PSC4900 Virginia Commonwealth Industrial Pollution in the Philippines Paper

Question Description

In this class we will become experts on one Asian country of our choice,, and delve deeper into an issue of importance in that state.. Towards this,, each student will write a research paper on a topic of their choice within ONE Asian country..

Goals::

1.. To devel op in – depth knowledge on ONE country and investigate ONE key issue face d by the country

2.. Improve your ability to think critically and write effectively on politics surrounding the Asian continent

Select one topic /ccase of interes t to you.. You can choose based on issues in the news or areas you would like to build your knowledge and understanding.. I t would be beneficial (nnot necessary)) to select a topic from among the salient issues facing your country of choice..

Write a 40 00 to 5 000 – word paper (aapprox.. 5 – 6pages single – spaced for un dergraduate students ) or 6 000 to 70 00 word paper (aapprox.. 9 – 10 pages single – spaced for graduate students ) that analyzes your issue and presents findings based on your research.. Your paper MUST pose a research question for investigation . It should also bring evidence to bear on your topic,, and using this evidence,, you should try to answer your research question..

For example,, if I was interested in writing a paper on migration in Myanmar , I would first narrow this topic to a research q uestion:: what role do formal and informal political institutions play in managing the problem of mass migration in Myanmar ? After articulating this question,, I would need to conduct a thorough literature review to understand what factors influence migratio n.. In particular,, I would examine::

a.. What type of research has already been conducted on refugee//mmigration issues,, and people displaced by political factors in particular??

b.. What are some of the themes of this literature?? What are the important theoretical approaches to understand important relationships affecting migration and formal & informal political institutions ?

c.. What are my conclusions,, after having examines all of th e important documents on my topics??

All papers must include the following elements::

1.. An explicit research question stated in the introductory section of your paper

(PPapers that pose analytical research questions as opposed to descriptive resea rch questions are preferable))..

2.. Sections or headings organized to answer your research question.. Papers should consider the following elements::

A.. Introduction

B.. B ackground & Literature Review – De scribe your country and problem or issue of interest.. Also give details on the t heoretical perspec tives (iif appropriate)),, what do we know from previous research and where are the gaps,, how does your paper fit within the larger scholarship

C.. Results,, Discussion and Conclusion (ppossible answers to your question ba sed on your literature review)) and discuss the broader implications of your work (ddiscussion and conclusion)).. You can think of Political / Institutional factors , Cultural Elements , Economic , Societal / Community Aspec ts , International Influences etc..

3.. Citations and Sources (yyou MUST use 15 sources at a minimum,, and at least 8 of these must be drawn from peer reviewed journals ).. Use parenthetical citations when writing your paper (aauthor,, year)) and a standard reference list following a common format at the end of your paper.. Cite adequately and appropriately according to APA or humanities style.. The paper should be typed a nd proofread carefully..

Additional Details::

1.. Papers are due on Sunday Dec 8 by 11::559pm on Blackboard . Late papers will be assessed a penalty of 1//33 of a letter grade per day.. The late penalty be gins on Dec 9 .

2.. All papers must b e typed and single spaced.. Font – Times New Roman,, 12 – point size,, single – spaced with an additional line between paragraphs.. Pa pers should have 1 inch margins.. USE HEADING AND SUB – HEADINGS to help organize your paper and improve the flow of ideas//aarguments..

3.. Papers should be between 5 – 6 pages in length (tthe page limit does not include reference lists))..

4.. Avoid using too many direct quotations in you r paper.. Too many quotes make a paper look weak and disjointed.. Paraphrase and cite properly..

5.. Avoid the passive voice..

6.. Aim for clear,, parsimonious sentence structure.. Be direct and professional in your writing style..

7.. Do not plagiarize!!!! Be VERY carefu l to cite properly other people’s work.. It is your responsibility to be familiar with the complete definition of plagiarism.. Student’s who plagiarize run the risk of failing both the assignment and the class..

8.. Please come to see me if you have questions about your research topic..

