PSY 699 The University of Ari

Addictions come in many forms and almost always involve a complex three-way interaction between the person, the object of the addiction (e.g., drugs, gambling, chocolate), and the societal context of the addiction. This complex interaction raises a controversial social question: Is addiction always a bad thing? Although there is often a significant amount of social stigma attached to addictions, and popular media often focuses on the treatment and prevention of addiction, there may also be associated positive qualities of addictive substances and behaviors.

For your initial post, the class will be split into two groups. Please see below for your assigned topic group.

Last name begins with:A through L: Initial post will be written on a specific substance that has addictive potential (e.g., alcohol, cocaine, ibogaine, marijuana, ayahuasca, MDMA) of your choice.

Begin your initial post by choosing either a substance or a behavior with addictive potential based on your assigned group. To create a meaningful and interesting discussion, it would behoove you to choose a substance or behavior that has not already been addressed in the discussion board. For this discussion, you must explain both the positive and negative potential of addiction to your chosen substance or behavior. Therefore, you must choose a substance or behavior that presents both positive and negative potential outcomes.

Research your substance or behavior providing at least two peer-reviewed resources to support any claims made. In your post, construct clear and concise arguments using evidence-based psychological concepts and theories to create a brief scenario or example of a situation in which your chosen addiction provides both positive and negative potential outcomes for a subject. Integrate concepts developed from different content domains to support your arguments. Evaluate and comment on the reliability and generalizability of the specific articles and research findings you have chosen to support your arguments. Explain how the APA’s Ethical Principles and Code of Conduct might be used to guide your decisions as a psychology professional if you were assigned to consult with the subject in the situation you have created.

here are the two responses turn in with a separate sheet

Pros and Cons of Addiction: Gambling (Stock Market Investment)

Recently it has become more common for people to have friends or family engaging in gambling behaviors. When thinking about gambling the first thought that generally comes to mind is Las Vegas with casinos and slot machines, but now another type of gambling has become more accessible and popular. This new craze is gambling on the stock market. Stock market gambling is one of the most socially acceptable types of gambling and was once reserved for those with financial backgrounds. However, the process of stock market gambling is equally as addictive as any other type of behavioral addiction (Granero et al., 2012).

There are three common traits of addictive behavior including compulsion, loss of control, and the continuation of activity despite the negative consequences. Gambling creates compulsion through the multiple rewards that are received from the process. When a person invests in stocks, that person receives pleasurable emotions when they win, or the stocks go up. Since the recent trend of stock investment has become more of a social experience, people are receiving the reward of the gained social support and comradery they get from doing their activity with others. What makes this behavior an addiction is that the person will begin to shift between having trust in their ability to gain large amounts of money and increase levels of doubt, anxiety, and depression related to their failures in the market. These people often think that they are gaining gradually through their continued efforts and will continue this behavior despite the negative consequences which usually result in financial distress and family stress (Avram et al., 2021).

The pros associated with Stock Market Investment (SMI) are that it is considered by the government to be essential to economic activity, which makes it extremely socially acceptable and often coveted by others. Research has shown that people with higher educational backgrounds engage in SMI. There are also large potential gains if the market is read correctly, and good trades are made. Another benefit is the image that is associated with traders is one of prestige. Unfortunately, the addictive nature of the process can create a large negative impact on a person’s life if they are not able to remove themselves from the gambling process before it harms them. Researchers conducted a study of 1005 individuals to see if they could develop an effective tool for identifying gambling addicts among financial markets with accuracy. By using a questionnaire designed to identify people with a gambling addiction and a questionnaire called the stock addiction inventory (SAI), they were able to determine that the SAI was both valid and reliable at identifying individuals within the financial market that had become addicts (Youn, et al., 2016).

