North Dakota State University

I’m working on a social science writing question and need an explanation and answer to help me learn.

Answer ONE of the following two essay questions (only your first answer will be graded).

Question 1.

There has been an ongoing debate in the disability community on whether the “social” model or the “universal” model of disability is more accurate and useful in advancing the goals of people with disabilities.

a.Please define the different models of disability and how they compare to the “medical model”, and discuss the strengths and/or weaknesses of each one.

b.What are the implications of the social and universal models for political strategies to improve conditions for people with disabilities?

Question 2.

Richards v. Presto Taxi and Limousine Service

The Presto Taxi and Limousine Service is based in New Brunswick, NJ.  Malek Richards was hired as a driver by Presto in July, 2021.

On the day Richards was hired, Presto’s president, Mel Drummond, informed him that it was essential to “look and act professional” at all times while at work.  This included keeping his cab clean, being polite to passengers, and not eating while on duty.

Richards has Type 1 diabetes which is generally controlled by medication.  His condition requires him to eat small amounts of food throughout the day in order to regulate his blood sugar levels.  Richards did not disclose his condition when he was hired by Presto.

In September, 2021 Drummond discovered that Richards was eating food while transporting passengers.  He immediately called Richards into his office and demanded that he stop eating while on duty.  Richards then told Drummond that he had diabetes and explained that if he didn’t eat frequent snacks, he would rapidly become disoriented and could subsequently lapse into a diabetic coma.  At this point, Drummond became concerned about the safety of passengers as well as with maintaining professionalism among his drivers and terminated Richards.

Knowing you are taking a class on disability, Richards has come to you for advice.  Is Presto legally entitled to fire him?  Is the company required to make accommodations for him?  What issues need to be resolved?  What laws and cases are relevant?  What additional facts, if any, are needed to resolve Malek’s situation?

Define the concept of “intersectionality”, and how it relates to people with disabilities and strategies for political action.

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North Dakota State University

Answer two (2) “Questions to Consider.” Summaries must be a minimum of 300 words and you are encouraged to write more. (Note: The total 300-word count does not include repeating the questions you chose to answer.

This week we will begin our deep dive into how one group of immigrant Latinos manage and survive low wage restaurant work. The “Bus Boys” are somewhat unique in how they try to control and increase their autonomy over their work. As you will see, they sacrifice a lot to maintain some degree of consistency and control over their jobs.


Chapter 3:

1. What was the most striking or interest thing about Chuy’s story of crossing the border?

2. For undocumented workers, the most difficult task is managing the risks associated with their illegal status. It requires “flying under the radar” at work and in the larger society. How does “flying under the radar” manifest itself in the workplace? Specifically how does it influence and impact employer/employee relations?

3. Is the stereotyped version of the “hard working Latino immigrant” a good thing or a bad thing for immigrants?

4.Comparatively speaking, do Mexican immigrants view working in the U.S. harder or easier than working in Mexico? And what are the implications?

Your readings for this week and next week are from the book titled Labor and Legality. It was published in 2011 and the author, Ruth Gomberg-Munoz states, “contradictory and confusing U.S. policy toward unauthorized immigration sends mixed signals to undocumented people.” She adds, “(the policy) leads many undocumented people to doubt the seriousness of anti-immigrant endeavors.” And she concludes with a quote from one of the Lions, Lalo, who says, “the United States is a very powerful country, if they really wanted to keep people out, they would do it.”

Obviously, things have changed since this book was published. So the question is do you think the message is clear now? Is it the right message? And do you think it will discourage people from crossing? And if you had the chance to ask Lalo about our current policy toward undocumented workers what do think he would say?

Chapter 4:

1. Among undocumented workers, social networks are relied on heavily for the purpose of finding jobs. How does this work? And to what degree do the workers, and in this particular case the busboys, control jobs and the flow of information about jobs? Why do they take on this responsibility? What’s in it for them?

2. Based on what you read, were you surprised by the level of control that the employers allowed the workers to have in terms of recruiting workers for open positions? Why would an employer allow the workers such latitude in controlling the process?

3. We generally assume that immigrant/undocumented workers take the crappy jobs that the rest of us will not take. But based on the readings, this is clearly not the case. So how do immigrant workers evaluate the quality of their jobs? What are they looking for in an employer? What collective information do they use to determine which jobs they should and should not take?

4. Prior to this week’s readings, what were your assumptions about how immigrants managed their money and lived their lives when they were not at work? Based on the readings, have you changed your views? (Please explain) Also, do you think the fact that it is harder to go back home now, has changed the way undocumented immigrants are living and thinking about the future? (Please explain)

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Answer two (2) “Questions to Consider.” Summaries must be a minimum of 300 words and you are encouraged to write more. (Note: The total 300-word count does not include repeating the questions you chose to answer.

Chapter 5:

1. Based on the reading (Labor and Legality, Chapter 5) how do the Busboys convince their employer that they are hard workers and what is their objective in doing all the work? What are they trying to accomplish?

2. After all the hard, extra work is delivered with a smile and all of the work is done, do the Busboys believe they have achieved their goals? Are they happy with their work and status at the restaurant?

3. What do you think about the Busboy’s strategy? Does it make sense to you? Have you ever employed this strategy yourself? If so how did it turn out? And would you agree or disagree that all of their hard work only serves to reinforce the stereotyping of immigrants generally and Mexican immigrants in particular?

4. Based on what you read about the Busboys, how would you describe/assess their conditions of work—good, bad or better than you might have expected given our previous discussions or work in low wage labor markets? And do you think the Busboys’ approach to work had any impact on the conditions of work at the restaurant? (Please explain)

Chapter 6:

1. There are two stereotypes of Mexican Immigrants, one as the lawless “illegals” pouring over the borders stealing jobs and collecting welfare and the other as “the hardworking immigrants” trying to make it in “the land of opportunity.” How do these stereotypes play out in terms of how management rationalizes the way they hire, pay and promote the bus boys?

2. Based on the readings, what we know about management at I1 Vino, and our class discussions, would you say that the make up of the busboy staff has more to do with racial bias or the experience, skill, and motivation of the workers? (Please explain).

3. Do the busboys engage in some stereotyping of their own? (Please explain)

4. The busboys would argue that through “hard work” and “winning the boss” they maintain job security and overcome the exploitation and discrimination they face at work and in the larger society. Do you agree?

5. Near the end of Chapter 6, one of the busboys declares, “I don’t care if I am illegal or whatever. Why not? Because this country gives you opportunities! If you take advantage of them, good for you, and if you don’t, you are stupid. So I feel good that I have been able to take advantage of opportunities here.” The question is do you believe him? Is that what he really thinks? Do you think that he’s not concerned about his status? Do you think he believes he’s been given an opportunity here in the U.S. as an undocumented worker? And finally, do you think he’s been given an opportunity as an undocumented worker?

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