Psychology of Adjustment

Final Examination

GED 215 Psychology of Adjustment

Multiple Choice Questions (Enter your answers on the enclosed answer sheet)

Which is a way some people cope with the ambiguity of human freedom? 1.

driftinga. shared decision makingb. appealing to some type of authorityc. All of the above. d.

Change or development in a desirable direction is called: 2.

personal growtha. personal freedomb. self-directionc. individualism d.

Altruism means: 3.

helping someone else at a cost to yourselfa. possessing a sense of personal freedomb. having a sense of control over others’ livesc. fearing making decisions d.

According to Maslow, which disorder does not result from the failure to grow? 4.

stunted persona. amoral personb. apathetic personc. adjusted person d.

Researchers have found high stability across a lifespan for which personality trait? 5.

introversion-extroversiona. perfectionismb. authoritarianismc. self-esteem d.

The highest degree of stability of personality has been found in the domain of: 6.

introversion-extroversiona. perfectionismb. authoritarianismc. self-esteem d.

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Final Examination

GED 215 Psychology of Adjustment

All of the following traits remain rather stable over a lifetime EXCEPT: 7.

neuroticisma. expressivenessb. self-esteemc. introversion d.

The experience of personal growth usually begins with: 8.

reorganizing our experiencea. acknowledging changeb. feeling anxiety and discomfortc. changing our attitudes d.

According to Erikson, the second stage of psychosocial development poses the developmental 9. task of:

autonomy vs. shamea. trust vs. mistrustb. industry vs. inferiorityc. initiative vs. guilt d.

From 3 to 6 years of age, children are faced with the crisis of: 10.

autonomy vs. shamea. trust vs. mistrustb. identity vs. role confusionc. initiative vs. guilt d.

According to Erikson, individuals face the identity vs. role confusion stage at what age? 11.

3-6a. 6-11b. 12-18c. 20-40 d.

According to Erikson, in young adulthood, the inability to establish rewarding relationships 12. with friends result in a sense of:

inferioritya. stagnationb. despairc. isolation d.

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Final Examination

GED 215 Psychology of Adjustment

What is Erikson’s final stage of psychosocial development? 13.

integrity vs. despaira. generativity vs. stagnationb. industry vs. inferiorityc. initiative vs. guilt d.

_________ is the addition of something that increases the likelihood of a behavior occuring 14. again.

Temperamenta. Attachmentb. Social learningc. Reinforcement d.

The process by which we learn by observing is called: 15.

punishmenta. reinforcementb. learning theoryc. observational learning d.

Carol likes Dr. Reed, the supervisor of her practice teaching. In fact, Carol often finds herself 16. adopting many of Dr. Reed’s methods and mannerisms in the classroom. Bandura refers to this type of learning as:

classical conditioninga. observational learningb. identification with the parent figurec. due to the effects of unconscious Oedipal wishes d.

Women in middle adulthood go through significant physical changes called: 17.

cessationa. menopauseb. reproductionc. dysfunction d.

Which statement regarding Alzheimer’s disease is true? 18.

Alzheimer’s usually strikes in middle age.a. There is no way to diagnose Alzheimer’s.b. Alzheimer’s is a degenerative brain disorder.c. All of these are true.d.

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Final Examination

GED 215 Psychology of Adjustment

Which statement is NOT true of hormone replacement therapy? 19.

It lowers the risk of most types of cancer.a. It helps to alleviate such symptoms as hot flashes, night sweats, and dry skin.b. African American women are less likely to use it than White women.c. It reduces the risk rates of osteoporosis and heart disease. d.

Viagra is used to: 20.

treat loss of appetitea. treat memory lossb. improve facial appearance in womenc. treat erectile inhibition d.

Ageism refers to: 21.

the midlife crisisa. the study of people over the age of 80b. the inherent rights of the elderlyc. negative attitudes toward older Americans d.

Which of the following is NOT important in healthy aging? 22.

exercisinga. smoking cessationb. eating wellc. avoiding physicians d.

Which of the following is generally a sign of low self-esteem? 23.

savoring one’s accomplishments and successesa. bragging excessively about one’s achievementsb. expressing one’s opinions readilyc. making demands on oneself to do better next time d.

Low self-esteem is characterized by: 24.

refusal to accept praisea. poor performance on academic testsb. looking at oneself in the mirror oftenc. All of the above. d.

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Final Examination

GED 215 Psychology of Adjustment

Which of these is NOT associated with high self-esteem? 25.

greater happinessa. bullying behaviorsb. better job performancec. lower alcohol and drug abuse d.

People tend to elicit feedback that confirms their own self-perceptions, both positive and 26. negative, according to:

self-enhancement theorya. social-self theoryb. self-verification theoryc. ideal self theory d.

