Sociological Perspectives

PSY 228

Social Psychology

Text: Social Psychology: Sociological Perspectives

Second Edition, 2011 ISBN-10: 0-205-66106-8

Autnoris). David E. Rohall, Melissa A. Milkie and Jeffrey W. Lucas

Publisher: Pearson

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Multiple Choice Questions (Enter your answers on the enclosed answer sheet)

1. Which early sociologist emphasized the role of society in the development of the self?

a. George Herbert Mead

b. Karl Marx

c. Georg Simmel

d. Herbert Blumer

2. Which sociological social psychology perspective emphasizes the role of meaning and the social construction of meaning in the study of social psychology?

a. symbolic interaction

b. social structure and personality

c. group processes

d. structural functionalism

3. Which sociological social psychology perspective is likely to emphasize the importance of roles and statuses in the study of social psychology?

a. symbolic interaction

b. social structure and personality

c. group processes

d. structural functionalism

4. Which sociological social psychology perspective is likely to emphasize the importance of interactions within groups?

a. symbolic interaction

b. social structure and personal ity

c. group processes

d. structural fu nctional ism

5. The sociological imagination is associated with which social theorist?

a. Emile Durkheim

b. Max Weber

c. C. Wright Mills

d. Auguste Comte

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6. The expectation to look someone in the eye when talking with them refers to a _

a. norm

b. role

c. value

d. belief

7. Derek’s job as a supervisor refers to his relative in the company while the

expectations for how to behave on the job refers to his _

a. role; status

b. job; role

c. status; role

d. status; job

8. Which institution regulates sexual relations and child-rearing in society?

a. economy and work

b. politics

c. family

d. religion

9. Which institution refers to the rituals and beliefs regarding sacred things?

a. economy and work

b. politics

c. family

d. religion

10. Franklin did not think much about how the economy or society affects his life until he lost his job. Franklin’s internal processesing of his job loss best represents which principle from the social structure and personality perspective?

a. components principle

b. proximity principle

c. propinquity principle

d. psychology principle

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11. After Donna cheated on her most recent exam, she starts to feel a sense of guilt, making

her reconsider whether she wants to do it again. Donna’s feelings of guilt can be considered a ______ , according to the social structure and personality perspective, leading her to rethink her future behaviors.

a. social more

b. social norm

c. social force

d. social fear

12. Which of the following is considered a major dimension of group processes?

a. power

b. justice

c. legitimacy

d. All of the above.

13. Janelle wants to study how and why some people are able to tell other people what to do while others can not. What aspect of group processes is she studying?

a. power

b. status

c. iustice

d. legitimacy

14. What social psychologist is most associated with the concepts of dyads and triads?

a. Emile Durkheim

b. August Comte

c. Herbert Blumer

d. Georg Simmel

15. The difference between dyads and triads is important because:

a. moving from a dyad to a triad exponentially increases the number of relationships available in an interaction.

b. moving from a dyad to a triad decreases the amount of intimacy possible in a group.

c. moving from a dyad to a triad exponentially decreases the number of relationships available in an interaction.

d. both a and b

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16. A group of friends getting together for dinner represents a group while a group

of people at your work represents a group.

a. reference; pri mary

b. primary; reference

c. primary; secondary

d. secondary; reference

17. Bob goes to the beach on a hot summer day and is surprised when he observes a group of people dressed in formal wear sitting in beach chairs amongst sunbathers. Bob was surprised

because the did not meet his expectations for that situation.

a. situation

b. social scripts

c. frame

d. All of the above.

18. require the researcher to weigh individual items differently.

a. Indices

b. Scales

c. both a and b

d. None of the above.