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Industrial Pollution in the Philippines Name: Ahmed Almuways Course Code: 4900 Research Question What are the adverse effects of uncontrolled and unsanctioned industrial pollution as experienced in the Philippines? What lessons can we learn from the country and which mitigation efforts can be implemented? Background The Philippines is an island country in the Southeast Asia Pacific region. The country lies in the Ring of Fire and thus is vulnerable to natural disasters like typhoons. However, the biggest problem for the country is not its apparent geographic deficiencies and limitations, but pollution. Rapid industrial expansion, more so in the 20th century has led to the exponential increase in the number of factories and associated industrial amenities. The adverse effects of this rapid industrialization has taken its toll on Philippines- the average forest cover has reduced from 70% in the 20th Century to a mere 20% in the 21st Century, 98% of the entire population is affected by air pollution in one way or another, 75 tons of industrial waste and 150 tons of domestic waste are dumped in the Pasig River daily, and around 58% of the country’s groundwater resources in the Philippines are contaminated. This research outline and annotated bibliography is an attempt at understanding the cause-and-effect relationship of the factors that circumnavigate the pollution pandemic in the Philippines, the extent or severity of these factors, and possible solutions to the problems posed by these factors. The Philippines is a suitable area of focus, at least, as far as pollution is concerned because it is, as seen in the simple statistics presented above, affected by all forms of pollution and affects a larger proportion of the population as compared to other countries or regions. The most transcendent avenue for pollution contributes, to very large extent, the pollution woes affecting the country. Manila and other parts of the country contribute to the overall pollution of the Pilipino environment through emissions from cars and industries, extensive use of fossil fuels, dust, and poor waste management practices (burning of wastes). Water pollution is caused by extensive use of agrochemicals and dumping of both solid and liquid wastes in the countries water resources. The underlying factor that is seen to facilitate the maintenance of the status quo, at least, as far as pollution is concerned is the apparent lack of initiative between the government to enact and implement policies that favor environmental sustainability and preservation. Indeed, this lack of supervision, authority, and goodwill among relevant authorities has created a state of environmental ‘martial law’ in the country, where it is easy for corporates to execute their duties in production in a manner that does not invoke a sense of responsibility to care for the environment. The severity of the pollution situation in the Philippines is a matter worth researching and investigating. The World Health Organization (WHO) warns that one in every four deaths in the Philippines is attributed to air pollution. This fact alone is enough to further investigate pollution in the country and develop adequate strategies in mitigating the already devastating effects of pollution in the Philippines. The Annotated Bibliography The Asian Development Bank (2004). The garbage book : solid waste management in Metro Manila The boom is an elaborate and deliberate depiction of Manila’s solid waste management, a historical account of how solid waste management, more so from the country’s rapid industrial expansion in the 20th Century led to the current situation, at least, as far as degradation of the environment is concerned. It cites lack of proper policies and political incentive among the country’s leadership to regulate solid waste as compared to the incentives of mass industrial expansion as the leading factor that caused the crisis, even though some efforts and achievements have been made, in regards to solid waste management. Hector Dayrit (2019). THE PHILIPPINES: FORMULATION OF A NATIONAL WATER VISION http://www.fao.org/3/AB776E/ab776e03.htm This website explores the need for reevaluation and reformulation of a national water policy through legislation in a manner that seeks to successfully and effectively mitigate the effects of water pollution. The article cites the major drawbacks and the current situation, at least, as far as water pollution is concerned (58% of the country’s groundwater resources are contaminated and the amount of waste dumped in rivers). It also sites lack of efficient policies as the reason for the rampant pollution. Dudez Perez. (2019). Philippines Ranks Third in Air Pollution Deaths. Here’s What Needs to Be Done https://ecowarriorprincess.net/2019/03/philippines-ranks-third-air-pollution-deaths-whatneeds-to-be-done/ The websites analyzes, in the most chilling way possible, the overlying effects of air pollution in the Philippines. It reiterates that nearly the entire Pilipino population is affected by air pollution, in one way or the other. It seeks to cause alarm and raise awareness on the extent of air pollution in the Philippines. It reveals how the country ranks third in the mortality rates that result from such pollution (over 40,000 deaths every year). It suggests political and legal intervention, as well as the development and promotion of alternative energy and waste management practices in the country. Carmella Fonbuena (2019). ‘The odour of burning wakes us”: inside the Philippines’ Plastic City. https://www.theguardian.com/global-development/2019/jul/08/waste-recycling-smellpollution-philippines-plastic-city The media