Self-esteem of minority individuals is found to be as high as that of Whites because minority: 27.

individuals have as many opportunities as Whitesa. individuals often compare themselves to each other rather than to Whitesb. populations have grown in sizec. groups no longer experience as much prejudice as they used to d.

When people visualize themselves as competent, successful persons, they tend to: 28.

earn higher than average salariesa. become more successful than their peersb. cope more effectively with present problemsc. succumb to pathological self-deception d.

Which of these is NOT key to quitting smoking? 29.

avoiding relapse at all costsa. getting support and encouragementb. getting medication and using it correctlyc. learning new skills and behaviors d.

Those most likely to drink excessively are: 30.

18- to 25-year-old mena. middle-aged menb. widowers and widowsc. preteens d.

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Final Examination

GED 215 Psychology of Adjustment

The leading cause of death among youths in America is: 31.

AIDSa. heart diseaseb. overexertion on the athletic fieldc. car accidents involving alcohol d.

Youth are most at risk for drug abuse: 32.

at school eventsa. during any major transitionsb. in middle schoolc. as college students d.

The use of unhealthy substances (e.g., cigarettes, alcohol, or drugs) is depicted in: 33.

10 percent of G rated filmsa. 50 percent of PG-13 filmsb. 80 percent of all filmsc. 95 percent of all films d.

Those who underreport their physical symptoms to health care professionals are: 34.

likely to be extrovertsa. known as “hypochondriacs”b. self-conscious peoplec. self-healing personalities d.

Alexei and Tanya were disappointed when it rained during their first day of camping, but 35. Alexei said, “Let’s not panic. It’s supposed to clear up later today.” His upbeat attitude is characteristic of those who interpret undesirable events in:

external, temporary, and specific termsa. internal, permanent, and universal termsb. external, permanent, and universal termsc. internal, temporary, and specific terms d.

Which of the following best exemplifies appropriate learned optimism? 36.

“I guess she isn’t going to call back.”a. “It was a good interview but nothing will probably come of it.”b. “She didn’t return my call; she must be busy.”c. “No wonder she doesn’t call back. I’ve been inconsiderate of her.” d.

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Final Examination

GED 215 Psychology of Adjustment

Optimism is especially appropriate in those situations in which: 37.

you want to gain people’s confidencea. your goal involves a high degree of riskb. the cost of failure is highc. you want to be sympathetic with people’s troubles d.

Being optimistic is inappropriate when: 38.

there are many risks involveda. there are many people with unique responsibilitiesb. multiple solutions to an issue are availablec. None of the above. d.

Which of these is NOT a stage in the recommended process for decision making? 39.

search for alternativesa. make a commitmentb. rise to the challengec. avoid looking back d.

The most critical element in decision making, especially in the early stages, is: 40.

taking risksa. clarifying valuesb. vigorous information processingc. justifying your choices d.

When presented with a modest person and a self-promoter, which did Japanese children 41. perceive as more athletically competent?

they were perceived to be equally competenta. the modest personb. the self-promoterc. neither was selected d.

According to the text, one of the four important components of emotion is: 42.

social interactiona. behavioral stagnationb. cognitive processesc. self-efficacy d.

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Final Examination

GED 215 Psychology of Adjustment

Which researcher has created a model of emotions? 43.

Banduraa. Howellb. Plutchikc. Richards d.

In Plutchik’s model, which is NOT one of the primary emotions? 44.

acceptancea. disgustb. angerc. embarrassment d.

When people of various countries are asked about their experiences of different emotions, 45. most of them distinguish emotions with regard to:

primary and secondary emotionsa. inborn and learned emotionsb. pleasant and unpleasant emotionsc. simple and complex emotions d.

Men tend to report more ________ feelings, while women tend to report ________ feelings. 46.

powerless; powerfula. powerful; powerlessb. negative; positivec. positive; negative d.

If we see people as cold and withdrawn, we tend to attribute additional negative qualities to 47. them. This is called:

the halo effecta. stereotypingb. false cuesc. the devil effect d.

The fundamental attribution error causes us to misjudge people because: 48.

we are impressed by wealtha. of their personal traits and characteristicsb. of situational and environmental influencesc. we are influenced by unconscious motives d.

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Final Examination

GED 215 Psychology of Adjustment

In which country are people the least shy? 49.

Israela. Indiab. Greecec. Japan d.

According to the text, to overcome shyness, it’s best to: 50.

reduce the inner monitoring of one’s thoughtsa. pay less attention to people around youb. avoid situations involving othersc. become keenly aware of how people see you d.

Shyness is on the rise in America because: 51.

more people are pursuing their own personal goalsa. electronic communication has reduced face-to-face meetingsb. more Americans are moving to big, crowded citiesc. more children are being placed in daycare centers d.