19. Which of the following methods is MOST likely to show causation?

a. ethnography

b. focus group

c. survey

d. experiment

20. An instructor developed a study to determine ways of producing more participation in his classes. In one class she provided free donuts everyday of class while in another she gave them nothing. She had her assistant takes notes on the number of comments and questions students made in each class. Which of these classes represent the control group?

a. the class not given the donuts

b. the class given the donuts

c. other classes that are not part of the experiment

d. both classes would be considered the control group

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21. developed the field of operant conditioning; much of his work relied on

experiments using rats and pigeons.

a. Carl Jung

b. B.F. Skinner

c. Sigmund Freud

d. Joseph Berger

22. At what step in the research process does the researcher employ the library and other resources and conduct a literature review?

a. step 1

b. step 2

c. step 3

d. step 4

23. At what step in the research process does the researcher actually go out and collect data?

a. step 1

b. step 2

c. step 3

d. step 4

24. Research conducted by interviews, participant observations and ethnographies is referred to as what kind of research?

a. quantitative

b. qualitative

c. breeching

d. experimental

25. Social scientists must always be concerned with and to

accurately capture the phenomena in question.

a. truth and rei iabi I ity

b. reliability and validity

c. truth and validity

d. probability and validity

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Writing Assignment for Unit One

• I nclude your name, student number, course number, course title and unit number on each page of your writing assignment (this is for your protection in case your materials become separated).

• Begin each writing assignment by identifying the question number you are answering followed by the actual question itself (in bold type).

• Use a standard essay format for responses to all questions (i.e., an introduction, middle paragraphs and conclusion).

• Responses must be submitted as a MS Word Document only, typed double-spaced, using a

standard font (i.e. Times New Roman) and 12 point type size.

Word count is NOT one of the criteria that is used in assigning points to writing assignments. However, students who are successful in earning the maximum number of points tend to submit writing assignments that fa II in the followi ng ranges:

Undergraduate courses: 350 – 500 words or 1 – 2 pages. Graduate courses: 500 – 750 words or 2 – 3 pages. Doctoral courses: 750 – 1000 words or 4 – 5 pages.

Plagiarism

All work must be free of any form of plagiarism. Put written answers into your own words. Do not simply cut and paste your answers from the I nternet and do not copy your answers from the textbook. Be sure to refer to the course syllabus for more details on plagiarism and proper citation styles.

Please answer ONE of the following:

1. Think about the concept of poverty. How would a macro-level sociologist study this concept differently than a micro-level sociologist?

2. Discuss how symbolic interactionists define the concept of society. What role do symbols and language play in the development of society?

3. Discuss the ways that group structures can impact interaction in groups. Specifically, examine how group size (i.e., dyads and triads) and types of groups (e.g., primary groups) impact interactions between people.

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Multiple Choice Questions (Enter your answers on the enclosed answer sheet)

1. How does Kohn and Schooler’s model of status attainment link economic status, job characteristics and personal ity?

a. People with lower economic status tend to find work in jobs that have more supervision.

b. People with lower economic status tend to find work in jobs that require less intellectual flexibility.

c. People with less intellectual flexibility tend to seek jobs that are routinized.

d. All of the above.

2. Bradley, a student at Big U, regularly seeks advice from his professor and mentor, Janet.

According to exchange theory, what kind of exchange is most likely motivating Janet to stay in this relationship?

a. a direct exchange

b. a reciprocal exchange

c. a generalized exchange

d. All of the above.

3. What was being exchanged among crew members and the captain in George Homan’s research about exchange processes on small warships?

a. support

b. caring

c. listening

d. All of the above.

4. Who gets the most status in groups based on Bales’ research in social exchanges in small groups?

a. Those who are perceived as the best managers.

b. Those who are perceived as being the smartest.

c. Those who contribute the most to the group.

d. Those who listen and care the most for the other members.

5. Which of the following best reflects a task group used to study status processes in groups?

a. A group of students at a class lecture.

b. A group of people waiting in line to pay at a store.

c. A group of citizens meeting to resolve a local problem.

d. All of the above.

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6. Why are weak ties so important for finding work?

a. People with whom we have weak ties live and work in circles outside our own.

b. People with whom we have weak ties tend to have better jobs.

c. People with whom we have weak ties aren’t biased against us in the job market.

d. People with whom we have weak ties provide training in getting better jobs.

7. According to status characteristics theory, gender, race and education levels are examples of

a. diffuse status characteristics

b. specific status characteristics

c. roles

d. class positions

8. According to status characteristics theory, skill at playing basketball would be considered

a. diffuse status characteristics

b. specific status characteristics

c. roles

d. class positions

9. People are aware of the status hierarchies that dove lop in task-oriented group:>.

a. almost always

b. usually not

c. always

d. None of the above.

