please respond to the 4 discussion posts as directed (75 words each)

I’m studying for my Health & Medical class and need an explanation.

HI253: Medical Coding I

INSTRUCTIONS: Respond to all posts; response to classmates should be thoughtful and advance the discussion, response should make and/or frequent informed references to unit material or scientific literature, follow APA style if resources are used, 75 word minimum in response per post


The ICD-10 PCS root operation from the Medical/ Surgical section that I decided to discuss is (D) Extraction. Extraction means to pull or strip out all or a portion of a body part. The body part is pulled or stripped from its location by force, some examples of extraction procedures are dilation and curettage, and vein stripping. An example of dilation and curettage would be 0UDB7ZX, this code is used when a female patient under anesthesia has dilators placed to make the cervix ready for insertion of the suction cannula. The tissue sample that they collected during this procedure will be sent off to a lab to screen for endometrial cancer.

~Ashleigh Cilluffa~


The root operation I chose to describe is ‘extraction’. According to AHIMA, extraction is defined as pulling or stripping out or off all or a portion of a body part by the use of force” (CD-10-PCS Root Operation Groups, 2010). Examples of extraction include, suction dilation and curettage, nonexcisional debridement of skin, extraction of teeth, certain biopsies, medical necessity liposuction and much more.

Victor Tote, a 35-year-old male, presented to the dentist office for upper right-sided mouth pain. After thorough examination, it is concluded that the patient has a decayed tooth. It is recommend the entire tooth is extracted from the patient’s mouth. The procedure code is 0CDWXZ0, Extraction of Upper Tooth, Single, External Approach.


SC121: Human Anatomy and Physiology I

INSTRUCTIONS: Respond to all posts; response to classmates should be thoughtful and advance the discussion, response should make and/or frequent informed references to unit material or scientific literature, follow APA style if resources are used, 75 word minimum in response per post


For this week’s discussion, I chose to do a mitochondrial myopathies campaign. Mitochondrial myopathies are a group of neuromuscular diseases caused by damage to the mitochondria, which are energy-producing structures in cells – think of them like a power plant for the nerve and muscle cells in this case (Shiel, 2018). Because mitochondria are found in almost all of our cells, there are many affected areas of the body and a lot of symptoms which include seizures, spasms, developmental delays, deafness, dementia, stroke, poor balance, peripheral nerve problems, cardiac muscle weakness, liver failure, fatty liver, Fanconi’s syndrome (loss of essential metabolites in urine), nephrotic syndrome, drooping eyelids, inability to move eyes, blindness, cataracts, muscle weakness, exercise intolerance, cramps, excretion of muscle protein myoglobin into urine, difficulty swallowing, vomiting, feeling of being full, chronic diarrhea, symptoms of intestinal obstruction, and diabetes (MDA, 2020).

I believe it is important to for the public to be aware of Mitochondrial myopathies because they are one of the most common forms of metabolic disease; an estimated 1 in 5,000 Americans are affected by mitochondrial myopathies (NORD, 2019). There is no specific treatment, therefore research is important because understanding the genetic defects that cause these diseases can lead to the development of specific treatment (MDA, 2020). Mitochondrial myopathies may not be preventable because while the gene defect may be inherited, it may not be. This is also where more research would be extremely valuable.

I would say that my target audience would be young adults (17-30 years old) for two reasons – the first is because the onset of mitochondrial myopathies is before the age of 20, and the second is that, since this can be a hereditary gene mutation, I think it would be important for soon-to-be parents to be aware of this potential problem (Shiel, 2018). In order to get people’s attention and raise money for research, my social media campaign would be a push-up challenge since this is a disease(s) that affects the muscles. I am absolutely terrible at push-ups, so I would make it a week-long challenge where you start by doing 5, and then each day increase the number of push-ups by 5. How many push-ups can you do? Do you think 5 is enough, or that 35 is too many? Would you participate in this challenge?

~Abbie Boes~


Hello everyone,

“Mitochondrial myopathies are a group of neuromuscular diseases caused by damage to the mitochondria- small, energy-producing structures that serve as the cells’ “power plants” (National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, 2019)”. The most common syndromes include; Leigh syndrome, Kearns-Sayre syndrome, mitochondrial DNA depletion syndrome, Pearson syndrome, Progressive external ophthalmoplegia, neuropathy, ataxia and retinitis pigmentosa, myoclonus epilepsy with ragged eye fibers, mitochondrial encephalomyopathy, lactic acidosis and stroke like episodes, and mitochondrial nuerogastrointestinal encephalomyopathy (Muscular Dystrophy Association, 2011). It is important to have public awareness of Mitochondrial myopathies to increase donations to fund research for better treatments and hopefully cures. Also, so people living with these diseases can receive support and understanding.

Mitochondrial myopathies attack the mitochondria, which is the cell that produces the energy, or ATP needed for cells to function. With these disease, some or all the mitochondria are shut down, which can affect many different cell types, such as organs and tissue cells. Muscle and nerve cells require a lot of energy, that is why mitochondrial myopathies cause muscular and neurological problems (Muscular Dystrophy Association, 2011). Symptoms include; exercise intolerance, muscle weakness, dementia, heart failure, movement disorders, deafness, stroke-like episodes, blindness, droopy eyelids, vomiting, seizures, and limited eye mobility. The prognosis for the different disorders can vary in severity from weakness to death (National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, 2019).

Mitochondrial myopathies are not preventable because they are caused by genetic mutations, and most cases are sporadic not familial. The genetic mutations affect different parts in cellular respiration. When the mitochondria are defective, it doesn’t produce ATP and becomes filled with free radicals and fuel molecules. This will cause the cell to produce harmful byproducts that cause damage to muscles and nerves (National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, 2019). Research is important in developing new treatments and therapies. Cells divide, and die off, and often people with mitochondrial disease have a mix of healthy and mutant mitochondria. Researching different ways to remove the mutant cells or promoting healthy cells may be a way to cure these diseases (National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, 2019).

To get the public to care about mitochondrial diseases, I would start a blog with patient’s stories who are affected by mitochondrial diseases. People would be able to share their stories on social media, as well as add it to the blog. There is a mitochondrial disease awareness week in September. During this week, the social media page would have a fact sheet that can be shared on social media to educate people. Also, I would create a virtual run where people nominate each other on social media. These people then donate money to run, walk, or skip however far they want while filming it. People would be encouraged to wear crazy outfits just for fun. Their runs can be uploaded to the blog website. The target audience would include everyone. I would promote any able body to participate in the run to raise money.


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