Leadership and Management Skills

Running head: LEADERSHIP AND MANAGEMENT SKILLS 1

LEADERSHIP AND MANAGEMENT 7

Leadership and Management Skills

Priscilla Hill

Capella University

Leadership and management go hand in hand, at any type of organizations; being an effective leader means they both are there to support each other. The role of a leader (leadership) is to inspire others to achieve and shared the vision or goal by motivating, influencing and encouraging people. The role of the director (management) is to execute the visions in a systematic way and through directing others. One role of an effective leader is to establish partnerships with various organization both inside and outside of the organization to ensure needs of various stakeholder needs are met (McClaskey, 2017, p. 4). Maintaining positive relationships with these plans is critical to continued success of the organization because it is reliant on payments from these organizations to provide resources to fund current operations, support research activities and expand business operations.

According to Burger (2017) good leadership begins within the organization. These individuals have degrees as well as experience and training to aid them in assisting individuals in the community. There are several levels of managers and leaders in a profession and their job duties can include but are not limited to the organization mission, policies, procedures and overseeing the entire operations of the agency Leadership does not mean just one individual; a person becomes a leader because of their ability to work well with others. The relationship that the supervisor has with colleagues is one of the most important component to have because the success of the agency and the clients depends on it. Per Harvey-McClaskey (2017), the relational theory focuses on the interactions of the leader and the followers. It is very important that anyone in a leadership position has develop the ability to connect with and build relationship with other leaders in other organizations.

Human services workers have many duties and tasks that they preform each day ranging from attending meetings to fundraising. Human services agencies need the help and support of other like-minded agencies to get the job done that ability to connect goes back to behaviors. How the leader behaves has much to do about their ability to connect with other local human services agencies. We have discussed the attributes of good and strong leaders. It is also imperative that the leader understands the abilities of those who report to them, as you do. Knowing their strengths and weaknesses are things a strong leader is aware of. “Successful leaders must be observant, thoughtful, and conscious of their own patterns and tendencies as well as other behaviors, while analyzing the situational variables. (Harley-McClaskey 2017, p. 31).

There are many issues and/or problems managers and leaders face pertaining to their roles. One main issue and/or problem is handling conflict in an organization. In the work environment, leadership can expect some degree of conflict. The reason why conflict exists is because of the different personalities, values, beliefs, and work ethic of employees. Leadership should be able to recognize the triggers of conflict. According to Robbins and Judge (2009), perceived conflict is defined as awareness by one or more parties of the existence of conditions that create opportunities for conflict to arise. In this conflict, a person may not be directly affected by the conflict. It deals more with the perception of it. It is at this stage where conflict is formed because of opposition or incompatibility. In building a perception of conflict, emotions have taken place. Majority of the time, these emotions are usually negative. Some emotions that may be felt are anger, frustration, anxiety, tenseness, hostility, and depression. Negative emotions have been found to yield oversimplification of issues, reductions in trust, and negative interpretations of the other party’s behavior (p. 489).

When conflict arises, there should be some means of resolution efforts. An effective leader should be able to execute some type of interventions therefore eliminating some of the problem where an agreement is able to take place. An effective leader should be able to maintain control always in the workplace. Being a leader will cause one to not be liked by others but be the example. Conflict is inevitable in the workplace. Considering the increased diversity in the workplace, knowledge about the role of personality and individually held values in dealing with conflicts would certainly increase the effectiveness of organizational conflict management. Every situation will need to be handled differently. Many employees are resistant to change; which creates a negative relationship with the leader. At times, the supervisor is molding herself to the organizational culture, without forcing it to their standards. When resistance is present, the supervisor must change their style with those individuals.

Another conflict leaders must deal with is the gender-bias theory of man vs woman. It has been well known and written that a woman’s place is in the kitchen not the workplace. Past research and experimental studies has shown that female leaders are equally effective as male leaders, yet female leaders are evaluated slightly less favorably than male leaders. Gender stereotyping is one reason why female leaders receive less positive evaluations. Women and men are perceived differently in the state of leadership.

