PS380 Grantham University Week 7 Solid Waste Lab

Question Description

Solid waste template is attached with the instructions for each weeks homework.

I have attached the completed homework for each week

This is what is left to do:

USE THE WEE7 TEMPLATE ATTACHED

Introduction: Edit, if necessary based on Instructor feedback, the Introduction you submitted in Week 1. This is the beginning of your lab report. IT IS ATTACHED

Methods: Explain how you carried out your research. Provide details about how you collected your trash and recorded your data, including how you measured your waste. Make sure to outline this process clearly so someone else could repeat your experiment.IT IS ATTACHED

Results: Include your table, and using your table data create a bar graph visualizing your 24-hour waste audit. Create a graph by Converting Tables to Charts. Instructions attached

Explain what your bar graph illustrates in terms of your hypothesis. Refer to the appendices in your textbook for information about interpreting data with charts and graphs.

Conclusion: Write a conclusion of your lab answering the following questions:

1·What do the results say about your hypothesis?

2Clearly state whether your hypothesis was supported or falsified.

3·What did your group discuss regarding alternatives to putting more waste in the landfill?

—(USING REUSABLE CONTAINERS, STOP BYING DISPOSABLE PRODUCTS THAT CANT BE RECYLED AND WE DISCUSSED MAKING AN EFFORT TO RECYCLE ITEMS INSTEAD OF THE EASY TRASH METHOD

What did your group think would be good questions for future research? (our questions are below)

Is this biodegradable?

Will this effect wildlife?

Can this be recycled?

Who are most likely to recycle and why?

Does financial status contribute to how a person discards or recycles trash?

What is the most harmful item that is not recycled?

How can we make recycling easier?

What kind of incentives can we put in place to motivate everyone to participate in recycling?

5·How do your results relate to the average American, your group, and your state? What does this mean about your ecological footprint?

References and Acknowledgements: Cite any references used to create your report and give credit to your group members for sharing their data and ideas.