article further accentuates the point of the previous article by approaching air pollution in the Philippines from a personalized point of view. Although it subtly mentions the deaths and frequency of the same, as a result of air pollution, the article focuses on the effects air pollution has on the country’s people- it gives a clear glimpse of the health effects of air pollution and what should be done in order to mitigate the effects of pollution in the Philippines. S.M. Gallardo (2013). Air Pollution Studies in Metromanila and Catalysis Technology Towards Clean Air Philippines Through the journal, Gallardo gives a subtle historical account on the changes in air quality in Manila and the Philippines in general, as a result of the industrial expansion in the late 20th Century. The article does a good job at evaluating, exploring and explaining the various factors that have led to the deterioration of air quality in the country. It traces the exponential increase in the number of cars and the subsequent increase in emissions as well as the increase in factories and other industrial amenities as major causes of the current pollution situation in the Philippines. Carly Timm, Lacoul Manesh & United Nations Environment Programme. (2015). Environmental dispatches : reflections on challenges, innovation and resilience in Asia-Pacific The book explains the current pollution situation in the Philippines, in terms of general extensile and quantitative data, as presented by the UN, the challenges the country is facing, at least, as far as environmental conservation is concerned. It cites a lack of support and involvement by the government as a major cause of maintaining the status quo. It also reviews and suggests useful technologies and innovations suited, implemented in a few parts of Philippines and recommended in the entire country. Ross Marlay (1977). Pollution and politics in the Philippines The book is an exploration of the political dispositions in the 20th Century that led to the mass expansion of industries and urbanization of the Philippines in the 20th Century- corruption, mismanagement, negligence and the like. The book warns of the impending environmental challenges the country would face soon after its release (that the country is facing now). It faults the legislative and political goodwill of leaders in mitigating the effects of the impending pollution crisis. Sara Meerow (2017). Double exposure, infrastructure planning, and urban climate resilience in coastal megacities The publication is an exploration of the intensive resources needed to build, expand and maintain the utility of Coastal megacities and other cities like Manila that are in geographically vulnerable but with the potential and probability of rapid expansion. It suggests innovative methods of urban planning and resource management that have the potential to prevent and mitigate pollution issues experienced in the country. Martha Patrici Sierra Vegas and Luis M. Teran (2012). Air pollution: Impact and prevention The publication is a deep and thorough exploration of all effects of air pollution. It explores the severity of the same; the transcending cause-and-effect relationships clearly and concisely that seeks to raise awareness of the same, as well as suggest appropriate mitigation efforts. State of water : the Philippines. (2019). http://www.wepadb.net/policies/state/philippines/overview.htm The article published by wepa-db analyzes the current water situation in the Philippines, in terms of pollution, safety, among other transcending aspects of water quality. References Book by the Asian Development Bank ADB, T. A. D. B. (2004). The garbage book : solid waste management in Metro Manila. (1st ed.). Mandaluyong City, Metro Manila, Philippines: Asian Development Bank. Accredited Website Dayrit, H. (2019). THE PHILIPPINES: FORMULATION OF A NATIONAL WATER VISION – Hector Dayrit. Retrieved October 18, 2019, from Fao.org website: http://www.fao.org/3/AB776E/ab776e03.htm Accredited Website Dudez Perez. (2019). Philippines Ranks Third in Air Pollution Deaths. Here’s What Needs to Be Done… Retrieved from Ecowarriorprincess.net website: https://ecowarriorprincess.net/2019/03/philippines-ranks-third-air-pollution-deaths-whatneeds-to-be-done/ Accredited Website Fonbuena, C. (2019, July 8). “The odour of burning wakes us”: inside the Philippines’ Plastic City. Retrieved October 18, 2019, from the Guardian website: https://www.theguardian.com/global-development/2019/jul/08/waste-recycling-smellpollution-philippines-plastic-city Journal Gallardo, S. M. (2013). Air Pollution Studies in Metromanila and Catalysis Technology Towards Clean Air Philippines. Pure and Applied Geophysics, 160(1–2), 325–339. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00024-003-8781-8 Book Lacoul Manesh, Timm, C., & United Nations Environment Programme. (2015). Environmental dispatches : reflections on challenges, innovation and resilience in Asia-Pacific. Nairobi, Kenya: United Nations Environment Programme. Book Marlay, R. (1977). Pollution and politics in the Philippines. Athens: Ohio University Center For International Studies, Southeast Asia Program. Journal Meerow, S. (2017). Double exposure, infrastructure planning, and urban climate resilience in coastal megacities: A case study of Manila. Environment and Planning A: Economy and Space, 49(11), 2649–2672. https://doi.org/10.1177/0308518×17723630 Journal with 2 authors SIERRA-VARGAS, M. P., & TERAN, L. M. (2012). Air pollution: Impact and prevention. Respirology, 17(7), 1031–1038. