Investigation Helping Teens Make Decisions


Investigation Helping Teens Make Decisions (Part 2 of 3)

For this three-part investigation, you’ll apply concepts of brain function and development to the issue of teen decision making.

3 Personality and Human Development / Page 3.18 Investigation: Helping Teens Make Decisions (Part 2 of 3) On this page: 4 of 4 attempted (100%) | 4 of 4 correct (100%) You have 1 reset remaining for the multiple-choice questions on this page. Objective: Determine how the social environment affects teenagers’ decision making.

Peers are important for a teenager’s social development, but they can also affect an individual’s ability to evaluate risky decisions.

Rob and Julie Campbell

Why Teenagers Make Risky Decisions

In this section, you will learn more about why teens make poor choices and how parents can help them make better ones. Use the three article excerpts to answer the questions.

In this chapter, you’ve read about social-cognitive theory’s concept of reciprocal determinism, which emphasizes that both personal and environmental factors influence

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behavior. So although teenagers’ biology, personality, and goals (all internal factors) affect their behaviors, so does the social situation. In the following article, which is split into three sections, you’ll read about why teens are often around their friends when they make bad decisions. Environmental factors and internal factors help shape teenagers’ risky behavior. More importantly, you will also read about the ways parents can help construct teenagers’ environment.

Psychology Today Why Are Teen Brains Designed for Risk-taking? Here are four ways parents can reduce the danger By Nina S. Mounts, Ph.D. June 9, 2015

Adolescents and young adults take more risks than any other age groups (Steinberg, 2008). This risk-taking includes dangerous driving (e.g. texting), drug use, binge drinking, and risky sexual behavior. Despite educational efforts to provide teens with information about risky behavior, many adolescents continue to engage in risky behavior (Kann, et al., 2014).

How do we explain the persistence of teens’ risky behavior, despite the large amount of money being spent on prevention programs? What can we do to reduce the danger?

A growing of body of brain research is providing answers to these questions. People often believe that teens engage in risky behavior because they are not very good at evaluating risk. But early research in this area demonstrated that adolescents are just as good as adults at evaluating risk across a broad range of risky behavior (Beyth-Marom, Austin, Fischoff, Pamlgren, & Jacobs-Quadrel, 1993). So, teens know that the behaviors are risky, but they still engage in them. Why?

Research on peer relationships and brain development during the adolescence period may provide an answer.

In recent years, there has been an increase in the availability of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Using these tools, researchers have found several changes in the brain during puberty (Blakemore, Burnett, & Dahl, 2010; see Blakemore, 2012 for review) that are important in explaining risky behavior.

First, during the adolescence period, there is an increased interest in peer relationships (Larson & Richards, 1991), and susceptibility to peer influence increases during the early teen years and peaks at about age 14 (Berndt, 1979). Consistent with these readily observable changes in peer relationships, brain imaging studies have shown that several

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areas of the brain make adolescents more sensitive to the rewards of peer relationships than adults (Albert, Chein, & Steinberg, 2013). This motivates teens to focus on their peers in decision-making situations that involve risky behavior.

Second, adolescents are more distressed than adults when excluded by peers. A brain region known as the right ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (PFC) might be important in helping people cope with negative evaluation from peers by reducing distress. Research shows that this brain region is used more heavily by adults when being socially excluded than by adolescents (Sebestian, et al., 2011). When teens do use this area of the brain during peer exclusion, they report lower levels of distress (Masten, et al., 2009).

During the adolescent years, however, this brain region is still developing (Blakemore & Mills, 2014), so adolescents may not be as effective at controlling distress during peer social exclusion. This likely contributes to engaging in risky behaviors to prevent being excluded by their peers.

Multiple-Choice Question

The article states that teenagers are more likely to take risks when they are with friends for which of the following reasons?

The teen brain is not developed enough to evaluate the consequences of any behavior, no matter the context. The teen brain is more sensitive to social rewards gained during risky behaviors than the adult brain. The teen brain is more capable of evaluating the consequences of risky behavior when teens are around their friends. The teen brain cannot evaluate risk without the presence of an adult.