Submit your lab report, typed in APA format,

Unformatted Attachment Preview

Intro to Environmental Science – Progressive Project Solid Waste Audit Lab Over the course of the next seven weeks, you will be completing a progressive project called “Solid Waste Audit Lab.” This project will culminate in a lab report submitted during Week 7, but will have additional deliverables in Weeks 1, 3, and 5. Part of this project will involve a group discussion. Please review the full project details below, and reach out in the Ask the Instructor forum with any questions you may have before getting started. Week 1: Observations and Hypothesis 1. To begin the lab, you will need to make general observations about your personal trash or solid waste. Consider the following questions: · How much trash do you personally generate? · Could you estimate how much by weight? · How long does it take you to fill up one trash can/bag? · How many bags of trash do you fill up in a week? · How does your trash use affect the environment? · What are the most common items in your trash? · Do you recycle or would you start recycling? · How does convenience affect your behavior? · Do you recycle correctly in relation to the services where you live? · Do you know all the options about how you can divert trash from the land fill? 2. Next, use EBSCOhost to search the keywords waste audit, reducing solid waste, municipal solid waste, or recycling. Find an article that is applicable to your personal waste observations, then summarize and cite the article. 3. Now it is time to make a hypothesis. In the Week 3 and Week 5 assignments you will be recording your waste output and comparing it to that of your peers, your state, and the U.S. overall average. Based on your observations and article from the first two steps of the Week 1 assignment, please choose a hypothesis below for this lab: a. I generate more waste, on average, than my peers. b. I generate less waste, on average, than my peers. c. I recycle more of my waste, on average, than my peers. d. I recycle less of my waste, on average, than my peers. e. I generate more waste, on average, than the U.S. average. f. I generate less waste, on average, than the U.S. average. 4. Then, for your Week 1 submission, write an Introduction to your lab report that includes a summary of your observations, a summary and citation of your chosen article, statement of your hypothesis and an explanation of why you chose that hypothesis, and a prediction of your lab results. Your prediction should be stated as an “if/then” statement. For example, “If I collect my trash for 24 hours, then the weight of my trash will be less than the average of my classmates.” 5. Submit your typed Introduction, in lab report format (see template), including a Reference page for your article, to the dropbox for grading in Week 1. Week 3: Lab Test, Results, and Discussion This week you will complete a Personal Waste Audit. Two tables have been provided in this template to assist you in this process. For one 24-hour period collect all of your trash. Record and categorize your waste based on the data fields in the tables. Feel free to leave off any items that you feel are of a personal nature, but be as honest as possible in recording your data. Submit the following tables of completed data as an uploaded document to the lab dropbox for Week 3. Helpful Definitions: · Material: What is your trash made out of? Categories include plastic, paper/cardboard, food waste, metal, mixed (made of a variety of materials that cannot be easily separated, ex. a battery), cloth/fiber, or other (used for more specific materials). · Disposal Method: How did you throw away your trash? Did you put it in a trash can, recycle it, or use another disposal method (ex. Garbage disposal)? Did you plan to reuse it? · Alternative Method: What is another way you could have disposed of your trash or prevented the need for trash? Examples including recycling the material, choosing not to use that item (ex. No longer use straws for drinking), or finding a non-waste-generating alternative such as reusing, donating, repurposing or composting. · Weight in Lbs.: To the best of your ability, weigh your trash in each category and as a whole. The total weight in Lbs. for all your trash will be used in the next step of this lab, so it needs to be accurate. You can weigh trash by standing on a scale, recording your weight, then standing on the scale holding the trash, recording the new weight, and subtracting the first recorded weight from the second. · Percentage of Total Count: This data point is found by counting up the number of items of a particular material you threw away and dividing it by the total number of items you threw away, then multiplying the total by 100. · Trash vs. Recycled: For this area of the chart, indicate how many items of that material type you threw away and how many items of that material type you recycled. Week 4: Data Sharing After you have submitted and received a grade on your data, your instructor will place you in a group. Share your data in your group’s discussion forum. Ask your group any questions relevant to your hypothesis. Analyze all the group’s data to determine if your hypothesis is supported or falsified. With your group, discuss other potential research or questions that have arisen related to this study. Also discuss potential ways that you can divert waste from the landfill. These group responses will be shared in your final lab report, and you will be graded on your total participation in the group discussion in Week 7. Week 5: Reviewing Results This week you will be comparing your and your group’s data to that of your state and the U.S. Depending on your hypothesis, this exercise may be the final step in researching your hypothesis and prediction. The biennial “State of Garbage in America” survey documents the ability of U.S. residents to generate prodigious amounts of municipal solid waste (MSW). According to the most recent survey, on a per capita basis, Missouri residents generate the least MSW (4.5 lb/day), whereas Hawai‘i residents (and its many tourists) generate the most (15.5 lb/day). The average for the United States as a whole is 6.8 lb MSW per person per day. To complete the table below, calculate the average total amount per person of MSW generated in 1 day and in 1 year for each group listed. You will need the data shared in your group discussion forum, the Generated Per Capita data form in this article, and page 416 of your textbook to complete this table. Amount of MSW generated per Capita Lbs. per Day Lbs. per Year Average American 6.8 2482 Missouri 4.5 Hawaii 15.5 You Your group Your state The World Once you have filled in the table, please answer the following questions: 1. Suppose your town of 50,000 people has just approved construction of a landfill nearby. Estimates are that it will accommodate 1 million tons of MSW. Assuming the landfill is serving only your town, and assuming that your town’s residents generate waste at the U.S. average rate, for how many years will it accept waste before filling up? How much longer would a landfill of the same capacity serve a town of the same size in Missouri? 