body, the hind pair smaller than the front pair…………………………………………………………………………Order 15 HOMOPTERA b. Mouthparts not in the form of a piercing beak, although the front of the head may be prolonged into a long snout; wings not held roof-like over the body; usually the hind pair of wings are about the same size as the front pair OR the abdomen has 2 or 3 long, thread-like tails………………………………………………………………………………27 27 a. With many cross-veins (more than 15) in each wing………………………………………………………………………….28 b. With few cross-veins, or the veins are indistinct………………………………………………………………………………..32 28 a. Antennae about as long as the head and thorax together, or longer………………………………………………………30 b. Antennae short and bristle-like, about as long as head alone or shorter………………………………………………..29 29 a. Hind wings much smaller than front wing; occasionally, hind wings absent; abdomen ending in 2 or 3 long, thread-like tails……………………………….Order 3 EPHEMEROPTERA b. Front and hind wings nearly equal in size; no abdominal tails…………………………………..Order 4 ODONATA 30 a. Abdomen ending with 2 short tails………………………………………………………………….Order 11 PLECOPTERA b. Abdomen without tails……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………31 31 a. Head prolonged into a snout; the tip of the abdomen sometimes resembles a scorpion tail………………………………………………………………………………………………..Order 19 MECOPTERA b. Head not prolonged into a snout…………………………………………………………………….Order 17 NEUROPTERA 32 a. All four wings long, narrow, equal-sized, without distinct veins; wings about twice the body length…………………………………………………………………………………………….Order 9 ISOPTERA b. Not fitting the description in 33a……………………………………………………………………………………………………..33 33 a. Wings hairy; antennae thread-like and usually as long as or longer than the body; mouthparts indistinct; front and hind wings nearly equal in size…………Order 22 TRICHOPTERA b. Wings not hairy; chewing mouthparts present; hind wings noticeably smaller than the front wings…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….34 7 34 a. Tarsi 2- or 3-segmented; small insects less than 1/8 inch long. Never constricted between the thorax and the abdomen………………………………….. …