spontaneous

1. In an instance of _______ recovery, a conditioned response that has been extinguished reappears when a person is exposed to a related stimulus. A. incomplete B. spontaneous C. generalized D. automatic 2. You want to condition a pet pig to come running for a food reward when you blow a whistle. In the process of this conditioning effort, the main idea is to A. teach the pig to pay attention to the sound of a whistle. B. teach the pig to expect food when it’s hungry. C. pair a conditioned stimulus with an unconditioned stimulus. D. pair a neutral stimulus with an unconditioned stimulus. 3. Which of the following statements regarding latent learning is most accurate? A. Latent learning occurs without reinforcement. B. Latent learning occurs in spite of negative reinforcement. C. Latent learning doesn’t require cognitive processes. D. Latent learning suggests that environmental knowledge is genetically predetermined. 4. According to information provided in your text, circadian rhythms are associated with A. attacks of sleep apnea. B. the occurrence of anxiety attacks. C. the time of month that pregnant women are likely to go into labor. D. cycles of waking and sleeping. 5. A casino slot machine has a random chance of paying out a prize each time a wager is made. This would be an example of A. variable-ratio schedule. B. fixed-ratio schedule . C. non-variable-ratio schedule. D. random-variable ratio schedule. 6. An important reason why people forget something is that they didn’t pay much attention to it in the first place. Psychologists refer to this kind of forgetting as A. encoding failure. B. cue-dependent. C. decay. D. interference related. 7. The most frequently abused nervous system depressant is A. cocaine. B. caffeine. C. alcohol. D. marijuana. 8. After taking the drug, Rupert reported vivid hallucinations, altered perception of sounds and colors, and distorted time perception. It’s most likely that the drug Rupert took was A. LSD. B. MDMA. C. cocaine. D. marijuana. 9. Prescott is an old hand in the print shop. He insists that there’s only one dependable kind of process for printing a three-color brochure. By contrast, Baldwin recognizes several different approaches to three-color printing through the use of new digital technologies. Psychologists would say Prescott’s point of view is limited by his A. obsessive perfectionism. B. mental set. C. mental laziness. D. fundamental fixation. 10. A particular kind of neuron, called a _______ neuron, fires when we observe someone else’s behavior. A. cognitive B. mirror C. reflective D. modeling 11. During the _______ phase of problem solving, a means-ends analysis is a very common heuristic. A. preparation B. algorithm C. production D. judgment 12. While talking to Jim, Mary recalled that his birthday tomorrow. Mary wished him a happy birthday. What type of memory did Mary exhibit? A. Implicit B. Event C. Explicit D. Numerical 13. A common repetitive technique for moving new information from short-term memory to long-term memory is called A. reduction. B. selective reduction. C. elaboration. D. rehearsal. 14. A _______ reinforcement is one that satisfies a biological need. A. conditional B. positive C. primary D. neutral 15. In a lab devoted to sleep disorders, Julio points to the brain wave monitor, turns to Laura and says, “Subject is going into non-REM stage 2.” Laura looking at the monitor, says, “Got it; I’m recording the time.” What would Laura and Julio see on the monitor to assure them that the subject has entered stage 2 sleep? A. Brain waves are irregular and episodic. B. Brain waves are getting slower and more regular. C. Sleep disturbance is indicated by sharp wave spikes. D. Sleep spindles appear. 16. Which of the following would be considered an unconditioned response? A. A monkey hits a red button when exposed to a bright light in order to receive a bit of food. B. A dog barking when asked if it wants to go for a walk. C. Pulling back your hand when touching a hot stove. D. Getting excited when hearing a ring that sounds similar to the ringing of a winning casino game. 17. Which of the following statements regarding REM sleep is true? A. REM sleep occurs during stage 3 sleep. B. Dreaming causes major muscle contractions and tossing and turning. C. REM sleep occurs only during stage 4 sleep. D. Roughly 20 percent of adult sleep time is accompanied by REM. 18. You deprive your six-year-old of dessert each time he fails to eat his spinach. In this sort of _______, you weaken a response through taking away something pleasant or desired. A. positive punishment B. negative punishment C. positive reinforcement D. negative reinforcement 19. Trying to make sense of an article in the world events section of the Daily Mirror, Matlock turns to Thomas and asks, “Where’s Khartoum?” Thomas, looking up from his coffee, says, “Africa. It’s the capital of Sudan.” If you hold with the idea that long-term memory includes distinct modules, what sort of memory does Thomas’s reply indicate? A. Declarative¡ªepisodic B. Declarative¡ªsemantic C. Procedural¡ªepisodic D. Procedural¡ªsemantic 20. Natasha has been living Philadelphia for several months and is rapidly mastering the English language. However, she often turns to her American friend, Emily, when she is uncertain about a concept. One day, Natasha turns to Emily and asks, “What are you meaning when you say this word ‘vehicle’?” If you were Emily, which of these prototypes would be most likely to point to feel fairly certain that Natasha “gets it”? A. An elevator B. An automobile C. A jet liner passing overhead. D. An escalator

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