Identify the similarities and differences of Aristotle’s virtues theory with Josephson’s core values model. In either case, are the behaviors they outline duties to the self or duties to others? If to others, which others? To what degree do these mimic or reinforce existing law? To what degree might these conflict with existing law? Illustrate these last two with examples.
DIRECTIONS: RESPOND TO 5 CLASSMATES Your responses to other’s posts clearly seek to expand, clarify, or question the original post and are not repetitive of others’ responses. More than the minimum number of responses are made with enough time for others to take note of your comments and reply. 150 WORDS
Aristotle’s virtue ethics and Josephson’s core values are similar in certain ways but different in others. The primary similarity between these two is that they are both based upon virtues and ethical standards. Additionally, Aristotle’s fourteen virtues, including truthfulness, courage, friendliness, and justice are similar to Josephson’s core values of respect, responsibility, care, and trustworthiness (Mayer, et al.,2014). Also, the virtues theory and the core values model are both applicable to different organizational issues. Despite these similarities, the two were invented at different times in history for unique purposes. One difference between the two is that virtue ethics constitutes one list of dependent values. However, Josephson’s core values constitute two lists that are independent of each other.
In both Aristotle’s virtue ethics and Josephson’s core values, the behaviors outline duties to others. For instance, one should be respectful, caring, friendly, and be fair to others (Mayer, et al.,2014). The others in both refer to the other individuals around someone. In an organizational setting, it means co-workers, management, customers, and other third parties. In a societal setting, it refers to fellow members of the society such as family members, neighbors, friends, and strangers. Essentially, it describes people, the people who one’s behavior can affect directly or indirectly. Some of Aristotle’s values also outline behaviors that demonstrate duty to self, such as temperance and modesty.
It is critical to note that the law is separate from ethics. Moral ethics and law are two different concepts. In certain cases, something that is legal may be unethical in a specific society and vice versa. Josephson’s core values significantly reinforce the existing laws. For instance, it enforces truthfulness and trustworthiness. It encourages people to tell the truth just as the law does when it comes to court proceedings. It also encourages people to play by the rules, obeying the law, and generally acting as good citizens. Essentially, it helps reinforce the law by creating a sense of ethics where people feel it is their responsibility to behave in a particular manner and follow the law. The core values may conflict with existing laws in one way. Under trustworthiness, it encourages demonstrative integrity where people should stand up for what they believe in (Mayer, et al.,2014). Standing up for what one believes in is not wrong. However, if the beliefs are misguided and wrong, then people may end up committing crimes. For instance, if one believes that murder is right then this core value encourages the person to commit murder.
Virtue ethics also partially reinforce the law. It does so by encouraging justice and truthfulness (Mayer, et al.,2014). Justice is the basis of the law, and as such, the law constantly advocates for justice and seeks to promote it. While it is not illegal to tell lies, the law sometimes requires that one tells the truth. For instance, when someone is a witness to a crime, truthfulness is critical to promote justice. Justice is also vital to the law. One value that may conflict with the existing law is high-mindedness. The law encourages that all people receive equal treatment. For instance, dismissing specific individuals in an organization may give rise to discrimination that is illegal and against the Fair Labor Standards Act.
I believe the main similarity between Aristotle’s virtues theory and Josephson’s core values model is that they both advocate and encourage for individuals to have and apply ethical behavior both in their personal being and in their workplace. I believe the main difference between Aristotle’s virtues theory and Josephson’s core values model is that Aristotle’s main purpose of virtues is to reach an end result or a goal. Josephson’s core values model essentially means that individuals have core values that apply both to their personal life and corporate life. I actually believe that both Aristotle’s virtues theory and Josephson’s core values model outline duties to the self and duties to others. I believe Aristotle’s virtues theory can be a duty to other’s because a certain goal that someone could have to make themselves happy, may have to do with someone else’s happiness or attention. I believe Josephson’s core values model can be a duty to other’s as well because people’s qualities and characteristics can make an impact on the way people view them. To an extent, I believe that both Aristotle’s virtues theory and Josephson’s core values model mimic or reinforce existing law. Aristotle’s virtues theory can mimic or reinforce existing laws because his theory is based on the ethical value of certain qualities, or virtues, in a person’s character (Mayer et al., 2014). Aristotle’s virtues theory may conflict with existing laws because of the end results that make some people happy, or some goals that people set, can be completely unethical and illegal. I believe those are rarer cases, but they’re still relevant. A thought that comes to mind is the Columbine High School massacre. I watched a documentary on it from the viewpoint of Dylan Klebold’s, one of the shooters, mother. In the documentary it was explained that these horrible, incredibly negative and dark thoughts were his happiness. Dylan felt most confident and “happy” when he was in a dark state of mind, and hence the result in the shooting. As I mentioned, I believe these cases are, thankfully, rarer, but nonetheless still cases. Josephson’s core values model can mimic or reinforce existing laws because his theory is based on individual’s core values and their decision processes based on their core values. Josephson’s core value model may conflict with existing laws because there are times when people feel as though their core values are being violated with certain laws and their rights. A thought that comes to mind, and was also mentioned in the text, are political figures. The text lists Eliot Spitzer and Bill Clinton as examples, but I (sadly) believe all political figures have to bend some ways and go through secret loops in order to “maintain” their status-quo.
