PSYCHOLOGY IN YOUR LIFE

PSYCHOLOGY IN YOUR LIFE

PSYCHOLOGY IN YOUR LIFE

SaRaH GRISON Parkland College

TOdd F. HEaTHERTON dartmouth College

MICHaEL S. GazzaNIGa University of California, Santa Barbara

nW. W. NORTON & COMPaNYNEW YORk • LONdON

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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

Names: Grison, Sarah, author. | Heatherton, Todd F., author. | Gazzaniga, Michael S., author. Title: Psychology in your life / Sarah Grison, Todd F. Heatherton, Michael S. Gazzaniga. Description: Second edition. | New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 2017. | Includes bibliographical references and index. Identifiers: LCCN 2015024071 | ISBN 978-0-393-26515-6 (pbk.) Subjects: LCSH: Developmental psychology. | Psychology. Classification: LCC BF713.G75 2017 | DDC 150—dc23 LC record available at http://lccn.loc. gov/2015024071

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1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0

For all teachers who inspire

others, especially

Ken Kotovsky and Steve Tipper

With gratitude,

Sarah Heatherton and James Heatherton

Lilli, Emmy, Garth, Dante,

and Rebecca

SaRaH GRISON is Associate Professor of Psychology at Parkland College. She brings more than 20 years of psychology teaching experience to Psychology in Your Life. Sarah exam- ines how psychological research can be applied to teaching and learning. She teaches intro- ductory psychology every term and puts her laboratory and classroom research into practice to improve student learning and actively engage students. She has created and taught courses to support novice teachers in developing their skills. Sarah is a certified Teacher-Scholar who previously was recognized each year on the University of Illinois List of Excellent Teachers. She has won the University of Illinois Provost’s Initiative for Teaching Advancement Award and the Association for Psychological Science Award for Teaching and Public Understand- ing of Psychological Science. She is a member of the Association for Psychological Science; the American Educational Research Association; the International Mind, Brain, and Educa- tion Society; and the American Psychological Association (Division 2, Society for Teaching of Psychology).

TOdd F. HEaTHERTON is the Lincoln Filene Professor in Human Relations in the Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences at Dartmouth College. He teaches introductory psychology every year. He is associate editor of the Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience and serves on many editorial boards and grant review panels. He received the Award for Distinguished Service on Behalf of Social-Personality Phychology in 2005, was named to Thompson Reuters’ ISI HighlyCited for Social Sciences in 2010, and received the Carol and Ed Diener Award for Outstanding Mid-Career Contributions to Personality Phychology in 2011. He received the Petra Shattuck Award for Teaching Excellence from the Harvard Extension School in 1994, the McLane Fellowship from Dartmouth College in 1997, and the Friedman Family Fellowship from Dartmouth College in 2001. He is a fellow of many scientific societies, including the American Association for the Advance- ment of Science.

MICHaEL S. GazzaNIGa is Distinguished Professor and Director of the Sage Center for the Study of the Mind at the University of California, Santa Barbara. In his career, he has introduced thousands of students to psychology and cognitive neuroscience. He founded and presides over the Cognitive Neuroscience Institute and is founding editor-in-chief of the Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience. He is past president of the American Psychological Society and a member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, the Institute of Medicine, and the National Academy of Sciences. He has held positions at the University of California, Santa Barbara; New York University; the State University of New York, Stony Brook; Cornell Univer- sity Medical College; and the University of California, Davis. He has written many notable books, including, most recently, Tales from Both Sides of the Brain: A Life in Neuroscience.

ABoUT THE AUTHoRS

vii

CoNTENTS IN BRIEF

Preface for Teachers ………………………………………………………………………………………viii

Letter to Students ……………………………………………………………………………………….. xviii

1. Introducing the World of Psychology …………………………..2 2. The Role of Biology in Psychology ……………………………….38 3. Consciousness ………………………………………………………………………………….. 76 4. development across the Life Span …………………………….. 114 5. Sensation and Perception …………………………………………………… 154 6. Learning …………………………………………………………………………………………………. 194 7. Memory ………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 230 8. Thinking and Intelligence ……………………………………………………. 268 9. Motivation and Emotion ………………………………………………………..306 10. Sex, Gender, and Sexuality ………………………………………………… 342 11. Health and Well-Being……………………………………………………………..382 12. Social Psychology ……………………………………………………………………….. 420 13. Self and Personality ………………………………………………………………….. 458 14. Psychological disorders ……………………………………………………….496 15. Psychological Treatments …………………………………………………… 536