2. Using the information in your chart, how many times more pounds of trash per day does the average U.S. citizen generate than the average world citizen? 3. Why do you think U.S. residents generate so much more MSW than people in other “high-income” countries, when standards of living in those countries are comparable? 4. In what ways does the growing amount of Municipal Solid Waste affect the environment in terms of land use, water quality and pollution? 5. In comparing your data to that of your classmates, what options are there to divert waste from the landfill? Submit your table and your answers to the lab dropbox for Week 5. Continue any necessary discussions in your group discussion forum to prepare your lab report for Week 7. Week 7: Lab Report This week you will submit a comprehensive Lab Report regarding the Solid Waste Audit Lab you have been working on over the last 7 weeks. Your lab report should use this template and contain the following: Introduction: Edit, if necessary based on Instructor feedback, the Introduction you submitted in Week 1. This is the beginning of your lab report. Methods: Explain how you carried out your research. Provide details about how you collected your trash and recorded your data, including how you measured your waste. Make sure to outline this process clearly so someone else could repeat your experiment. Results: Include your table, and using your table data create a bar graph visualizing your 24-hour waste audit. Explain what your bar graph illustrates in terms of your hypothesis. Refer to the appendices in your textbook for information about interpreting data with charts and graphs. You can also read this tutorial about how to transfer table data into a bar graph. Conclusion: Write a conclusion of your lab answering the following questions: · What do the results say about your hypothesis? Clearly state whether your hypothesis was supported or falsified. · What did your group discuss regarding alternatives to putting more waste in the landfill? · What did your group think would be good questions for future research? · How do your results relate to the average American, your group, and your state? What does this mean about your ecological footprint? References and Acknowledgements: Cite any references used to create your report and give credit to your group members for sharing their data and ideas. Submit your lab report, typed in APA format, to the lab dropbox for Week 7 Comparison of Personal Waste to that of my peers Rodriquez Evans GS 104 Grantham University 09/17/2019 Introduction: I generate trash daily. I am unsure exactly how much. I estimate a weight of fifteen pounds per week. My trash bags are thirty-six-gallon bags and it takes me two weeks to fill it completely. My trash effects the environment by the way I choose to dispose of certain items. A choice of recycling or not recycling determines if it is a positive or negative effect. My trash is overrun with plastic, food, and paper. I do not recycle but, am aware that I should. Convenience has a major effect in whether I recycle. If I am in public and need to throw something away. I tend to recycle if the bin for my item is in proximity of the trash can. If the option to recycle is not present, I do not think twice about doing it. I do not recycle correctly in relation to the services where I live. I am not aware of the options about how you can divert trash from the land fill. Hypothesis: I generate less waste, on average, than my peers. I do not eat at the rate of three times a day like a normal person does, therefore I generate less waste on average than my peers. The article I chose is called Motivated to Recycle because though I may accumulate less waste than my peers, it does not matter if I don’t recycle. Waste is waste no matter how much a person creates. My recycling observation shows in order to recycle I must possess the motivation to do so. The article is about how to motivate people to recycle. It best describes the recycling observations of myself. It touches basis on how people know they need to recycle but don’t. It speaks about how recycling can be an inconvenience. A large national study of economic behavior led by a Vanderbilt University researcher has found that effective recycling laws encourage reluctant recyclers to become committed recyclers. They studied water bottle recycling and found people tended to fall into two categories: diligent recyclers (40 percent) and those that don’t recycle at all (30 percent). To sum it up it may be up to lawmakers to enact laws for recycling and offing incentives for doing so. https://www.call2recycle.org/motivated-torecycle-waste-recycling-news/ Methods: Explain what you did. Include steps taken for collecting your trash, categorizing your trash and measuring your trash as well as getting the data from your peers. This should be written in a step-by-step process and be clear enough that it could be repeated by someone else. Results: This should include tables and bar graphs. You need to summarize the data you collected, as well as well as your peers. Make sure your graphs and tables are well labeled so that anyone who is reading them could interpret them. 1. One table with the summary of: a. your trash categories, weights and totals b. your peers’ categories, weights and totals. c. Your state and national weights 2. One bar graph comparing: a. Your data b. The comparison data from the hypothesis You do not need to include the itemized list of your trash. Write out general trends, such as, “All data was similar in pape,” “One peer had more metal which raised the peer average,” etc. Conclusion: How did you interpret the data in the context of the hypothesis? For example, “Based on my percentage of plastic comprising 30% of my total trash, and my peers’ average being 10%, my hypothesis is rejected. I had a greater percentage of plastic than my peers.” Explain any significant details related to the experiment. For