Pamplet About chapter

Choose one chapter from this health class and make an educational pamphlet or PowerPoint presentation about this topic. Include the latest research and latest medical information, prevention, support groups, medications, alternative treatments, and all information to send a positive educational message to a specific groups. Email your pamphlet to a group of friends, family, or community and prepare a list of questions for them to answer. You would like your pamphlet to be persuasive and informative so you will want your questions to evaluate how persuasive it was. 

Submit here:

  • your presentation or pamphlet
  • the list of questions (at least 5) you want your subjects to answer
  • the responses of at least 2 of your subjects to the questions. You may remove their names to protect their privacy. Just give their age and gender.
  • a paragraph evaluating the persuasiveness of your presentation/pamphlet based off of the answers to your questions

 

 

 

Here is the chapter to do.

 

Disorders of the ear, nose and throat – such as hay fever, the common cold, hoarseness, and hearing loss – are troublesome afflictions that affect nearly everyone at one time or another. While not life threatening, such problems can cause considerable distress and discomfort. Fortunately, there is much that you can do yourself to prevent or alleviate them.

Picture this:

You are sitting in class. Your nose is running, throat sore and scratchy, muscles achy…when your professor calls on you to answer a question, all you can say is “Achoo!!!”

If several of these symptoms describe you, chances are you probably have a common cold. The GOOD news is that the common cold is “self-limiting.” It will last from four to ten days then clear up. The BAD news is that colds are caused by viruses. Around 200 viruses, all similar in their effects, are known to cause colds. There is no medication that will cure the cold virus. In most cases, you just have to be patient and let the virus run its course. Fortunately there are things you can do to relieve some of the symptoms.


Before you begin self care for your cold, remember these important things: 
Pay attention to your specific symptoms. You may have a bacterial infection and should see a health care provider if your cold lasts longer than ten days or you develop any of the following:

  • fever of 100 or higher lasting over 24 hours
  • sore throat lasting longer than three days
  • pain in ears or sinuses
  • white spots on or near tonsils
  • deep cough, producing mucus that is anything other than clear


  1. Antibiotics are used to fight bacterial infection and should be used only as prescribed. NEVER take left over antibiotics or those which were prescribed for someone else.
  2. Antibiotics have no effect against the virus that causes colds.
  3. Colds are spread through secretion droplets, therefore it’s best to use tissues, not your hands for covering a sneeze. Wash your hands frequently and keep your hands away from your nose!


What about medications? 
There are many types of over-the-counter (OTC) medications available. Although there are none which will cure your cold, many can help relieve the symptoms and make your life more tolerable while the cold runs its course.

Many cold tablets, capsules, and liquids contain ingredients which relieve more than one symptom. The key to choosing the “right” medication is to listen to your own body, identify your specific symptoms, and read the label. Pay attention to the listed contraindications and side effects on the label. Don’t take any drugs if you are pregnant or think you might be pregnant without consulting your health care provider.

Another important point to remember: DO NOT exceed the recommended dosage of the drug. If you find the dose you have taken is not working, increasing it will not help! 

Cold Medicine

  • Analgesics : Such as ibuprofen or naproxen sodium is used for relief of muscle aches, headache and slight fever. Acetaminophen (i.e. Tylenol) will give the same relief and is recommended for those who have an allergic reaction to aspirin. Always take tablets with a full glass of water or milk and always eat something before taking these medications.
  • Decongestants : are used for treatment of a stuffy nose which usually accompanies a cold. These can be taken orally or as nasal sprays. They are supposed to shrink swollen membranes in the nose, however the spray sometimes causes irritation. Some of the generic names commonly used for decongestants include phenylephrine and pseudoephedrine.
  • Antihistamines : are for temporary relief of runny nose, itchy, watery eyes and sneezing. Some antihistamines may cause drowsiness or dizziness. Occasionally the nose and throat can get “too dry” causing irritation. Antihistamines may be labeled with the generic name clemastine fumarate.
  • Expectorants : are used for a productive cough, or one that brings up phlegm or mucus. The expectorant works by loosening the fluid in your lungs. Guaifenesin is a generic name for an expectorant found on cough medicine labels. You must drink increased fluids (water) for the expectorant to be effective.
  • Suppressants (antitussive) are useful at night if a cough is keeping you awake or during the day to prevent spreading the infection to others. At other times it is often best to cough in order to clear infection and mucous from respriatory passageways. Dextromethorpan is a generic name for a suppressant found on cough medicine labels. Some OTC cough medicines use a combination of expectorant and suppressant. (In this case, as with all medicines, it is best to decide what to use on the basis of your particular symptoms.) If you have any questions regarding any cold medication, your health care provider or pharmacist is available to help you.
  • Avoid multiple medication (3 or more active ingredients) cold preparations such as: Nyquil, Actifed Sinus Daytime/Nighttime Caplets, Alka-seltzer Plus Nighttime Cold Medicine, Comtrex Multi-Symptom Day/Night Caplet-Tablet.
  • Do not mix various cold medications.
  • Stay with recommended dosage.
  • Avoid alcohol while taking cold medications.