10. Which theorist is most associated with impression management?

a. Auguste Comte

b. Emile Durkheim

c. Herbert Blumer

d. Erving Goffman

11. According to dramaturgical sociology, what area of identity is associated with hanging out with friends while watching television?

a. front stage

b. back stage

c. performance stage

d. informal groups

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12. A first date would most likely be associated with what area of identity?

a. front stage

b. back stage

c. performance stage

d. informal groups

13. Spencer Cahill’s research on “bathroom behavior” clearly showed that _

a. people act very differently in bathrooms than other areas of life

b. there are rules and norms about behavior in bathrooms

c. people use bathrooms to “retire” from their front stage presentations

d. All of the above.

14. Which of the following has the strongest impact on self-esteem?

a. social comparisons

b. reflected appraisals

c. psychological central ity

d. self-perceptions

15. are observations of our behavior and its consequences.

a. Reflected appraisals

b. Self-oercentions

c. Social comparisons

d. Psychological centrality

16. What is the best way to build a child’s sense of mastery or efficacy?

a. personal accomplishments

b. vicarious experience

c. verbal persuasion

d. emotional arousal

17. Rosenberg’s early research on mattering found it positively related to and

negatively related to _

a. self-esteem; alcoholism

b. depression; self-esteem

c. self-esteem; depression

d. mastery; depression

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18. Given research and theory in life-course sociology, which of the following groups are most likely to be negatively affected by Hurricane Katrina?

a. a poor White family who survived the storm together

b. a poor African-American family who survived the storm together

c. a middle-class White man who lost his income and had no access to family or friends during the event

d. a middle-class African-American family who survived the storm together

19. Tony and Rose both received word that they were called up for active duty in the military out of the reserve component of the forces. Tony is several years older with a wife and child while Rose is just finishing college. Which dimension of life course sociology best explains why Tony is more likely to be affected by the mobilization than Rose?

a. historical context

b. social timing

c. linked lives

d. agency

20. Which of the following is NOT considered a primary agent of socialization?

a. family

b. peers

c. schools

d. government

21. Elder’s study of the Great Depression generally showed that _

a. all children were negatively affected by growing up in the Great Depression

b. only children growing up in poverty were affected by the Great Depression

c. the Great Depression had the strongest impact on children’s lives by changing family roles

d. both band c

22. Kohn’s work on class socialization generally showed that middle-class families tend to stress

______ while working-class families emphasize in raising their

children.

a. autonomy: conformity

b. conformity, freedom

c. freedom, independence

d. conformity: autonomy

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23. Rosenthal and Jacobson’s study of classroom interaction is important because:

a. it showed that children are taught to be racist in the classroom.

b. it showed that 10 scores could be manipulated based on a group prejudice.

c. it showed that children’s 10 scores were not linked to race at all.

d. it showed that racist beliefs and values exist in every classroom.

24. Which of the following groups are most prevalent in American schools based on Adler and Adler’s research on peer culture?

a. the popular click

b. the wannabes

c. middle friendship circles

d. social isolates

25. Group processes researcher is important to the study of socialization in what way?

a. It shows the importance of peer-group interactions in socialization processes.

b. It shows the importance of family interactions.

c. It shows the importance of the media.

d. It emphasizes the impact of socialization in group settings.

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Writing Assignment for Unit Two

• I nclude your name, student number, course number, course title and unit number on each page of your writing assignment (this is for your protection in case your materials become separated).

• Begin each writing assignment by identifying the question number you are answering followed by the actual question itself (in bold type).

• Use a standard essay format for responses to all questions (i.e., an introduction, middle paragraphs and conclusion).

• Responses must be submitted as a MS Word Document only, typed double-spaced, using a

standard font (i.e. Times New Roman) and 12 point type size.

Word count is NOT one of the criteria that is used in assigning points to writing assignments. However, students who are successful in earning the maximum number of points tend to submit writing assignments that fall in the following ranges:

Undergraduate courses: 350 – 500 words or 1 – 2 pages. Graduate courses: 500 – 750 words or 2 – 3 pages. Doctoral courses: 750 – 1000 words or 4 – 5 pages.