example, “Had I collected trash on a less busy day perhaps I would not have had so much trash.” What other things could be done to affect the outcome? What does the amount of trash you and your peers generate tell you about your ecological footprint? What options are there to divert waste from the landfill (Refuse, Reduce, Reuse, Recycle)? Based on what you learned, what other topics would be good for future research? Acknowledgements: Cite your references in APA format and acknowledge your group members. Name: __Rodriquez Evans Course: _PS380 Start time: 8:50PM Day: Wednesday Date 09/25/19 Day:vThursday________ Date 09/26/2019_________ Item Material Quantity Sample 1: Straw Plastic Sample 2: Pringles Can End time: 08:50pm Alternative method 3 Disposal Method Trash Mixed 1 Trash Choose a snack with recyclable packaging Paper/Cardboard 1 Trash Brought a Tupperware bowl Straw Plastic 1 Trash Use metal Yeti straw Cup (movie) Paper 1 Trash A reusable Yeti cup Hot Dog container Cardboard 1 Trash Brought a Tupperware bowl Lunch Peanut Butter and Jelly Metal 0 None Metal Knife Lunch Water Metal 1 None Yeti Cup Dinner Salami Sandwich Metal 0 None Metal Knife Breakfast Cereal Hard Plastic Metal 2 None Reusable Bowl Lemonade Glass 1 Trash Recycle Bin Styrofoam 1 Trash Recycle Bin Small Popcorn Dinner Chinese Food TOTAL PIECES Item Type Refuse the straw Metal Spoon 6 Weight in Lbs. Percentage of Total Count Trash Recycled Plastic Paper/Cardboard Food waste Metal Mixed (metal/cardboard) Cloth/Fiber Other (explain) TOTAL . 42 grams 1oz 0 0 0 16.67 50 0 0 0 1 2 0 0 0 1 0 0 4 0 0 0 33.33 6oz 3.12 grams glass/styrofoam 0.53 lbs 100% 0 2 0 0 6 5 Week 5 Progressive Project Results and Conclusion A. B. C. D. Fill in these tables below to consolidate your data (wk 3) and group group’s data (wk 4). Use the website to create a graph comparing the data relative to your week one hypothesis Explore the ecological footprint of waste using the landfill lifespan scenario Then practice data literacy. Use the scenarios for how you will interpret your data in the Lab Report Conclusion. Part A: Consolidate the data: Fill in your data in the table below from your week 3 Progressive Project My Name: Item Type Plastic Paper/Cardboard Food waste Metal Mixed (metal/cardboard) Cloth/Fiber Other (explain) 2TOTAL Rodriquez Evans Weight .42grams 1 oz 0 0 0 0 6oz glass/3.12g styrofoam .53LBS Trash X X Recycled Ate all leftovers Reused N/A N/A X N/A 6 5 Combine your group’s data from the Group Discussion into the table below. Remember to get the average you add each group member’s data and then divide by the number of group members. Group # _____Total Item Type Plastic Paper/Cardboard Food waste Metal Mixed (metal/cardboard) Cloth/Fiber Other (explain) TOTAL AVERAGE TOTALS Weight 3.05 7.34 1.49 3.17 .46 4.18 19.69 4.92 Trash Recycled On the table below, fill in the relevant data to compare your hypothesis. It will be whatever you chose in your hypothesis from week one. Part B . Creating a graphic representation of your data from the above table. Make a graph comparing your data using https://www.mathsisfun.com/data/data-graph.php. Create a screen shot to insert the space below: Data by Source My Total Weight of _________* in pounds .53 Group # ______ Average 4.92 Part C: Landfill Lifespan: Answer the following questions help you explore the ecological footprint of waste 1. If you and your group were a town of 50,000 people. How many years would it take your group to fill up the town’s 1 million ton landfill? Follow the steps below (like letters are the same numbers) Step One: Average of your classes trash in weight in lbs ____________ (A) 4.92 Step Two: Multiply the weight in lbs__________ (A) by 50, 0000 = ___________(B) waste the town generates per day in lbs 246,000 Step Three: Convert the weight in lbs ___________(B) to tons by multiplying by 0.00045359237 = _____________ (C) 0.0022316744604 Or you can use https://www.rapidtables.com/convert/weight/pound-to-ton.html Step Four: How many times will the town’s weight in tons go into 1million tons? So divide __0.0022316744604___ (C) into 1,000,000 ________________(D). 2.24 (2.2316744604) This would be how many days it would take for the town to make 1 million tons of waste and thus fill the landfill. Step Five: You can divide the number of days __2.2316744604__________ (D) by 365 to give how many years it take __6.11417________ (E*). So, if you and your group were a town of 50,000 people. How many years would it take your group to fill up the town’s 1 million ton landfill? ____________________ (E)1.2223 Reflect on what waste generation (Trash) and landfill lifespans means for you ecological footprint. Part D. Now you will practice interpreting graph. Help the following students decide if their data supports or falsifies their hypothesis. Use the graphs to interpret each of four scenarios below: 1. Shannon’s hypothesis is : I generate less waste than my peers. Does the graph show that data supports or falsifies her hypothesis? Explain your answer in two –three sentences. Answer: Shannon’s hypothesis is false. The graph shows Shannon’s solid waste generation is 5lbs. The chart comparing to her peers shows they discarded only 3lbs of solid waste. 2. Lucilia’s hypothesis is : I generate more waste, on average, than my peers. 3. Does the graph show that data supports or falsifies her hypothesis? Explain your answer in two –three sentences. Answer: Lucilia’s hypothesis is correct. Lucilia’s graph shows she discarded 5lbs of solid waste, while her peer used 3lbs.Lucilia used 2lbs more than her peers. 4. If Salvador’s hypothesis is: I will generate less waste than the average American. Does the graph show that data supports or falsifies his hypothesis? Explain your answer in two –three sentences. Answer: Salvador’s hypothesis in not correct. The average American generated 4.8lbs of solid waste, while Salvador generated 5lbs. 5. If Anthony’s hypothesis is: The United States generated more waste per capita in 2009. Does the graph show that data supports or falsifies his hypothesis? Explain your answer in two –three sentences. Answer: Anthony’s hypothesis is correct. The graph has broken the countries down into color coded categories. The United States category includes Denmark, Switzerland and Canada. This group on the graph has generated more waste per capita in 2009 Title (List your title being specific about what your research covers. Such as: Comparison of Personal Waste to the State Average) Student Name Class Grantham Univers …

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