appendix a: analyzing data in

Psychological Research …………………………………………………………………………A-1

appendix B: Quizzes …………………………………………………………………………………… B-1

Everyone who has taught introductory psychology remembers their “first time.” Most instructors have a humorous story about being handed the textbook just a few days before class began and being pointed in the direction of the classroom. We, the authors of Psychology in Your Life, certainly remem- ber our first experiences. One of us was in a hot and windowless attic teaching discussion sections at Carnegie Mellon University. Another one of us was trying to overcome the imposter syndrome, teaching at Harvard in a building named after William James. And yet another one of us was trying to hold the attention of 800 students at the University of California, Santa Barbara, right before the 1967 Summer of Love. Whether we started teaching as undergraduate students, doctoral students, or faculty, all of us were immediately hooked on the expe- rience. We are passionate about the field and about exposing students to the science of psychology as well as helping them learn just how relevant psychology

is to their everyday lives. Over the years, as we have gained experience as teachers,

researchers, and authors, we have come to realize a key truth about inspiring students to learn. This truth

is that learning is not a unitary process, nor is it an activity conducted alone by students.

Instead, learning results from three inter- connected factors: teachers teaching,

students learning, and continuous efforts to improve the skills of both

teachers and students. We created Psychology in Your

Life because we wanted a textbook and integrated support materials that supported excellence in all three of these aspects of educ ation. Even

more importantly, we wanted to develop tools that would really work.

Accordingly, we designed the book and  support materials based on the

latest psychological research about the pedagogical practices that facilitate teach-

ing, learning, and making improvements.

PREFACE FoR TEACHERS

viii    ■    PREFACE

TEACHING LEARNING

IMPROVING

PREFACE    ■    ix

Great Teaching Improves Learning Providing support to both teachers and students is more important than ever because both teachers and students are experiencing a “perfect storm” of chal- lenges. Teachers must teach more students in a wider variety of course formats, support learning in many different students, and figure out how to assess student learning. Often, we must achieve these goals with fewer resources, less support, and little training. While students can sometimes learn without teachers, great teaching improves student learning. All teachers, from the most experienced to the novice, can use a helping hand to support their students’ learning. Psychology in Your Life supports teachers in two main ways.

First, Teachers Have Easy access to Materials that Are Aligned with the

Learning Goals They Have Chosen for Their Students Teachers’ goals for their students differ, based on the school, the students, and the teachers’ philoso- phies about teaching and learning (Kang, 2008). For example, individual teachers choose which content goals to focus on and which student skills to help develop, including cognitive skills such as application, writing, critical thinking, or scien- tific thinking (American Psychological Association, 2013; Anderson, 2002; Dunn, Halonen, & Smith, 2009). When using the Psychology in Your Life support package, teachers can focus on the learning goals and skills that are most relevant for their students. They can then use the corresponding pedagogical resources. Our rich bank of tools draws on our combined 75 years of teaching introductory psychology, and we know these tools work because we have overseen their development. The resources we offer—Active Learning PowerPoint lecture slides, Demonstration Videos for Students, in-class activities, clicker questions, discussion topics, video clip suggestions, and more—are tagged in the online repository by chapter, section, and learning goal, so teachers can easily search for resources related to specific learning goals and skill development. What’s more, these resources have been designed to be used flexibly in either face-to-face or online learning environments.

Second,  Teachers  Receive  Support  at  All  Levels  of  Experience We remember the dread we felt when we began to teach with few or no support materials. In response, we created Teaching Videos. Filmed in Sarah Grison’s home office, these clips offer brief observations to less experienced teachers about the concepts that students tend to find challenging. In presenting strategies for overcoming these chal- lenges (Buskist & Groccia, 2012), our videos refer to specific pedagogical supports in the textbook as well as to resources in the instructor support materials. Mean- while, even as experienced teachers, we still find ourselves hunting for new ways to engagingly demonstrate concepts. To address this need, we created Demonstration Videos for Teachers. These clips provide step-by-step instructions for doing in-class demonstrations of 30 important concepts found in the textbook. Printed summaries describe the materials, including handouts, needed to perform the demonstrations.

active Engagement Improves Learning Many students face obstacles to learning. They may find it difficult to absorb complex information. They may simply never have been taught how to learn. Students also vary in their desire to learn as well as what motivates them to engage with material. In addition, students often have limited time and money, so they have to strategize about engaging with material effectively and efficiently. Psychology in Your Life encour- ages students in two main ways.