Plagiarism

All work must be free of any form of plagiarism. Put written answers into your own words. Do not simply cut and paste your answers from the I nternet and do not copy your answers from the textbook. Be sure to refer to the course syllabus for more details on plagiarism and proper citation styles.

Please answer ONE of the following:

1. Describe the concept of “doing gender.” Apply this process to other statuses in society (e.g., race, ethnicity or sexuality).

2. Review the three ways that interactionists view the development and maintenance of stratification in society.

3. Discuss the similarities and differences between identity theory and social identity theory.

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Multiple Choice Questions (Enter your answers on the enclosed answer sheet)

l. Most college students represent which type of person in Merton’s typology of deviance?

a. conformists

b. innovators

c. ritua lists

d. retreatists

2. A homeless person who decides to live in the woods is probably best represented by which of the following people using Merton’s typology of deviance?

a. conformists

b. innovators

c. ritualists

d. retreatists

3. Which of the following represent strain according to new interpretations of strain theory?

a. negative relationships with family and friends

b. poverty

c. unornploymoot

d. All of the above.

4. Which theory of deviance tries to explain why individuals do not commit crime?

a. labeling theory

b. strai n theory

c. social control theory

d. theory of differential association

5. Sampson and Laub’s research on delinquent and non-delinquent youths in Boston found delinquency was greater when bonds with which social institutions were weakest?

a. family

b. education

c. work

d. both a and c

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6. In high school, Janet rarely got involved in smoking or drinking. In college, Janet found some friends who spent most of their off time consuming large amounts of alcohol and other drugs. Soon, she did the same and did not know anyone who did not spend their time that way. Which theory best explains Janet’s behavior given this limited amount of information?

a. labeling theory

b. strain theory

c. social control theory

d. theory of differential association

7. Which of the following best exemplifies white collar crimes?

a. stealing a purse

b. simple assault

c. telling a lie to your friend

d. embezzling from work

8. Murder would most likely be considered the breaking of a while picking your

nose in public would be breaking a _

a. more; folkway

b. folkway; more

c. norm; value

d. both are mores

9. Scholars contend that and are two factors that affect the

likelihood of committing a crime.

a. controls; formal sanctions

b. certainty; severity

c. certainty; informal sanctions

d. severity; formal sanctions

10. Given the research on the epidemiology of mental health, which group is most likely to report problems with drinking? Depression?

a. married people; singles

b. African-Americans; Latinos

c. African-Americans; Whites

d. men; women

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1l. The stresses associated with living in urban areas come from while the stresses

associated with rural areas tend to be a result of _

a. lack of stimulation; ambient hazards

b. ambient hazards; lack of stimulation

c. urban malaise; rural malaise

d. negative life events; chronic stresses

12. How do group processes scholars examine the concept of mental illness?

a. It is viewed as a status characteristic like race or gender.

b. It is viewed as a normal part of group interactions.

c. It is viewed as a major area of group research.

d. It is viewed as a way for individuals in groups to negotiate identity.

13. Which of the following would be considered a total institution?

a. your college

b. a pol ice station

c. a prison

d. a family household

14. Which sociologist is most associated with the concept of stigma?

a. Erving Goffman

b. Georg Simmel

c. George Herbert Mead

d. Herbert Blumer

15. Goffman’s research on total institutions showed that many patients in insane asylums generally _____ their roles as patients.

a. resist

b. accept

c. use colonization to cope with

d. None of the above.

16. Which of the following coping strategies emphasize patients’ attempts to rebel against asylum staff?

a. conversion

b. intransigence

c. withdrawal

d. colonization

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17. The loss of a job is represented in which component of the stress process?

a. stressors

b. outcomes

c. mediators and moderators

d. social and economic characteristics

18. LaPiere’s study of prejudice clearly showed that most people _

a. have some prejudice

b. act on their prejudices

c. do not act on their prejudices

d. both a and c

19. Overall, American political attitudes lean on being _

a. very conservative

b. moderately conservative

c. moderately liberal

d. very liberal

20. Which of the following groups could be identified as most liberal in the U.S.?

a. females living in the Midwest

b. females living on the west coast

c. males living in the Midwest

d. males I ivi ng on the West Coast

21. Which of the following groups spend the most time on childcare? Which group has shown an increase in time spent with childcare?

