stages of prenatal development

Zink PSY 111

Exam 2 Study Guide

Review Sessions (Not Mandatory but may be helpful)

Monday, March 26th 7 pm Psychology Building, Room 302

Tuesday, March 27th 4pm Psychology Building, Room 227

Tuesday, March 27th 7pm Psychology Building, Room 227

Chapter 11 Development:

Distinguish between the stages of prenatal development (germinal, embryonic, and fetal)

Know the effects of tobacco and other teratogens on babies

Distinguish between the cephalocaudal and proximodistal rules

Distinguish between Vygotsky’s and Piaget’s theory of cognitive development

Be familiar with the strange situation task

Distinguish between Kohlberg’s stages of moral development (pre-conventional, conventional, and post-conventional)

Distinguish between Piaget’s four stages of cognitive development (sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, and formal operational)

Know the definition of egocentrism

Be familiar with the socioemotional selectivity theory

Be familiar with the preferential looking technique

Chapter 5 Consciousness:

Know what consciousness is, it’s levels and the details and difference of consciousness’s four basic properties (intentionality, unity, selectivity, transience)

What is self-consciousness (how is it recognized ) and is it unique to human beings?

Can thoughts be suppressed and how can it backfire?

What are the two views of the of unconscious (Freud and modern and cognitive psychologists)?

What does Freud mean by dynamic unconsciousness and of repression

What are the two systems and how do they differ in the Dual Process Theory of modern cognitive unconscious?

What is subliminal perception?

What do we mean by altered states of consciousness?

What are our circadian rhythms?

Know the different stages of wake, drowsy, sleep and REM including EEG waves.

What are our basic sleep needs (across the lifespan)and the impact of sleep deprivation?

Know the duration of REM sleep during the first and second half of the night

What are the three theories of the benefits of sleep?

Be able to distinguish the different sleep disorders.

What parts of the brain are active and inactive during dreaming?

What are the five key components of dream consciousness?

Understand Freud’s theory of dreaming (manifest and latent content).

What is Activation Synthesis Theory of dreaming?

Know what psychoactive drugs are and the different categories. Be able to recognize the symptoms and effects of each category. Know what is included in each category.

Know the difference between the terms tolerance, dependence (physical and psychological) and withdrawal.

Review the Real World Impact of drugs and what is the Harm Reduction Approach.

Distinguish between the different theories that explain how alcohol affects individuals.

Understand how hypnosis varies affecting people and what it is used for.

Distinguish between the 2 effects of hypnosis: hypnotic analgesia and posthypnotic amnesia

Chapter 6 Memory:

Distinguish between the 3 ways to encode (semantic, visual imagery, and organizational) and know examples of each.

Why is survival related information important to memory?

Understand the Multi-Store Model(Atkinson & Shiffrin) of memory

Know how long information is stored in each of our three types of memory storage.

What is important for information to move between the three types of memory storage.

Understand the specifics of sensory memory (iconic & echoic)

review the key aspects of short-term memory (serial position, rote rehearsal, chunking)

Why do psychologist now see Short-Term Memory as Working Memory?

Understand the difference between working memory subsystems (Visio spatial, Phonological Loop & Episodic Buffer)

What role does the hippocampus as well as synapses (long-term potentiation) play in long-term memory?

Distinguish between retrograde and anterograde amnesia.

What is consolidation and reconsolidation?

Distinguish between the effects of retrieving information repeatedly and just studying the information repeatedly

Understand retrieval cues (external & internal states) and how they aid memory.

Distinguish between implicit and explicit memory and know examples of each.

Know the definitions of procedural memory and priming and its effects.

Understand the benefits and problems with collaborative memory.

Distinguish between the 7 types of memory failure (transience [forgetting curve], absentmindedness [attention issues], blocking, memory misattribution [source memory & false recognition], suggestibility, bias [consistency, change & a egocentric bias], and persistence) and know examples of each.

Why is emotional memory often stronger?

Chapter 7 Learning:

Know the definition of the four phases of classical conditioning (acquisition, extinction, second-order conditioning and spontaneous recovery).

Distinguish between unconditioned stimulus (US), conditioned stimulus (CS), unconditioned response (UR), and conditioned response (CR). If given an example of learning through classical conditioning, be able to identify US, CS, UR, and CR

Know what the Rescorla-Wagner model suggests about classical conditioning

Know how learned food/taste aversions occur

Distinguish between positive and negative reinforcement, and between positive and negative punishment

Know what strengthens and weakens the effect of punishment and the effect of reinforcement

Distinguish between reinforcers and punishments

Know how extinction is used in a classical conditioning experiment

Distinguish between generalization and discrimination

Know the area of the brain that is activated during eye blink and fear conditioning

Know the definition of habituation

Know the major pleasure centers of the brain and the direction that neurons pass through them

Distinguish between fixed-ratio and variable-ratio schedules

Know the study that Albert Bandura conducted

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