TEACHING

LEARNING

x    ■    PREFACE

First, the Book and Ebook Encourage Students to Engage in Active Reading

Processes Successful learning is goal-directed (American Psychological Associa- tion, 2013; Toukuhama-Espinosa, 2011). For this reason, each section of each chapter of Psychology in Your Life starts with learning goals that indicate what students should learn in that section. With other textbooks, students may not actually do anything with such goals. Perhaps they highlight key words or reread text passages, but these activi- ties are not effective learning techniques (Dunlosky et al., 2013). To encourage active use of our learning goals, we have paired each learning goal with a reading activity. In writing answers to reading activities associated with learning goals, the students will begin to remember, understand, and apply the concepts. Teachers can collect the students’ answers for a grade or even just check that they are completed, because low- stakes writing assignments like these can help learning (Elbow & Sorcinelli, 2005).

Second,  the  Book  and  Ebook  Give  Students  Many  Different  Ways  to

Actively  Work  with  the  Material  Learning is enhanced when we relate new information to what we already know and when we ask why a particular thing happens (Dunlosky, et al., 2013; Toukuhama-Espinosa, 2011). Throughout each chapter of Psychology in Your Life, students can engage with activities. These active learning features are the Has It Happened to You?, Try It Yourself, Being a Critical Consumer, Scientific Thinking, and Using Psychology in Your Life boxes. Some of the features reinforce the book’s content, some help foster critical thinking, and others help relate the book’s content and critical thinking to the students’ lives. All of these features will help students learn and apply the material.

Practice Makes Perfect Most students need to work with material to master it and to demonstrate

their learning. Using multiple tools to distribute learning over time will maximize student learning (Cepeda et al., 2006). Accordingly, Psychol- ogy in Your Life includes two main ways for students to practice with the material over time and to get feedback on their performance, which will

improve their learning.

First, Students Can Repeatedly Practice with the Material by Using

the inQuizitive and ZAPS 2.0 interactive Learning Tools Repeated prac- tice improves learning (Dunlosky et al., 2013; Toukuhama-Espinosa, 2011). When students get rich feedback about their answers, their learning is further enhanced (Hattie & Timperley, 2007). InQuizitive is a formative, adaptive homework tool that provides students with different types of interactive questions so they can work with the concepts and receive feedback about their answers. Students who earn higher scores on homework tools of this kind tend to obtain higher scores on exams (Regan, 2015). In addition, ZAPS 2.0, the online, interactive psychology research labs, allow students to engage in activities that simulate psychological research from the perspective of the participant or the researcher. By using ZAPS 2.0, students will experience the scientific method for themselves and hone their scientific thinking skills. These tools are discussed in further detail below.

Second,  Students  Can  Test  Themselves  on  the  Concepts  in  Several

Ways Students need fast and simple ways to quiz themselves on their learning immediately after reading material in a textbook. Repeated testing lets students reaccess remembered information. Such reaccessing enhances learning (Roediger & Karpicke, 2006) and promotes transfer of the information to new situations using the concepts (Carpenter, 2012). Accordingly, the textbook and the ebook provide an

IMPROVING

PREFACE    ■    xi

appendix of self-quizzes, with one for each chapter. The answers are given for all the questions, and each question is associated with a specific learning goal in the chapter, so students can easily see which goals they have and have not mastered, then return to the appropriate sections of the text to review material. Lastly, teach- ers have the option of providing short pre-lecture and post-lecture quizzes to their students from the Norton Coursepack, a bank of multiple-choice questions that can be easily housed in any learning management system. Indeed, research shows that pre-lecture quizzes have learning benefits, including improved scores on later exams (Narloch, Garbin, & Turnage, 2006).

Introducing the Second Edition of Psychology in Your Life Because Psychology in Your Life is informed by evidence-based principles that help teachers support student learning, we need to continually update the book and the teaching support materials to reflect new research findings. Our pedagogi- cal input comes from psychology teachers who are using the materials, including Sarah Grison and her colleagues at Parkland College. Guided by the latest under- standings of teaching, learning, and improving, the second edition of Psychology in Your Life has been updated in several important ways.

A New Chapter on Sex, Gender, and Sexuality In the past few years, we have seen extraordinary and rapid advances in our psychological understanding of what biological sex is, how we come to understand our gender identity, and how biological sex and gender identity differ from sexual orientation. Accordingly, our new chap- ter—Chapter 10, “Sex, Gender, and Sexuality”—presents the most recent psycho- logical research on these topics, especially with respect to the biological bases of sexual orientation. Our approach is simultaneously informative about concepts that students may be unfamiliar with and sensitive toward people who may personally identify with the material. We also help students connect with the material by relat- ing it to current events. In addition, all of the teaching support materials for the new chapter have been developed by the authors and other experienced teachers who teach this material regularly. After reading this chapter and working with the active learning materials, students should understand, among other things, why biological sex, gender, and sexual orientation are different concepts that exist on a continuum.

