Mechanism of disease,

Running head: DISORDER



Major Depressive Disorder

Mary Garcia

Psy 699 Master of Arts in Psychology Capstone

Dr. Wayne Briner

November 12, 2018

This Literary review the article “Mechanism of disease, Major Depressive Disorder” (Belmaker, 2008). The major depressive disorder is actually a condition concerning debilitation in individuals suffering from reduced interests, vegetative symptoms, impaired cognitive functions, and depressed mood. The risk of developing major depressive is actually linked with environmental factors such as emotional, sexual, and abuse that is physical during childhood. It brings about the continual loss of sadness and interest in a person (Rock et al., 2014). It causes the persistent loss of interest and sadness in a person (Rock et al., 2014). The symptoms of the major depressive disorder include feelings of hopelessness, worthlessness, tearfulness, emptiness or sadness, loss of pleasure in tasks that are regular , weight loss, slowed thinking patterns, and physical issues like persistent pain. Women are definitely more ] towards suffering from this disorder as males have fewer odds of suffering from that disorder. The major depressive disorder affects behavior, development, social life, and the cognition perhaps after getting rid of the disorder.

Disorders always affect negatively even if the person is in remission. Cognition is definitely the very first things the individual will be affected rapidly and for a lengthy time. One review comprised of five hundred individuals that revealed impaired cognitive performance in nine of the eleven integrated studies. In Addison the review assessed the connection between clinical features and cognitive function like current medication status and residual depressive symptoms. On the other hand, the negative aspect of this particular review relates to the extensive amount of different cognitive tests used throughout the studies and lack of setup of standard effects sizes to mirror the amount of impairment (Hasselbalch et al., 2011).

Social life is concerned the second most crucial factor which provides the individual a healthy mood. The more the individual’s social life become disruptive the more the personality leans towards negativity. Major depressive disorders lower the social performance and this argument is supported by the Weightman et al (2014). They generated thirty-one studies for their review after searching from an electronic database to identify clinical studies highlighting social performance in a major depressive disorder population. Their review discovered that severity of depression appears to be inversely linked with social performance. At the same time as the bias toward negative thoughts remains while in remission They concluded that in major depressive, the difficulties with social interactions are observed due to a distorted ability to accurately interpret mental states and emotional stimuli.

Major depressive disorder plays a significant role in hindering the overall development this includes the quality of life. However, if the proper treatment is received, there is a good chance of recovering from this disorder. In addition, an individual will gain a better quality of life. A study by IsHak et al (2015) revealed the impact of the major depressive disorder before and after treatment. Their results show that no more than 3% of patients of major depressive disorder experienced a normal quality of life but in following treatments, statistically noteworthy improvements were noticed; though with more than 50% patients experiencing severely impaired quality of life while patients after remission had greater improvements as compared to the patients who did not get remitted.

The review of the literature states that major depressive disorder affects the major areas of life including cognition, development (quality of life), and social performance. It largely lowers the brain functioning and hits the different parts of the brain. Patients even after getting remission sometimes or on a large extent do not improve, and impairment in cognitive, psychological and behavioral abilities remains the same.

References Belmaker, R. (2008). Mechanisms of Disease, Major Depressive Disorder. The New Enyland Journal of Medicine, 55-68. Hasselbalch BJ, Knorr U, Kessing LV (2011). Cognitive impairment in the remitted state of unipolar depressive disorder: a systematic review. Journal of Affective Disorders 134, 20–31. IsHak, W. W., Mirocha, J., James, D., Tobia, G., Vilhauer, J., Fakhry, H., … & Cohen, R. M. (2015). Quality of life in major depressive disorder before/after multiple steps of treatment and one‐year follow‐up. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 131(1), 51-60. Rock, P. L., Roiser, J. P., Riedel, W. J., & Blackwell, A. D. (2014). Cognitive impairment in depression: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Psychological medicine, 44(10), 2029-2040. Weightman, M. J., Air, T. M., & Baune, B. T. (2014). A review of the role of social cognition in major depressive disorder. Frontiers in Psychiatry, 5, 179.

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