Identify the similarities and differences of Aristotle’s virtues theory with Josephson’s core values model. In either case, are the behaviors they outline duties to the self or duties to others? If to others, which others?
When reviewing the list of theories amongst both Aristotle and Josephson’s, some of the similarities that I notice between the two would be acting fair. Along with Josephson’s core values, according to Aristotle one of his theories includes righteous indignation, and this is maintaining a balance of your emotions” (Mayer 2012). Those who remain fair typically have emotion or passion behind what they are discussing but also are able to maintain an open mind and make decisions not just based on emotion or over-reaction. Same holds true as Aristotle mentions moderation between consuming food and beverages, moderation ensures others have opportunity to consume, this is also another layer of fair treatment. All but a few of Aristotle’s theories are characteristics of a good leader, but I still find them to be more self-involved than the ones of Josephson’s. Josephson’s are more focused on those who are the followers of that individual but also core values of the company people would want to work for. The text talks about organizations having to clearly define such competencies in order to maintain them and be successful. Clearly defining these values, also helps to ensure that the organization is hiring those who are like minded and share the same values.
To what degree do these mimic or reinforce existing law?
These mimic law in that each person is expected to maintain at least some level of respect not just to their peers but also to law enforcement and other governmental officials. This also pertains to law since employers are able to be put into litigation for the wrongdoings or mistreatment of employees. Having these core values mapped out and also implemented into company policy can help to ensure that they remain compliant with the ever changing rule and regulations set forth by labor officials. For instance if the company is consistent with enforcing the policies and being fair to all employees, typically they can show the disciplinary succession which led to termination. Just like law, a written record is required to move forward with the consequences.
To what degree might these conflict with existing law? Illustrate these last two with examples.
One instance of these values conflicting with current law would be justice. How is that clearly defined? As the text states, not everyone’s perception of justice is the same. Crimes that are committed may not warrant an equal punishment for everyone and certain facts may chance the length of the punishment. This may seem like it is injustice, and it’s possible that it is. Another conflicting example would be magnificence. There are laws regarding paying taxes on the funds that you work for. This deduction from wages could limit one’s ability to live comfortably.
1. Courage 2. Moderation 3. Spend Money Well 4. Live Well 5. Pride 6. High-Mindedness 7. Unamed Vitrue 8. Concern for Others 9. Truthfullness 10. Wit 11. Friendliness 12. Pleasure in Personal Conduct 13. Righteous Indignation 14. Justice
Josephesons Six Core Values:
1. Trustworthiness 2. respect 3. Responsibility 4. Fairness 5. Caring 6. Citizenship
I think that Aristotles virtues were geared more toward a personal improvement. Our in more of his words, goals. Whereas Josephsons (this is a wierd name to say and spell!) are more geared towards an ethical treatment projected towards others. The text utilized an explanation that some folks approved of being good-looking as a core value but that really isnt an ethic. After all the studies were conducted, the six permanent values remained as purely ethical without question.
It cannot be denied that Aristotle also had outward projecting motivations here as #8 is about a concern for others. Quite frankly, so is truthfullness, friendliness and numerous others. This is a similarity between the two schools of thought. Additionally, are these not ALL aspirations? Are these not ALL self-improvement? Are these not ALL aspects that would make anybody a better person? Both thoughts are an excellent blueprint in how to improve ones self. And as silly as it sounds Michael Jackson said it best. Start with the Man in the Mirror and the rest of the world will follow suite.