Every Chapter Has Been Revised and Updated Comments from review- ers, our teaching colleagues, and our students have helped us ensure that every chapter in the textbook is as accurate and compelling as possible. First, we added information on topics that are important in the field of psychology. Second, we cited the most recent psychological research for the topics discussed in each chap- ter. Third, we added active learning to two of the book’s pedagogical features: The Scientific Thinking and Being a Critical Consumer boxes now include questions for students to think about and answer, either as homework or while in class. Fourth, we worked to enhance student comprehension in some places by reorganizing the content, changing the phrasing, and/or redesigning the graphics. Fifth, we updated the references to popular culture to keep our discussions and images fresh. Finally, we revised the teaching support materials so they align perfectly with the changes in the textbook. As a result of these changes, this new edition of Psychology in Your Life provides both teachers and students with the best, most up-to date informa- tion on psychological research and current events related to psychology, along with excellent new interactive ways for students to engage with the material.

xii    ■    PREFACE

Here is a chapter-by-chapter list of notable changes in this second edition:

1. Introducing the World of Psychology

•  Added humanistic psychology as an influential psychological school of thought

•  Clarified the cycle of the scientific method to include information on how to do a literature review

2. The Role of Biology in Psychology

•  Added information about the electrical properties of the neuron and action potentials

•  Clarified what happens to neurotransmitters that don’t bind to dendritic receptors

•  Included information on hemispheric specialization

3. Consciousness •  Reorganized the information about

consciousness in split-brain patients •  Simplified the graphics related

to electrical activity in the brain during sleep

•  Updated information about the effects of drugs on consciousness to include clinical applications of certain drugs (such as MDMA for treatment of PTSD)

10. Sex, Gender, and Sexuality •  New!

11. Health and Well-Being •  Added new information about

health effects of e-cigarettes •  Added a section on health impacts

of sexually transmitted infections • Added information about positive

impacts of exercising more, quitting smoking, and practicing safer sex

12. Social Psychology •  Explained how group membership

influences competition and cooperation

•  Added new information about modern racism

•  Clarified the information about bystander apathy surrounding the Kitty Genovese story

4. Development Across the Lifespan

•  Made the chapter shorter, more relevant, and easier to digest

•  Created a Being a Critical Consumer feature exploring whether educational media helps infants learn to talk

•  Designed a figure for Kohlberg’s levels of moral development

•  Added new research on how physical exercise can mediate cognitive decline in people as they age

5.  Sensation and Perception •  Changed content to ensure that

students understand wavelengths and how they differ from frequencies

•  Clarified the function of smell receptors in olfaction

•  Added information about the perception of pain according to gate control theory

6. Learning •  Included updated information

about the debate on what happened to “Little Albert,” the infant in John Watson’s classical conditioning research

•  Changed the Try It Yourself feature to help students practice using operant conditioning with a pet

•  Added examples of negative reinforcement that students are likely to have experienced

7. Memory •  Added information about taking

notes on laptops, which affects how students pay attention to and remember information from class

•  Clarified the research on how suggestibility affects memory

•  Included research on false memories to complete the section on memory distortion

8. Thinking and Intelligence •  Streamlined and clarified the

presentation of how we think about concepts

•  Updated the table that presents the various models of how we think about concepts

•  Created a new Using Psychology in Your Life feature about making major decisions

9. Motivation and Emotion •  Reorganized parts of the chapter so

the first section focuses on theories of motivation and the second focuses on specific motivations

•  Added material on how grit helps people achieve long-term goals

•  Added a new figure on the biological motivations related to hunger

PREFACE    ■    xiii

inquizitive  Homework  Tool Research shows that repeatedly practicing with material promotes learning. As a major step toward helping students practice, we are delighted to offer InQuizitive with the new edition. This formative, adaptive homework tool is designed to motivate students to engage with the concepts in a gamelike environment. In particular, the tool provides interactive questions of many styles (drag and drop, matching, etc.) to encourage students to work with the material. The tool also provides formative feedback not just on the correctness of answers, but also on the thought processes that a student most likely got wrong, and it links students with the concepts in the ebook so they can check their understand- ing of ideas. Finally, the tool is formative because it adapts to any concepts a student got wrong to provide additional questions, and practice, on the topics. InQuizitive was designed based on psychological research about how students learn, and the tool has been tested in the classroom to obtain direct evidence of its impact on learn- ing and indirect evidence about students’ attitudes toward it. Because teachers can easily access the student data from InQuizitive, they can flexibly tailor their classes to provide support for the concepts that students find most challenging. New! ZAPS 2.0 For those teachers who place a priority on helping students under- stand psychology as a science, and the scientific method used in psychological research, we now offer the opportunity to use ZAPS 2.0. This tool gives students a taste of what psychological research is like by letting them engage with interesting online experi- ments in a hands-on fashion. Across over 20 core psychological concepts, students get the opportunity to act as a participant and as a researcher to create and gather data from these labs, explore results, and share their findings. To reach these goals, each interactive lab has four parts: a brief video introduction to a concept presented in the text, an experiment or experience in which the student generates data based on her responses, an analysis of the data generated by the student and peers, and an examination of the theory behind the concept. To support teachers using ZAPS 2.0, each lab includes an instructors’ kit with ideas about how best to align the lab with the content in Psychology in Your Life. The instructor’s kit also offers ideas and materials to help students use and learn from the data produced in the lab.