a. women for both questions

b. men for both questions

c. men; women

d. women; men

22. Which of the following social theorists is most associated with studying racial prejudice in the United States?

a. George Herbert Mead

b. W.E.B. Du Bois

c. Talcott Parsons

d. William Thomas

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23. Based on status construction theory, what would be the best way to get what you want out of a group and leave a positive impression?

a. Act like a very nice person.

b. Act like a generous person.

c. Act like a majority member of society.

d. Act like a high-status person.

24. Willer’s research showing presidential approval ratings increasing after the 9/11 terrorist

attacks in the U.S. clearly showed _

a. in-group bias tendencies

b. out-group bias tendencies

c. prejudicial biases

d. ideological alliances

25. The slow treatment of Hurricane Katrina victims was used as an example of in

your text.

a. government inefficiency

b. conscious racism

c. unconscious racism

d. None of the above.

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Writing Assignment for Unit Three

• Include your name, student number, course number, course title and unit number on each page of your writing assignment (this is for your protection in case your materials become separated).

• Begin each writing assignment by identifying the question number you are answering followed by the actual question itself (in bold type).

• Use a standard essay format for responses to all questions (i.e., an introduction, middle paragraphs and conclusion).

• Responses must be submitted as a MS Word Document only, typed double-spaced, using a

standard font (i.e. Times New Roman) and 12 point type size.

Word count is NOT one of the criteria that is used in assigning points to writing assignments. However, students who are successful in earning the maximum number of points tend to submit writing assignments that fall in the following ranges:

Undergraduate courses: 350 – 500 words or 1 – 2 pages. Graduate courses: 500 – 750 words or 2 – 3 pages. Doctoral courses: 750 – 1000 words or 4 – 5 pages.

Plagiarism

All work must be free of any form of plagiarism. Put written answers into your own words. Do not simply cut and paste your answers from the Internet and do not copy your answers from the textbook. Be sure to refer to the course syllabus for more details on plagiarism and proper citation styles.

Please answer ONE of the following:

1. How do symbolic interactionists examine the social construction of mental health? Specifically, review Foucault’s historical analysis of mental illness in western cultures and the medicalization of deviance.

2. Discuss how community conditions can impact individuals’ mental health. Be specific about the role of stressors and resources available under different community conditions (e.g., urban vs. rural; poor vs. middle class).

3. Review the different dimensions of attitudes. How does the complexity in attitudes help to explain the relatively weak relationship between a person’s attitudes and their behaviors?

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6. According to exchange theory and research, which of the following situations is most likely to produce a positive emotion?

a. an exchange in which people get the amount equal to their position in the group

b. an exchange in which you get as much as you gave

c. an exchange in which you get less than you gave

d. All of these exchanges will produce a positive emotion.

7. According to the exchange theory, what sentiment is EXPECTED when you get more out of an exchange than you give?

a. sadness

b. guilt

c. happiness

d. joy

8. According to research and theory of group processes, how does power in relationships affect our emotions?

a. Relationships characterized as having equal power engender positive emotion.

b. Power makes us feel guilty in social exchanges.

c. Relationships characterized as having unequal power engender positive emotion.

d. Power gives us a positive feeling only when we deserve it during social exchanges.

9. Secondary emotions are _

a. learned through socialization

b. similar to sentiments

c. social emotions

d. All the above.

10. Your feeling that a district attorney has a lot of power refer to which dimension of affect control theory?

a. eval uation

b. potency

c. activity

d. strength

11. What emotion did wheelchair users employ when managing interactions with “stand-up” people in Cahill and Eggleston’s study of people with a handicap?

a. fear

b. humor

c. love

d. anger

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12. Your friend, Chloe, goes through a bad break-up and her cat runs away all in the same week.