Checklist for Self-Care:

  • Gargle
  • Drink extra fluids
  • Rest
  • Throat lozenges
  • Analgesics
  • Decongestant/Antihistamine
  • Cough medicine
  • Chicken soup


The Cold Season

In the United States, most colds occur during the fall and winter. Beginning in late August or early September, the incidence of colds increases slowly for a few weeks and remains high until March or April, when it declines. The seasonal variation may relate to the opening of schools and to cold weather, which prompt people to spend more time indoors and increase the chances that viruses will spread from person to person.

Seasonal changes in relative humidity also may affect the prevalence of colds. The most common cold-causing viruses survive better when humidity is low—the colder months of the year. Cold weather also may make the nasal passages’ lining drier and more vulnerable to viral infection.


How Colds are Spread 
Depending on the virus type, any or all of the following routes of transmission may be common:

Touching infectious respiratory secretions on skin and on environmental surfaces and then touching the eyes or nose.

Inhaling relatively large particles of respiratory secretions transported briefly in the air. 

Inhaling droplet nuclei, which are smaller infectious particles suspended in the air for long periods of time 

Handwashing is the simplest and most effective way to keep from getting rhinovirus colds. Not touching the nose or eyes is another. Individuals with colds should always sneeze or cough into a facial tissue, and promptly throw it away. If possible, one should avoid close, prolonged exposure to persons who have colds.

 

Because rhinoviruses can survive up to three hours outside the nasal passages on inanimate objects and skin, cleaning environmental surfaces with a virus-killing disinfectant might help prevent spread of infection.

A cold vaccine? The development of a vaccine that could prevent the common cold has reached an impasse because of the discovery of many different cold viruses. Each virus carries its own specific antigens, substances that induce the formation of specific protective proteins (antibodies) produced by the body. Until ways are found to combine many viral antigens in one vaccine, or take advantage of the antigenic cross-relationships that exist, prospects for a vaccine are dim. Evidence that changes occur in common-cold virus antigens further complicate development of a vaccine. Such changes occur in some influenza virus antigens and make it necessary to alter the influenza vaccine each year

 

Pollen Allergy

Each spring, summer, and fall, tiny particles are released from trees, weeds, and grasses. These particles, known as pollen, hitch rides on currents of air. Although their mission is to fertilize parts of other plants, many never reach their targets. Instead, they enter human noses and throats, triggering a type of seasonal allergic rhinitis called pollen allergy, which many people know as hay fever or rose fever (depending on the season in which the symptoms occur). Of all the things that can cause an allergy, pollen is one of the most widespread. Many of the foods, drugs, or animals that cause allergies can be avoided to a great extent; even insects and household dust are escapeble. Short of staying indoors when the pollen count is high–and even that may not help–there is no easy way to evade windborne pollen.


People with pollen allergies often develop sensitivities to other troublemakers that are present all year, such as dust mites. For these allergy sufferers, the “sneezin’ season” has no limit. Year-round airborne allergens cause perennial allergic rhinitis, as distinguished from seasonal allergic rhinitis.

What is pollen?

Plants produce microscopic round or oval pollen grains to reproduce. In some species, the plant uses the pollen from its own flowers to fertilize itself. Other types must be cross-pollinated; that is, in order for fertilization to take place and seeds to form, pollen must be transferred from the flower of one plant to that of another plant of the same species. Insects do this job for certain flowering plants, while other plants rely on wind transport.