Using Evidence-Based Teaching and Learning to Improve Educational Experiences Psychology in Your Life provides a unique pedagogical system, supporting teach- ing skills and student learning while providing ways to get evidence about educa- tional outcomes. We have spent several years working hard to make this vision into a reality. Now we give the new and improved Psychology in Your Life to you, so that these tools might help support learning in your students, and so that students can learn from you in the best way possible.

13. Self and Personality •  Clarified the three aspects of the

reciprocal determinism theory of personality

•  Created a new figure showing how traits are best understood as a continuum ranging from very low to very high on certain characteristics

•  Changed the section on objective measures to focus primarily on self-report tools used to investigate personality, such as questionnaires

14. Psychological Disorders • Ensured the chapter is consistent

with changes made in DSM-5 • Clarified the graphics showing

depressed and elevated moods in bipolar disorders

15. Psychological Treatments • Added information about historical

approaches to the treatment of psychological disorders

• Included new approaches to treating bipolar disorders with antipsychotic drugs

• Clarified new research showing that use of higher doses of SSRIs are associated with suicide attempts in adolescents who have depression

xiv    ■    ACKNoWLEDGMENTS

ACKNoWLEDGMENTS

Like teaching and learning, writing a textbook and developing unique and inte- grated educational tools for teachers and students are joint efforts. Our work to support teachers and students in Psychology in Your Life has depended so much on the support that we received in the years we have been engrossed in this proj- ect. First, we wish to thank our families for their unwavering support. Our spouses and significant others have been incredibly understanding and generous when we repeatedly worked through family vacations. And our children and grandchildren have patiently waited for us to finish working on the days when they wanted to spend time with us. We are very grateful to each of you.

It has been our good fortune to have been joined by so many talented individ- uals during the process of developing and revising Psychology in Your Life. We are extremely grateful to our colleagues who lent their expertise in psychology to writing material for the textbook. Carrie V. Smith, at the University of Missis- sippi, wrote the Being a Critical Consumer features. She’s an excellent teacher, and her efforts will help train students to be educated consumers of information. Debra Mashek, at Harvey Mudd College, wrote the Using Psychology in Your Life features. Her engaging and insightful voice will help students use psychology to improve their own lives. We thank Beth Morling, at the University of Delaware, for her expert advice on our research methods coverage. Tasha R. Howe, at Humboldt State University, contributed material to our development chapter. We are very grateful to Ines Segert, at the University of Missouri, for offering advice about each chapter and checking the accuracy of the text, figures, captions, and InQuizitive questions. We are also very grateful to the faculty, graduate students, and under- graduates at the University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign. Many of the teaching and learning principles we used in Psychology in Your Life were inspired by the teaching of Dr. Sandra Goss Lucas, who has spent many years training graduate students in pedagogical best practices. In addition, many of the teaching practices used in this book have been empirically tested with the undergraduate students in introductory psychology, who helped us learn more about what helped them learn and what did not.

Most importantly, we wish to thank all of the psychology teachers at Parkland College, and the graduate student teachers and researchers from the University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, for sharing with us their knowledge of psychological concepts and of evidence-based teaching and learning pedagogies. It is only with their expertise that we have been able to develop and update the materials to support teachers’ skills in the Interactive Instructor’s Guide and student learning in Norton Smartwork and in the Test Bank. In particular, Travis Sola, Crystal Carlson, Gene- vieve Henricks, Rachel Smallman, Angela Isaacs, and Lauren Bohn Gibson, we thank you. Your dedication to our mission, boundless energy, and drive for excellence are truly inspirational. Daniel Kolen, you are a fast learner about psychology, and

ACKNoWLEDGMENTS    ■    xv

your keen eye and production talent have perfected our video materials to support students and teachers. You are a true gem in your profession, and we are grateful to call you one of us—a member of “The Team.”