The most common activity among women friends is: 52.

telling jokesa. having an intimate talkb. sharing a job-related chorec. doing a favor for a friend d.

Which of the following does NOT have an interdependent culture? 53.

Japana. Zimbabweb. The United Statesc. Lebanon d.

When flattery is used in the hopes that the flattered individual will give in to a certain 54. request, this is a form of:

the bystander effecta. ingratiationb. the norm of reciprocityc. the foot-in-the-door effect d.

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Final Examination

GED 215 Psychology of Adjustment

In what type of social influence situation do we follow direct orders from others? 55.

conformitya. complianceb. interpersonal attractionc. obedience d.

Which factor reduces social loafing? 56.

When failure is possible if and only if loafing occurs.a. When people believe their performance will not be evaluated.b. When the task is not important.c. When the group is not valued by its individual members. d.

When groups make riskier or more conservative decisions than individuals, this is known as: 57.

groupthinka. the foot-in-the-door effectb. the group polarization effectc. the door-in-the-face effect d.

Two well-documented leadership styles are ______ and ______. 58.

severe; moderatea. people-oriented; task-orientedb. casual; intensec. thoughtful; thoughtless d.

Which is true of job burnout? 59.

Men are more likely to burn out.a. Those who are unmarried are more prone to burnout.b. Those who burn out are likely to have high self-esteem.c. Stress is rarely a factor in burnout. d.

How do most Americans feel about their jobs? 60.

Despite all the griping, most Americans report relatively high satisfaction.a. Most Americans dislike their jobs and want a job change.b. Midlevel managers report highest job satisfaction.c. People at the bottom of an organization are likeliest to report high job satisfaction. d.

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Final Examination

GED 215 Psychology of Adjustment

Surveys on job satisfaction show that: 61.

People who love their jobs perform better than those who don’t.a. The highest-paying jobs tend to result in the highest job satisfaction.b. Workers prefer job where they don’t have to learn new skills.c. Recent graduates tend to enjoy high job satisfaction. d.

When asked about ways to get ahead on the job, most American workers emphasize the 62. importance of:

being willing to accept responsibilitya. knowing the right peopleb. understanding how to use office politicsc. complimenting your boss often d.

How has workplace technology changed our employment? 63.

It really hasn’t changed employment in America that much.a. It can affect us even before we are hired by means of e-recruiting.b. It has mostly affected upper-level management.c. It affects us only after we are hired and introduced to new technology. d.

One of the best ways to increase the proportion of minority groups in the workplace is to: 64.

lower the educational requirements for many jobsa. raise the educational level of minority studentsb. provide more high-tech jobs in the workplacec. encourage minority students to take jobs in manufacturing d.

Masters et al. found greater orgasmic variation in both the physiology and subjective 65. accounts of orgasm among:

men compared to womena. homosexuals compared to heterosexualsb. women compared to menc. married couples compared to unmarried couples d.

What is the most significant life stressor for homosexuals? 66.

discovering their homosexual orientationa. telling friends and family about their sexual orientationb. having their first homosexual encounterc. all of these are equally stressful according to the literature d.

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Final Examination

GED 215 Psychology of Adjustment

People who believe they were born into the body of the wrong sex are: 67.

homosexuala. transsexualb. hermaphroditesc. transvestites d.

People who are born with chromosomal or hormonal birth defects so they do not really fit into 68. “male” or “female” categories are:

transvestitesa. intersexedb. transsexualc. autoerotic d.

A loving relationship based primarily on emotional closeness rather than physical intimacy is 69. called:

romantic lovea. consummate loveb. companionate lovec. passionate love d.

Hypoactive, or inhibited, sexual desire is commonly caused by: 70.

anger, boredom, or anxietya. genetic deficienciesb. psychopathologyc. hormonal deficiencies d.

Which statement about marriage in the U.S. is true? 71.

People are getting married later in life.a. People tend to marry someone of similar age, education, and background.b. Intercultural marriages are more conflict-prone but not more divorce-prone.c. All of these are true. d.

Approximately _________ out of every 10 marriages end in divorce. 72.

2a. 3b. 4c. 8 d.

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Final Examination

GED 215 Psychology of Adjustment

Which statement about marriage is false? 73.

More than 9 out of 10 Americans will eventually marry.a. Husbands and wives should be best friends.b. Differences and incompatibilities between partners are the major causes of marital c. dissatisfaction. Married people are happier and healthier than single individuals. d.

An overview of numerous marital studies reported in the text indicated that a major factor 74. related to marital satisfaction is:

joint problem-solving abilitya. wanting the relationship to succeedb. a satisfying sex lifec. financial security d.

When women work outside of the home: 75.

they still do most of the houseworka. the couple is less satisfiedb. the husbands usually do half of all houseworkc. they do less housework than men d.