The types of pollen that most commonly cause allergic reactions are produced by the plain-looking plants (trees, grasses, and weeds) that do not have showy flowers. These plants manufacture small, light, dry pollen granules that are custom-made for wind transport. Samples of ragweed pollen have been collected 400 miles out at sea and 2 miles high in the air. Because airborne pollen is carried for long distances, it does little good to rid an area of an offending plant–the pollen can drift in from many miles away. In addition, most allergenic pollen comes from plants that produce it in huge quantities. A single ragweed plant can generate a million grains of pollen a day.

The chemical makeup of pollen is the basic factor that determines whether it is likely to cause hay fever. For example, pine tree pollen is produced in large amounts by a common tree, which would make it a good candidate for causing allergy. The chemical composition of pine pollen, however, appears to make it less allergenic than other types. Because pine pollen is heavy, it tends to fall straight down and does not scatter. Therefore, it rarely reaches human noses.


Among North American plants, weeds are the most prolific producers of allergenic pollen. Ragweed is the major culprit, but others of importance are sagebrush, redroot pigweed, lamb’s quarters, Russian thistle (tumbleweed), and English plantain.

Grasses and trees, too, are important sources of allergenic pollens. Although more than 1,000 species of grass grow in North America, only a few produce highly allergenic pollen. These include timothy grass, Kentucky bluegrass, Johnson grass, Bermuda grass, redtop grass, orchard grass, and sweet vernal grass. Trees that produce allergenic pollen include oak, ash, elm, hickory, pecan, box elder, and mountain cedar.

It is common to hear people say that they are allergic to colorful or scented flowers like roses. In fact, only florists, gardeners, and others who have prolonged, close contact with flowers are likely to become sensitized to pollen from these plants. Most people have little contact with the large, heavy, waxy pollen grains of many flowering plants because this type of pollen is not carried by wind but by insects such as butterflies and bees.


Symptoms of Allergies to Airborne Substances

The signs and symptoms are familiar to many:

    Sneezing often accompanied by a runny or clogged nose
    Coughing and postnasal drip
    Itching eyes, nose, and throat
    Allergic shiners (dark circles under the eyes caused by increased blood flow near the sinuses)
    The “allergic salute” (in a child, persistent upward rubbing of the nose that causes a crease  
       mark on the nose)
    Watering eyes
    Conjunctivitis (an inflammation of the membrane that lines the eyelids, causing red-rimmed, 
      swollen eyes, and crusting of the eyelids).


In people who are not allergic, the mucus in the nasal passages simply moves foreign particles to the throat, where they are swallowed or coughed out. But something different happens to a person who is sensitive to airborne allergens.

As soon as the allergen lands on the mucous membranes lining the inside of the nose, a chain reaction occurs that leads the mast cells in these tissues to release histamine and other chemicals. These powerful chemicals contract certain cells that line some small blood vessels in the nose. This allows fluids to escape, which causes the nasal passages to swell, resulting in nasal congestion.

Histamine also can cause sneezing, itching, irritation, and excess mucus production, which can result in allergic rhinitis (runny nose). Other chemicals made and released by mast cells, including cytokines and leukotrienes, also contribute to allergic symptoms.

 

When you get your picture taken, everyone says, “Say cheese! Smile!” So you do – you open your mouth and show your teeth. When you see the picture, you see a happy person looking back at you. The healthier those teeth are, the happier you look. Why is that?

It’s because your teeth are important in many ways. If you take care of them, they’ll help take care of you. Strong, healthy teeth help you chew the right foods to help you grow. They help you speak clearly. And yes, they help you look your best. 

Why Healthy Teeth Are Important

How does taking care of your teeth help with all those things? Taking care of your teeth helps prevent plaque which is a clear film that sticks to your teeth. The film itself may not sound so bad, but it’s very sticky, and it acts like a magnet for bacteria and sugar.

Just like ants at a picnic, the bacteria go crazy breaking the sugar down into acids. These acids eat away at the tooth enamel, and this can cause cavities. Plaque also causes gingivitis , which is gum disease (this can make your gums red and sore). Your gums are those soft pink tissues in your mouth that hold your teeth in place. Before long, the cavities and gums can become very sore, eating may be more difficult, and you might not feel like smiling so much.


Before Toothpaste Was Invented
We’re lucky that we know so much now about taking care of our teeth. Long ago, people’s teeth would hurt and rot. To get rid of a toothache, they had their teeth pulled out.