Reviewers  and  Advisors  for  Our  New  Chapter  on  Sex,  Gender,  and

Sexuality Recently there have been vast developments in the psychological understanding of biological sex, gender, and sexuality. In addition, these topics are incredibly relevant to students today. Given both of these facts, we wanted to create a chapter that both reflects the best scientific knowledge and will have a lasting impact on students. In achieving this goal, we worked closely with several research experts in the field and with teachers who have had extraordinary success in engaging students with this complex material. We thank all of these people, listed below, for their excellent guidance, which helped us create a chapter founded in psychological research and representing the most current thinking on the topics.

Paul Abramson, University of California, Los Angeles John H. Bickford Jr., University of Massachusetts Amherst Diana Ciesko, Valencia Community College Michael Dudley, Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville Sarah Estow, Guilford College Rebecca Gazzaniga, University of California, Santa Barbara Jerry Green, Tarrant County College District Marissa A. Harrison, Pennsylvania State University, Harrisburg Benetha Jackson, Angelina College Tyson Keiger, Utica College Marianne LaFrance, Yale University Sadie Leder-Elder, High Point University

Stefanie Mitchell, San Jacinto College Ronn Newby, Des Moines Area Community College Patricia Schiml, Wright State University Peggy Skinner, South Plains College Margot Underwood, Joliet Junior College Lisa Wade, Occidental College Rebecca Walker-Sands, Central Oregon Community College Christopher Warren, California State University, Long Beach Matthew Webster, Blinn College Glenda Williams, Lone Star College Andrea Zabel, Midland College

Focus Group Participants We were guided and advised by fun, insightful, and committed introductory psychology teachers who attended several focus groups in Chicago; Houston; Washington, D.C.; St. Pete Beach; and Reno. They all read chap- ters, gave advice about level and detail, and helped to hone the look, feel, and content of the book and support program. We extend a special thank you to Laura Hebert, at Angelina College, for consulting her class several times to help us choose the best possible title for the textbook. We also thank Gregg Gold, at Humboldt State, for his excellent accuracy checking of an early version of the learning chapter. And we extend a special thank you to the Washington, D.C., focus group members/Mike Gazzaniga lunch club for the lively discussion on teaching, split-brain research, and life in general.

Reviewers The chapters were thoroughly reviewed as they moved through the editorial and production process over two editions. Reviewers included star teach- ers who checked for issues such as level, detail, pacing, and readability, all of which support student comprehension. Reviewers also included experts who checked for scientific accuracy and helped us find the right balance of correctness, clarity, and conciseness. Our reviewers showed extraordinary attention to detail and under- standing of the student experience. We are grateful to all the reviewers listed here. Their efforts reflect a deep commitment to excellence in psychology and in teaching students about the importance and applicability of our field.

xvi    ■    ACKNoWLEDGMENTS

Paul Abramson, University of California, Los Angeles

Arthur Alguin, Santa Barbara City College

Carol Anderson, Bellevue College

Nicole Arduini–Van Hoose, Hudson Valley Community College

Michelle Bannoura, Hudson Valley Community College

Nicole Barbari, Chaffey College

Holly Beard, Midlands Technical College

Dan Bellack, Trident Technical College

Richard Bernstein, Broward College

John H. Bickford Jr., University of Massachusetts Amherst

David Biek, Middle Georgia State University

Carol Borden, Saint Cloud State University

Allison Burton-Chase, Albany College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences

Bernardo Carducci, Indiana University Southeast

Pamela Case, Richmond Community College

Diana Ciesko, Valencia Community College

Scott Cohn, Western State Colorado University Kevin Conner, Liberty University Barbara Corbisier, Blinn College Andrew Corr, Kirkwood Community College, Iowa City Campus Dale Doty, Monroe Community College Gina Dow, Denison College Michael Dudley, Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville Sarah Estow, Guilford College Laura Flewelling, Johnston Community College Shannon Gadbois, Brandon University Andrew C. Gallup, SUNY, College at Oneonta Rebecca Gazzaniga, University of California, Santa Barbara Gregg Gold, Humboldt State University Jeffrey Green, Virginia Commonwealth University Jerry Green, Tarrant County College District Christine L. Grela, McHenry County College

Christine Harrington, Middlesex County College Marissa A. Harrison, Pennsylvania State University,

Harrisburg

Laura Hebert, Angelina College

Byron Heidenreich, Illinois State University Carmon Hicks, Ivy Tech Community College Northeast

Tasha Howe, Humboldt State University

Karin Hu, City College of San Francisco

Sandra Hunt, College of Staten Island

Malgorzata Ilkowska, Georgia Institute of Technology Benetha Jackson, Angelina College