Women of the past western societies have been more communal such as caretaker, emotional, and a help to men, who are seen more as agentic; being active, decisive, dominant. The belittled stereotype and leader role has significant consequences for how women view themselves. Women are focused to see themselves as less agentic and more communal than men and as such less suited for a leadership position. Anderson et al. (2012) showed that sense of power has a trait-like stable nature, and personal sense of power is moderately consistent across relationships. Accordingly, to a recent study it has defined a leaders’ sense of power as a trait-like state, which refers to leaders’ perception of their power and influence vis-à-vis subordinates in the workplace. Sense of power predicts the cognition, emotion, and behavior of the power holder (Sturm & Antonakis, 2015). This questions the psychological process by which power can affect team process and performance, about which little research has been conducted within an organizational context. Whether or not leaders’ sense of power can improve team performance remains controversial (Williams, 2014).

In a structure organization, a strong interest interdependence exists between power holders such as leaders and their counterparts which are subordinates, whereas interest interdependence between strangers is weak in the social context (Lin, 2014). Therefore, as interactions in a structural organization context differ significantly from those in a social context, results obtained in different factors are not necessarily consistent. Because researchers usually explain the effect of leaders’ sense of power by showing the action or goal orientation of the power holder (Willis & Guinote, 2011), the mechanism of sense of power from a relationship conflict perspective should be demonstrated. Sense of power influences the social attention, social cognition, and social behavior of the power holder, and is an important influence on social interactions (Tost, 2015).

Management roles, and what managers do to support and catalyze on the capacity of organizations to recognize goals, is critical to the efficiency, development, and implementation of human services. A transformational leader is one which focuses on building positive organizational cultures, and the role of transformational leadership in terms of concern for team members, intellectual stimulation, ethical behavior, and relationship building, is vital to organization success in this student’s opinion (Gastil, 2009).

Many theorists also support motivational theory, such as in line with Hansell’s motivation theory (Harley-McClaskey, 2017), and the human relations approach, which is my chosen role, has proven to be a successful management style focusing on four key interrelated areas: (1)human resource practices management,  (2) trust, (3) job satisfaction,  and (4) leadership (Patti, 2009), and in my humble opinion, these focuses are significant to team empowerment, participation, influence, and organizational success.

Reference

Anderson, C., Spataro, S. E., & Flynn, F. J. (2008). Personality and organizational culture as determinants of influence. Journal of Applied Psychology93, 702–710. https://doi.org/bkrzt4

Burger, W. R. (2018). Human services in contemporary America (10th ed.). Boston, MA: Cengage Learning.

Harley-McClaskey, D. (2017). Developing human service leaders. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, Inc.

Lin, L.-H. (2014). Organizational structure and acculturation in acquisitions perspectives of congruence theory and task interdependence. Journal of Management40, 1831–1856. https:// doi.org/bj3d

Patti, R. J. (2009). The handbook of human services management, 2nd edition. SAGE Publications, Inc. Retrieved from VitalBook Bookshelf Online.

Robbins, S. P., & Judge, T. A. (2009). Organizational behavior (Liberty University ed.). Upper Saddle River. NJ: Prentice Hall.

Rovira-Asenjo, N., Pietraszkiewicz, A., Sczesny, S., Gumı,´ T., Guimerà, R. & Sales-Pardo, M. (2017). Leader evaluation and team cohesiveness in the process of team development: A Matter of Gender? PLoS ONE 12(10): e0186045. https://doi. org/10.1371/journal.pone.0186045

Sturm, R. E., & Antonakis, J. (2015). Interpersonal power: A Review, Critique, and Research Agenda. Journal of Management41, 136–163. https://doi.org/bj3f

Tost, L. P., Gino, F., & Larrick, R. P. (2013). When power makes others speechless: The Negative Impact of Leader Power on Team Performance. Academy of Management Journal, 56, 1465–1486. https://doi.org/bj3h

Williams, M. J. (2014). Serving the self from the seat of power: Goals and Threats Predict Leaders’ Self-interested Behavior. Journal of Management, 40, 1365–1395. https://doi.org/bj3m

Willis, G. B., & Guinote, A. (2011). The effects of social power on goal content and goal striving: A situated perspective. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 5, 706–719. https://doi.org/ cbf9kc