Finally people learned that cleaning their teeth was important, but they didn’t have toothpaste right away. While you’re swishing the minty paste around your mouth, think about what people used long ago to clean teeth:

  • ground-up chalk or charcoal
  • lemon juice
  • ashes (you know, the stuff that’s left over after a fire)
  • tobacco and honey mixed together

Yuck!

Today there are many toothpaste choices. Look for one with fluoride, which makes your teeth strong and fights cavities. You don’t need a lot of toothpaste, though; just squeeze out a bit the size of a pea. It’s not a good idea to swallow the toothpaste, either, so be sure to rinse and spit.

It was only about 100 years ago that someone finally created a minty cream to clean teeth. Not long after that, the toothpaste tube was invented, so people could squeeze the paste right onto the toothbrush! It was during World War II that brushing became popular. The U.S. Army gave brushes and toothpaste to the soldiers, and they learned to brush twice a day.


How You Can Keep Your Teeth Healthy
Brush at least twice a day, after breakfast and before bed. If you can, brush after lunch or after sweet snacks. Brushing properly breaks down plaque. Be sure to brush not just the front of your teeth, but the sides and back of them, too. Brush away from your gums. This helps to keep your gums healthy, too.

And take your time. Spend at least 3 minutes each time you brush. If you have trouble keeping track of the time, use an egg timer or play a recording of a song you like to help pass the time.

Be sure that your toothbrush has soft bristles (the package the brush comes in will tell you if they’re soft) and that you get a new toothbrush every 3 months. 

Floss your teeth, too. It feels weird the first few times you do it, but pretty soon you’ll be a pro. Slip the dental floss in between each tooth and up along the gum line. The floss gets rid of the food that’s hidden where your toothbrush can’t get it.

 

It’s also important to visit the dentist twice a year. Besides checking for signs of cavities or gum disease, the dentist will help keep your teeth extra clean, and he or she can help you learn the best way to brush and floss.

 

It’s not just brushing and flossing that keep your teeth healthy – you need to be careful about what you eat and drink. Remember, the plaque on your teeth is just waiting for that sugar to arrive. Eat lots of fruits and vegetables and drink milk instead of soda.

 

And don’t forget to smile!

 

Constipation

If you think that you’re having a problem with constipation, tell your parents. They can help you try some very simple ways of getting your bowels back on a regular schedule. Most of the time this means changing the kinds of foods you eat. You may need to eat fewer fatty and greasy foods (like hamburgers and fries) and fewer sugary foods (like candy bars and ice cream). You may need more foods rich in fiber (like fruits, vegetables, and whole grains). Drinking more water each day also helps.

Exercise is one of the best ways to keep your digestive system moving, so you may want to switch some TV time for a bike ride or a game of soccer. You might also try getting up a little earlier in the morning to give yourself a few extra minutes to use the bathroom before going to school. And when you’re in school, if you feel the urge to use the bathroom, don’t wait. Waiting for a better time to go only makes constipation worse.

 

And no matter what the TV commercials say, don’t use laxatives unless your parents and your doctor say that it’s OK. Laxatives can actually cause constipation if they’re not used properly.



Diarrhea

Diarrhea means you have to move your bowels frequently, and your bowel movements are loose, mushy, and watery. Sometimes this happens if you change the kinds of foods you eat or if you are taking some types of medicine. Sometimes diarrhea happens when you don’t wash your hands thoroughly after going to the bathroom and before you eat. (Washing your hands is an important part of preventing diarrhea.) 

Other times diarrhea is caused by an infection in the intestines or some other part of the body. Sometimes diarrhea is the only symptom of an infection, but some infections can also cause you to have other symptoms, like fever, nausea, vomiting, and feeling “sick.” If this happens, your parents can ask your doctor about medicine or an office visit. Together with your doctor, they can work out a plan to give you foods that are easy to digest while you’re getting better.

There may be times when being worried or upset gives you either diarrhea or constipation. Or, you may find that your digestive system seems to be switching back and forth from one problem to the other (constipation-diarrhea-constipation-diarrhea). If this happens, tell your parents. You may have a sensitive bowel that goes into spasms easily. Doctors call this problem irritable bowel syndrome, or IBS.

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