Mike James, Ivy Tech Community College Northeast

Mary Johannesen-Schmidt, Oakton Community College Jennifer Johnson, Bloomsburg University of Pennsylvania

Jeffrey Jourdan, Ivy Tech Community College Northeast Tyson Keiger, Utica College Deborah P. Kelley, Tyler Junior College Patricia Kemerer, Ivy Tech Community College Northeast Lynnel Kiely, Harold Washington College Andrew Kim, Citrus College Yuthika Kim, Oklahoma City Community College Karen Kwan, Salt Lake Community College Marianne LaFrance, Yale University Sadie Leder-Elder, High Point University Katie W. Lewis, Pensacola State College Sheryl Leytham, Grand View University Debbie Ma, California State University, Northridge Pam Marek, Kennesaw State University Diane Martichuski, University of Colorado Boulder Randall Martinez, Cypress College Daniel McConnell, University of Central Florida Matthias Mehl, University of Arizona Stefanie Mitchell, San Jacinto College Ronn Newby, Des Moines Area Community College Erikson Neilsan, University at Buffalo Victoria Noriega, University of Miami Arthur Olguin, Santa Barbara City College David Payne, Wallace Community College Jeffrey J. Pedroza, Santa Ana College Carin Rubenstein, Pima Community College Patricia Schiml, Wright State University Randi Shedlosky-Shoemaker, York College of Pennsylvania Aya Shigeto, Nova Southeastern University Matt Shively, Wright State University Staci Simmelink-Johnson, Walla Walla Community College Nancy Simpson, Trident Technical College Peggy Skinner, South Plains College Latishia Smith, Ivy Tech Community College Margot Underwood, Joliet Junior College Lisa Wade, Occidental College Rebecca Walker-Sands, Central Oregon Community College Christopher Warren, California State University, Long Beach Martha Weaver, Dallas Country Community College Marti Weaver, Eastfield College Matthew Webster, Blinn College Nambrath Rajkumari Wesley, Brookdale Community College John William “Jay” Wright, Washington State University Glenda Williams, Lone Star College Keith Williams, Oakland University Andrea Zabel, Midland College Anna Clare Zaborowski, San Jacinto College, Central

ACKNoWLEDGMENTS    ■    xvii

The  Norton  Team  To realize a vision, you must take a first step. For Psychol- ogy in Your Life, the first step was a leap of faith, when W. W. Norton & Co. saw the possibilities of what this project could bring to teachers and students. As the oldest and largest independent publishing company, Norton has created some of the best- respected and iconic books in modern times. The excellence of these works makes Norton stand out as a beacon among publishers. Because the company is wholly owned by its employees, the employees are the heart and soul of this excellence.

Psychology in Your Life exists because of the extraordinary contributions of so many people at Norton. At the top of the list is Sheri Snavely, the editor of Psychology in Your Life. When Sarah and Sheri first discussed this project, many publishing companies were interested in taking a new approach to developing evidence-based educational products. While representatives from many companies wanted to hear about this proj- ect, Sheri wanted to learn about it through experience. She asked to sit in on Sarah’s introductory psychology class. No one from another company had asked to do that, but Sheri needed to see if Sarah was a teacher who actually “walked the walk” of support- ing student learning in class. That hands-on approach enabled Sheri to see the value in the vision. Sheri’s leadership and guidance have provided a constant star to keep us oriented in the right direction. She has our utter gratitude, respect, and admiration.

One of our key goals for this textbook was providing appropriate, accurate, and engaging information about psychology while supporting students’ abilities to understand the material. The developmental editor for the second edition, Kurt Wildermuth, helped us make the text accessible while maintaining the integrity of the content. He then carried the chapters through the many stages from manu- script editing to publication. Kurt mentored us through these processes, and he should be knighted for his sage advice, expertise, and patience.

Most textbooks have media components. The new vision for the electronic media in Psychology in Your Life is the brainchild of Patrick Shriner, electronic media editor extraordinaire. Patrick’s expertise and creativity helped guide us in crafting many new tools to support teachers’ skills, including the development of the Interactive Instructor’s Guide and the creation of original Demonstration Videos for Students, Demonstration Videos for Teachers, and Teaching Videos. Patrick and the amaz- ing associate media editor, Stefani Wallace, worked tirelessly with us to design all aspects of the ebook; Integrated Instructor’s Guide; InQuizitive online formative, adaptive homework tool; and Test Bank around the core learning goals in the text- book. The end result of these long hours of joint work is something remarkable: media that is part of an integrated package, connected to all aspects of Psychology in Your Life. Behind the scenes, editorial assistant Eve Sanoussi, assistant editor Scott Sugarman, and media assistant Alex Trivilino ensured that these many processes went smoothly. Their intelligence and organizational abilities helped guide us through invigorating and informative focus groups with talented teachers, rigorous reviewing and accuracy checking, and assembling the media support package.