Correct. The areas of the brain that respond to social rewards are hypersensitive during adolescence and can cause teens to focus more on the social rewards of engaging in risky behaviors than on the negative consequences.

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Third, another area of the brain, the lateral prefrontal cortex (PFC), is responsible for mature self-regulation and develops gradually over the adolescence period (Albert, et al., 2013). In one study, early adolescents, late adolescents, and adults behaved similarly on a computerized driving task when they were by themselves (Gardner & Steinberg, 2005). However, when they were paired with two same-aged friends, clear

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differences emerged. Early adolescents were more likely to engage in risky driving when friends were present. Late adolescents were somewhat more risky in their driving when they were with friends. The presence of friends had no impact on adults’ driving.

Using the computerized driving task in conjunction with an fMRI, researchers found that, in contrast to adults, adolescents were more likely to engage in risky driving when they knew that their friends were observing them than when they were alone (Chein, Albert, O’Brien, Uckert, & Steinberg, 2011). The area of the brain that was used by the adults, the PFC, helps with decision-making and self-regulation in tasks such as driving. In contrast, adolescents used areas of the brain that are more closely associated with rewards when completing the driving task.

So we have changes in the brain during early adolescence that make teens more focused on the rewards of peers and being included in peer activities. This increased focus on peers occurs during a time when the PFC is not yet ready to assist in mature self- regulation. These factors provide a “perfect storm” of opportunities for risky behavior.

Multiple-Choice Question

According to the article, which teenager will experience more distress when pressured by friends to engage in risky behavior?

a teenager who has a well-developed limbic system a teenager who has a less-developed right prefrontal cortex a teenager who has a well-developed right prefrontal cortex a teenager who has a less-developed limbic system

Correct. According to the article, this region is important in helping adolescents cope with social exclusion, so a teen with a less-developed right ventrolateral prefrontal cortex would experience more distress when facing peer pressure.

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If talking about the dangers of risky behaviors isn’t as effective in preventing them as parents would like, what can parents do?

There are several approaches that parents can use to more effectively manage teens’ peer relationships (Mounts, 2004; 2008; Steinberg, 2010).

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1. For younger adolescents, parent(s) might design the environment to provide safe activities that focus on young teens’ need for sensation-seeking (Mounts, 2004; 2008). For example, adult-supervised outdoor activities with peers, such as rock climbing and zip-lining, can provide a great context for providing the excitement and social relationships needed for young teens.

2. Supervising teens’ interactions with peers and providing rules for peer interactions can limit opportunities for risky behavior (Mounts, 2002; 2004; 2008; Steinberg, 2010).

3. Parents also should know and enforce graduated driving laws. Very often these laws limit the number of peers that are allowed in a vehicle when teens are driving.

4. For older adolescents, parents can consult with teens about peers. Consulting can build on teens’ growing ability to self-regulate and encourage them to identify and develop strategies for navigating peer situations where risky activity is likely to occur (Mounts, 2004; 2008).

From Psychology Today, copyright ©2015. Used here with permission of Dr. Nina Mounts. Multiple-Choice Question

The article recommends that parents consult with teens about situations with their peers, stating that this action helps “build on teens’ growing ability to self-regulate.” What part of the developing teen brain is involved in self-regulation?

motor cortex somatosensory cortex limbic system prefrontal cortex

Correct. The prefrontal cortex is considered the CEO of the brain and is responsible for regulating functions such as organization, planning, and decision making. Discussing complex situations and decisions with teens will help this area of the brain develop and will help teens self-regulate more easily in the future.

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According to the article, why should parents encourage teens to take risks by participating in safe activities, such as supervised rock climbing?

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Teens’ brains are designed to get a lot of emotional and social rewards from taking risks, and they can meet this need through supervised activities. Teens need to engage in risky activities with their parents more than with their peers. Teens who engage in risky activities like rock climbing feel less pressure from their parents to make good decisions. Engaging in sports like rock climbing reduces the activity of the right ventrolateral prefrontal cortex.

Correct. These types of activities can satisfy a natural drive for excitement and strengthen social relationships.

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