To progress through the question, I think there are some oppurtunities to reinforce law. If a judge is deciding a child custody battle and gives the kid primarily to the mother simply because shes the female, that isnt coinciding with fairness. Or what about an example of charging a white man with a hate crime if he beats up a black man, but not the other way around? That would violate true justice. Sometimes these schools of thought could conflict with existing law. Illegal immigration is a hot topic issue right now. Without doubt, there are more than enough examples of illegals being able to reside in the USA and thereby breaking its own laws and the 6th Core Value.
Virtues and values play a big role in our day to day lives; they can shape how people view us, what companies want to hire us and the relationships that we build. While Aristotle’s virtues theory may seem a bit outdated now (because courage in battle is something only soldiers can claim, and magnificence is reserved for royalty) but he had a sound idea that virtuous qualities shape who a person is instead of rules or results. Similar to this, Josephson identifies 6 qualities that seem to be universally recognized as desirable in ourselves, coworkers, friends, and companions. Their virtues are what define them, not the rules or results.
Another similarity between Aristotle and Josephson is that they both highlight ethical and moral qualities over more ego-centrical, selfish qualities. Josephson’s values all revolve around duties to others. Aristotle’s virtues of truthfulness, gentleness, wit, friendliness and justice all focus on how to act around other and treat other people. While Aristolte’s other virtues, such as liberality, temperance, and high-mindedness outline duties to the self, they are still deemed ethical. For example, a people who is liberal with their money is deemed more responsible and not a frivolous person. While this value focuses on the self, it is still a moral virtue to possess.
Josephson and Aristotle’s theories are applied very differently to the business world because of their differences in focusing on the self versus on others. Josephson’s ideas can more easily be applied to the business world and corporations more than Aristotle’s can. While interviewing for jobs, I have heard many times that companies are looking for trustworthy, responsible, caring employees. Not once have I heard that a company is looking for a magnificent, high-minded, and gentle employee.
Our laws revolve around doing encouraging what is moral and virtuous while discouraging what is immoral and lacking virtue. Though the virtues described by Josephson and Aristotle may not perfectly mirror our laws, they do describe a person/corporation that would not violate our laws. Murder is an example of this. While “will not murder” is not a virtue described by either ethicist, murderers do not exhibit gentleness or respect (for human life). Another example is drinking while driving; a person who is found guilty of a DUI does not display the virtues of temperance or trustworthiness.
On the other hand, a lack of temperance did not cause the DUI, but instead a lack of forethought and clear thinking did. Many people can enjoy an excessive amount of alcohol without also driving, so the lack of the virtue of temperance is not the main driver for breaking the law.
Aristotle’s virtue theory outlined fourteen virtues focused on a person’s character, with the goal being happiness. Josephson’s core values model comprises six core values that can be applied using five questions when an ethical decision must be made. A person or a corporation can make this decision. The main difference between the two (besides the number) is that Aristotle’s virtue theory was solely focused on the individual and not what the impact of their actions might be on others.
Josephson was primarily focused on how decisions or actions made by either the individual or an organization could impact stakeholders. These stakeholders could be any person or group of people who could gain or lose something from the decision. Additionally, Josephson’s core values model is only applicable when an ethical decision needs to be made, while Aristotle’s virtue theory was to be applied constantly and live a virtuous life.
Although these theories differ on the person(nel) impacted by actions or decisions, there are some similarities. For example, both are tied to ethics. Both ideas outline truthfulness – Aristotle in virtue nine and Josephson in core value one. This similarity can also be seen in virtue eight (gentleness) and core value five (caring). While Aristotle’s values may be outdated for today’s society, there is still some applicability and crossover into Josephson’s core values.
A portion of Aristotle’s virtue theory and all of Josephson’s core values reinforce existing law. In Aristotle’s list of virtues, justice is the obvious answer in supporting law, along with truthfulness and gentleness. All of Josephson’s core values can be applied to reinforce existing law. For example, trustworthiness and responsibility can be used when following the law. Respect, fairness, and caring can all be examples of supporting anti-discrimination acts. The following Aristotle virtues could be seen as conflicting with existing law: liberality, magnificence, and righteous indignation. These could all be conflicting because the virtues are focused on the self and not the impact on others. For example, for someone to obtain liberality (spending money well) or magnificence (living well), they could steal from others or conduct other illegal acts to meet the intent of those virtues.