One of the greatest joys in developing Psychology in Your Life has been work- ing with Lauren Winkler, our energetic and creative marketing manager. Lauren helped us convert an abstract vision to an easily communicated reality. She has a natural instinct for explaining complex ideas in simple terms, and her attention to detail in pursuing this goal through two editions is unwavering. Norton’s sales managers, representatives, and specialists are truly invested in supporting teachers and students. Their expertise, insight, and mission focus make them extraordinary advocates for excellence in education.

Finally, we want to thank the teachers we have met at conferences and meetings, where we have exchanged ideas about challenges in teaching and how to address those challenges. By contributing to the ideas behind Psychology in Your Life, those teachers have become part of the extended Norton family.

xviii    ■    LETTER To STUDENTS

Welcome to introductory psychology! It seems like just yesterday when we, the authors of this textbook, began studying psychology. Those experiences opened up a whole new world of amazing facts and insights, exciting questions and investiga- tions. We hope that you experience this same excitement during your introduction to psychology. This book will help you along that path.

Psychology is everywhere, affecting every second of your life. Regardless of your goals—whether you plan to be a psychology major, pursue a different bachelor’s degree, get an associate’s degree, or earn a professional certificate—in this book and in your class you can learn information that will change your life for the better.

Learning about psychology can positively affect your life in three main ways. First, if you plan to study psychology, the content that you learn in this book will provide a solid foundation for success in later psychology courses. Second, what you will learn in this book and your class can influence your personal life. The concepts discussed here will help you know yourself better; understand your family members, friends, and people you encounter; and improve your relationships. Third, taking this class will help you develop academic skills. Many topics in psychology directly translate into skills that you can use to improve your studying. Look out especially for the discussions of attention, memory, and learning.

Of course, in order for you to get these benefits from this book and the class, you must engage in the learning process. In short, you need to perform activities that help you practice with the concepts. These simple tips will increase your active learning:

1.  Actively work with your teacher. Read the syllabus for your class. Meet with your teacher. Get to know your teacher’s goals for your learning—what the instructor believes students must do to succeed in the class.

2.  Actively read the textbook. The best time to read the book is a few days before going to class. The best way to read is not by merely taking in the words or highlighting important ones. How many times have you thought, “Wait—what did I just read?” Instead, make reading an active process by writing out answers to the reading activities at the start of each section of the book. Bring your answers to class, and ask questions about any topics that are unclear to you.

3.  Actively participate in class. Merely sitting in class does not ensure that you are learning! Instead, actively pay attention by working with the material. Take notes on what your teacher says, then ask for access to any visual materials the teacher uses (such as PowerPoint slides), and check your notes against your teachers’ materials after class. Always write out your own examples of the major ideas because doing so helps learning.

LETTER To STUDENTS

LETTER To STUDENTS    ■    xix

4.  Repeatedly practice with the material. You can practice with the concepts in several ways. For example, you should take the self-quiz for each chapter in Appendix B at the back of this book and check your answers. Also, view your teachers’ quizzes as opportunities to practice. If your teacher is using InQuizitive—the online formative, adaptive homework tool—then you should complete all the assigned activities. You will be amazed at how much you will learn!

5.  Practice good test-taking skills. Most of us get nervous about taking tests. However, with the right study strategy and a positive attitude, taking tests is not that bad! The most important thing to do is space your learning out through the term. As you read the book, practice with the concepts inside and outside class. This way, you maximize how memory works. Don’t cram your studying into one or two nights before a test. Not only is cramming a bad way to remember things, but it will reduce the amount of sleep you get, and (as you’ll learn later in this book) adequate sleep is vital for remember- ing material you study. In addition, think about each test as a challenge—for example, as a way to show what you know. Thinking of a test as a threat will only stress you out more. Try to get to the test early, relax, and think positive thoughts. As you read the questions carefully, underline the key parts of each one. Read every answer and map each one back onto what you underlined to see if that answer fits or not. By slowly and thoroughly processing informa- tion, you can calmly and clearly make your way through the test.

As writers, we hope that you enjoy reading this book. As researchers, we hope you come to appreciate how fascinating psychology is. And as teachers, we hope you understand how relevant this material is to your daily life. If you come away from this class thinking about psychology in your life, then we will have achieved a great goal. And if you might want to major in psychology, or even look toward a profession in the field, then we will feel lucky to have you among us.

Have fun! Learn things.

Sarah Grison    Todd F. Heatherton    Michael S. Gazzaniga

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