If assigned to a case involving stock market gambling addiction, the APA’s Ethical Principles and Code of Conduct might be used to guide decisions as a psychology professional through following Principle A. This principle states that psychologists are to benefit those they work with, and their actions are to safeguard the welfare of their clients (American Psychological Association, 2010). Since there are both benefits and risks associated with trading on the stock market it is necessary to make sure that the person can make sound decisions and pull themselves out of a risky scenario. Understanding the process of gambling addiction ensures that the psychologist can identify someone who is simply trading or becoming addicted. By understanding the process and how to identify a person with a gambling addiction in the financial market, a psychologist will be able to safeguard their client and help them break the addiction cycle.

References

American Psychological Association. (2010). Ethical principles of psychologists and code of conduct: Including 2010 amendments http://www.apa.org/ethics/code/index.aspx

Avram, F., Mihaela Luminita Sandu, & Valentina Punga. (2021). Effects and interventions regarding the therapy in relation to the addiction of gambling. Technium Social Sciences Journal, 20(1)

Granero, R., Tárrega, S., Fernández-Aranda, F., Aymamí, N., Gómez-Peña, M., Moragas, L., Custal, N., Orekhova, L., Savvidou, L. G., Menchón, J. M., & Jiménez-Murcia, S. (2012). Gambling on the stock market: An unexplored issue. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 53(6), 666–673. https://doi-org.proxy-library.ashford.edu/10.1016/…

Youn, H., Choi, J.-S., Kim, D.-J., & Choi, S.-W. (2016). Development and validation of a stock addiction inventory (SAI). Annals of General Psychiatry, 15(1). https://doi-org.proxy-library.ashford.edu/10.1186/s12991-016-0105-3

Reply

Ladonna Taylor

Jun 21, 2021 at 4:03 PM

Jason is a 65-year-old man who was diagnosed with pancreatic cancer six months ago. He has lost weight and seems depressed. He tried all kinds of medications to help him feel better however when he started using medical marijuana, his appetite picked up, he has gained weight, and is in a better mood. His family is worried because he is forgetting to pay bills and has a lackadaisical attitude toward his responsibilities.

Marijuana can have positive side effects. It is used for chronic pain in patients with multiple sclerosis, nausea, PTSD, cancer, and glaucoma (National Academies of Sciences, 2017). These patients often do not have appetites and marijuana increases the desire to eat and causes a decrease in nausea that comes along with eating. A study of 1,000 patients reported a decrease in pain intensity and general health symptoms (Meng, 2021). The reliability of the research uses data from other studies and the generalizability is accomplished with the comparison from the systematic sampling and the three years this study was conducted. Using the theory of personality, Jason is overtaken by his ID which is the pleasure center of personality. He feels better when he is using marijuana and does not think of the consequences uttered by his family and his superego.

Marijuana is a schedule 1 drug. These drugs are defined as substances with no currently accepted medical use and a high potential for abuse such as LSD, ecstasy, and peyote (Meng, 2021). Some negative neurocognitive functions include decreases in learning, memory, and reasoning, particularly when started in adolescence. It is associated with an earlier age for the onset of psychotic disorders and alterations to the physiology and behavior of future generations (Becker, 2016). Marijuana users may be unaware they have the potential to hurt their unborn children with moderate to heavy use. In a study with 48 randomly chosen participants, increased stress reactivity and decreases in reward sensitivity were reported after six months (Volkow, 2014). Developmental psychology studies how people grow and change, and Jason has changed who he was after he received his diagnosis. Jason had no interest in marijuana before his diagnosis, however, he feels it is helping him, so he has become an advocate for the drug.

As a clinician, if Jason was my client, it is my responsibility to avoid any harm and respect his dignity to make his own decisions (APA, 2010). I would present him with literature on the risks of using marijuana, and if his doctor agreed, I would like to see any neurological tests that were performed and order new tests for comparison.

American Psychological Association. (2010). Ethical principles of psychologists and code of conduct: Including 2010 amendments (Links to an external site.) (Links to an external site.).

Becker, J. B., Sanchis-Segura, C., Agabio, R., Campesi, I., Pisanu, C., Gessa, G. L., & Franconi, F. (2016). Sex differences in substance use disorders: focus on side effects. Addiction Biology, 21(5), 1030. https://doi-org.proxy-library.ashford.edu/10.1111/adb.12395

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