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1440-1843.2012.02213.x Accredited Website State of water : Philippines. (2019). Retrieved from Wepa-db.net website: http://www.wepadb.net/policies/state/philippines/overview.htm POLITICS OF ASIA (FALL 2019) PSC 4900, CRN 54627-001 GUIDELINES FOR FINAL RESEARCH PAPER Deadline: Sunday Dec 8, 11:59pm on Blackboard In this class we will become experts on one Asian country of our choice, and delve deeper into an issue of importance in that state. Towards this, each student will write a research paper on a topic of their choice within ONE Asian country. Goals: 1. To develop in-depth knowledge on ONE country and investigate ONE key issue faced by the country 2. Improve your ability to think critically and write effectively on politics surrounding the Asian continent Select one topic/case of interest to you. You can choose based on issues in the news or areas you would like to build your knowledge and understanding. It would be beneficial (not necessary) to select a topic from among the salient issues facing your country of choice. Write a 4000 to 5000-word paper (approx. 5-6pages single-spaced for undergraduate students) or 6000 to 7000 word paper (approx. 9-10 pages single-spaced for graduate students) that analyzes your issue and presents findings based on your research. Your paper MUST pose a research question for investigation. It should also bring evidence to bear on your topic, and using this evidence, you should try to answer your research question. For example, if I was interested in writing a paper on migration in Myanmar, I would first narrow this topic to a research question: what role do formal and informal political institutions play in managing the problem of mass migration in Myanmar? After articulating this question, I would need to conduct a thorough literature review to understand what factors influence migration. In particular, I would examine: a. What type of research has already been conducted on refugee/migration issues, and people displaced by political factors in particular? b. What are some of the themes of this literature? What are the important theoretical approaches to understand important relationships affecting migration and formal & informal political institutions? Page 1 of 3 c. What are my conclusions, after having examines all of the important documents on my topics? All papers must include the following elements: 1. An explicit research question stated in the introductory section of your paper (Papers that pose analytical research questions as opposed to descriptive research questions are preferable). 2. Sections or headings organized to answer your research question. Papers should consider the following elements: A. Introduction B. Background & Literature Review – Describe your country and problem or issue of interest. Also give details on the theoretical perspectives (if appropriate), what do we know from previous research and where are the gaps, how does your paper fit within the larger scholarship C. Results, Discussion and Conclusion (possible answers to your question based on your literature review) and discuss the broader implications of your work (discussion and conclusion). You can think of Political / Institutional factors, Cultural Elements, Economic, Societal / Community Aspects, International Influences etc. 3. Citations and Sources (you MUST use 15 sources at a minimum, and at least 8 of these must be drawn from peer reviewed journals). Use parenthetical citations when writing your paper (author, year) and a standard reference list following a common format at the end of your paper. Cite adequately and appropriately according to APA or humanities style. The paper should be typed and proofread carefully. Additional Details: 1. Papers are due on Sunday Dec 8 by 11:59pm on Blackboard. Late papers will be assessed a penalty of 1/3 of a letter grade per day. The late penalty begins on Dec 9. 2. All papers must be typed and single spaced. Font – Times New Roman, 12-point size, single-spaced with an additional line between paragraphs. Papers should have 1 inch margins. USE HEADING AND SUB-HEADINGS to help organize your paper and improve the flow of ideas/arguments. 3. Papers should be between 5-6 pages in length (the page limit does not include reference lists). 4. Avoid using too many direct quotations in your paper. Too many quotes make a paper look weak and disjointed. Paraphrase and cite properly. 5. Avoid the passive voice. Page 2 of 3 6. Aim for clear, parsimonious sentence structure. Be direct and professional in your writing style. 7. Do not plagiarize!! Be VERY careful to cite properly other people’s work. It is your responsibility to be familiar with the complete definition of plagiarism. Student’s who plagiarize run the risk of failing both the assignment and the class. 8. Please come to see me if you have questions about your research topic. Seminar in Asian Affairs (Asian Politics) PSC 4900, CRN 51167-001 GRADING RUBRIC – FINAL COUNTRY PAPER NAME: _____________________________________ CRITERIA Introduction – Title for the paper – Clear Research Question – Importance of issue, good description of topic Background & Literature Review – Goes from broad idea to narrow focus of paper – Clearly mentions concepts of Asian politics applicable in topic/case study – Integrates works of other scholars (not mere summary) – Provides both sides of the argument (for & against) Results, Discussion & Conclusion – Highlights key findings and arguments – Link results to Research Question – Discusses broader implication of findings Organization & Layout: Good use of citation & references in text At least 10 citations, 8 peer-reviews Writing style – formal language Coherent arguments & logical layout Other Comments: TOTAL POINTS: POSSIBLE POINTS 20 POINTS RECEIVED 20 40 20 100 Page 3 of 3 …

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