When you and Chloe are out to dinner one night you run into Sarah, a good friend of yours from school. Chloe expresses the tragedies that have befallen her the past week to Sarah who proceeds to listen and then changes the conversation. Once back to your dinner, Chloe expresses her dismay and hurt that Sarah did not seem concerned about her break-up or loss

of her cat. Sarah is upset because her were not met.

a. social scripts

b. emotional scripts

c. sentiments

d. emotions

13. According to Randall Collins’ theory of interaction ritual chains, what role does emotion play in the maintenance of society?

a. Emotional energies provide the reason for maintaining interactions in society.

b. Emotional scripts provide information about how to behave in society.

c. Emotions give us cues as to whether we are performing our roles in society adequately.

d. Emotions exist within a series of “feeling rules” about how to behave in society.

14. Which of the following jobs does NOT demand high levels of emotion work.

a. waitress

b. teacher

c. customer service agent

d. None of the above.

15. Steve turned to the people around him for help in deciding how to act at a local protest.

According to perception control theory, what form of perception control is he using?

a. independent instruction

b. interdependent instruction

c. organizational instruction

d. i nteractiona I instruction

16. What is the best predictor of an individual participating in a march or a riot?

a. her structural position

b. her concern over a social condition in society

c. her being asked to go to the event

d. her access to resources

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17. The vast majority of protests and other collective events have which kind of dispersal?

a. routine dispersal

b. emergency dispersal

c. coerced dispersal

d. active dispersal

18. Which of the following are typical behaviors at a large protest march?

a. People break off into a series of smaller groups.

b. People form lines to access various facilities.

c. People develop arcs and circles around speakers.

d. All of the above are typical behaviors.

19.

_____ is thrill-seeking behaviors designed to produce intense emotions.

a. Potency

b. Edgework

c. Cyberneticism

d. None of the above.

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20. Enduring emotional meanings in a given society is known as _

a. fundamental sentiments

b. transient sentiments

c. emotional cues

d. emotion work

21. The debate as to whether or not you should stop and look at an accident while driving by,

possibly slowing down the traffic behind you, is an example of a _

a. social dilemma

b. free rider problem

c. group conformity

d. mass hysteria

22. Public radio-radio stations that rely, in part, on listener support to stay in business-run the risk of what problem?

a. a social dilemma

b. the free rider problem

c. group conform ity

d. mass hysteria

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23. The use of is important to the forming of collective memories.

a. storytelling

b. collective behavior

c. collective emotion

d. framing

24. According to emergent norm theory, the is the type of person who

participates in the group out of curiosity.

a. ego-involved participant

b. curiosity seeker

c. concerned partici pant

d. insecure participant

25. Phase of collective behavior referring to the factors that bring people together into the same place at the same time.

a. gathering phase

b. homogeneity of mood

c. assembling phase

d. interpretive phase

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Writing Assignment for Unit Four

• Include your name, student number, course number, course title and unit number on each page of your writing assignment (this is for your protection in case your materials become separated).

• Begin each writing assignment by identifying the question number you are answering followed by the actual question itself (in bold type).

• Use a standard essay format for responses to all questions (i.e., an introduction, middle paragraphs and conclusion).

• Responses must be submitted as a MS Word Document only, typed double-spaced, using a

standard font (i.e. Times New Roman) and 12 point type size.

Word count is NOT one of the criteria that is used in assigning points to writing assignments. However, students who are successful in earning the maximum number of points tend to submit writing assignments that fall in the following ranges:

Undergraduate courses: 350 – 500 words or 1 – 2 pages. Graduate courses: 500 – 750 words or 2 – 3 pages. Doctoral courses: 750 – 1000 words or 4 – 5 pages.

Plagiarism

All work must be free of any form of plagiarism. Put written answers into your own words. Do not simply cut and paste your answers from the I nternet and do not copy your answers from the textbook. Be sure to refer to the course syllabus for more details on plagiarism and proper citation styles.

Please answer ONE of the following:

1. Review the theory of interaction ritual chains. How do our emotions contribute to the maintenance of society according to this theory?

2. Review the role of emotions in exchange processes. What conditions are most I ikely to produce positive emotions? Negative emotions? What role does power and status play in the development of emotions in exchange relationships?

3. Apply group processes theory and research related to coalitions to explain the development of social movements more broadly. First, define the concept of coalition. Second, describe how coalitions work and the conditions that mak

 

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