How do homosexual couples distribute housework? 76.

Work is fairly equally distributed.a. Work is distributed about the same as heterosexual couples.b. The more masculine partner does the most.c. The more masculine partner does the least. d.

What is the correct sequence in the general adaptation syndrome? 77.

alarm, exhaustion, resistancea. resistance, alarm, exhaustionb. exhaustion, resistance, alarmc. alarm, resistance, exhaustion d.

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Final Examination

GED 215 Psychology of Adjustment

Diane, a keyboard specialist, adapted to her stressful job with few complaints. Now, a year 78. later, Diane has chronic headaches from the demands of her boss to meet deadlines and to type accurately. Such stress-related illnesses are likely to occur in which stage of the general adaptation syndrome?

alarma. resistanceb. exhaustionc. the intermediate stage d.

Cumulative changes that reflect the cost to the body for adapting to stressful demands is 79. called:

homeostasisa. allostatic loadb. repressionc. acting out d.

The unconscious blocking of a threatening impulse or idea from entering one’s consciousness 80. is:

deniala. projectionb. repressionc. None of the above. d.

Sarah’s father is gravely ill; Sarah, however, does not respond emotionally. Rather, Sarah 81. convinces herself that he is in a good hospital and that the doctors are doing everything they can. Sarah’s strategy for coping might be:

deniala. intellectualizationb. displacementc. repression d.

When Mohammed’s girlfriend unexpectedly broke off their relationship, he said it was just as 82. well because he no longer loved her. Yet, Mohammed did love her unconsciously. Mohammed’s response is an example of:

reaction formationa. denialb. sublimationc. repression d.

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Final Examination

GED 215 Psychology of Adjustment

A critical feature of obsessive-compulsive disorder is: 83.

an overinflated sense of responsibilitya. fear of dirtb. fear of losing controlc. anxiety about being anxious all the time d.

A(n) __________ is someone with OCD who wants his or her possessions in their rightful 84. place and arranged in a certain way.

hoardera. pure obsessiveb. repeaterc. orderer d.

Flashbacks are associated with what disorder? 85.

OCDa. phobiab. PTSDc. None of the above. d.

During college, three-quarters of all students experience some symptoms of: 86.

antisocial personalitya. agoraphobiab. schizophreniac. depression d.

People who become depressed in the winter months because of seasonal affective disorder 87. are thought to suffer from an imbalance of the hormone called:

dopaminea. melatoninb. adrenalinec. thyroxin d.

Which is NOT a plausible reason why women are more prone to depression than men? 88.

They aren’t; they are just more likely to seek professional help.a. Women have unequal power and status compared to men.b. Women are more likely to live in poverty than men.c. The region of the brain affected by depression is eight times larger in women than in d. men.

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Final Examination

GED 215 Psychology of Adjustment

Who is associated with cognitive therapy? 89.

Sigmund Freuda. Fritz Perlsb. Victor Franklc. Aaron Beck d.

Couples often come to relationship therapy because of infidelity on the part of one partner. 90. During therapy:

the therapist works only with the offending partner.a. the therapist works mainly with the offended partner.b. the therapist focuses on both partners’ interaction.c. the therapist usually recommends that they split up. d.

The most common mode of treatment in psychiatry is: 91.

biomedical therapy alonea. psychotherapy aloneb. family therapyc. psychotherapy combined with biomedical therapy d.

Which statement about antianxiety medications is true? 92.

These medications do not cure anxiety.a. These drugs are dangerous to take in combination with alcohol.b. They provide prompt alleviation from symptoms.c. All of the above. d.

After beginning treatment, antidepressants take effect: 93.

immediatelya. within a few daysb. within two weeksc. after two to four weeks d.

In persons with schizophrenia, antipsychotic drugs tend to reduce: 94.

apathya. lonelinessb. hallucinationsc. social withdrawal d.

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Final Examination

GED 215 Psychology of Adjustment

After the bargaining stage, individuals enter which stage? 95.

deniala. depressionb. resentmentc. acceptance d.

Acceptance of death includes: 96.

denying that death is imminenta. bargainingb. disengaging the self from othersc. All of these are part of the acceptance stage. d.

The healthy process of working through the emotions associated with loss is called: 97.

grief worka. mourningb. unresolved griefc. bereavement d.

Which of the following is a normal initial response to death? 98.

sadnessa. guiltb. reliefc. All of the above. d.

About _________ year(s) is the norm for grief work. 99.

onea. twob. threec. four d.

Which one of the following groups has an above-average death rate compared to others the100. same age?

elderly people who are unhappily marrieda. widowed men between 55 and 65 years of ageb. elderly widowers who have remarriedc. widowed women between 55 and 65 years of aged.

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