Introduction to Ethics Muslim

Michelle is visiting a Muslim country. She doesn’t know what to expect because she knows that some Muslim societies expect women to wear a head-scarf when they are outdoors. When she gets off of the airplane, Michelle immediately notices that all the women in the airport are wearing head-scarves.

According to conventionalism, which action would be most appropriate for Michelle to take?

  • Buy a head-scarf and put it on.
  • Buy a head scarf and keep it in her purse in case someone tells her to put it on.
  • Let her hair show because she isn’t Muslim.
  • Tie her hair back and put on a baseball cap.

Which of the following statements in support of divine command theory is true?

  • Divine command theory does not provide a clear basis for ethics.
  • The ultimate basis for divine command theory ethics can be found in the empirical world.
  • Divine command theory cannot provide clear motivations for being moral.
  • Divine command theory can be a source of comfort.

Which of the following scenarios would be neutral for an egoist?

  • Lamar lies about having done his homework so that he won’t get in trouble with his parents.
  • Larry refuses to participate in his neighborhood watch because it takes too much of his time and energy.
  • Leah has a hard time deciding between the University of Minnesota and Notre Dame, but she picks Notre Dame in the end.
  • Luna joins the armed forces so she can give something back to her nation and guarantee a future for her society.

Why is egoism considered a relativist theory of ethics?

  • Because it maintains that what is good applies to everyone equally.
  • Because right and wrong are subject to the individual agent.
  • Because it maintains that there are universal truths most people agree on.
  • Because it maintains that humans are not inherently selfish.

According to an egoist, working hard to succeed in order to take care of oneself and one’s needs is good because __________.

  • hard work is valued by all
  • it sets a positive example for others
  • societal standards demand it
  • individual flourishing is the sole basis for ethics

Most people in Dave’s culture volunteer an hour every other week at a local food shelf. In addition to this, Dave also helps coordinate volunteers and fills in for people who can’t make their hour.

What would a conventionalist call Dave’s actions?

  • Supererogatory
  • Neutral
  • Impermissible
  • Obligatory

Which of the following represents a challenge to the voluntarist option of divine command theory?

  • God has no free choice and is thus just an agent.
  • God’s commands are not meant for everyone.
  • God’s commands have no basis in reason.
  • God’s commands can anticipate any situation.

Which of the following people would most likely be satisfied with conventionalism?

  • Lucy is looking for an ethical framework that provides a sense of final justice.
  • Levi is looking for an ethical framework that judges actions based on the kind of people who do them.
  • Laura is looking for an ethical framework that uses consequences to justify actions.
  • Lee is looking for an ethical framework that requires newcomers to assimilate.

Which of the following examples contains a disagreement between popular thought and divine command theory?

  • God forbids wearing mixed fibers, but most people aren’t concerned with what their clothes are made of.
  • God says to support the poor, so there are a lot of religious charities.
  • God says to love him above all else, a fact of which my mother often reminds me.
  • God commands people to be generous, so I give 10% of my paycheck to an organization that helps at-risk youth in my community.

Quentin’s faith teaches that God commands everyone to give at least ten percent of their income to the poor. Quentin usually gives fifteen percent.

According to divine command theory, Quentin’s action is __________.

  • impermissible
  • obligatory
  • supererogatory
  • neutral

Which of the following statements about divine command theory is true?

  • Divine command theory is a basic principle of all religions.
  • Divine command theory states that right is right only because God says so.
  • Divine command theory states that the ends justify the means.
  • Divine command theory states that what is religious is inherently good and what isn’t is bad.

Which of the following represents a difficulty with egoism?

  • Individuals pursuing personal excellence often help a society to progress.
  • Because good is determined by self-interest, the egoist cannot judge the actions of others.
  • Socially determined actions are usually more successful than self-determined actions.
  • Cooperating with others is a social skill that egoists do not have an opportunity to learn.

Which of the following statements would you expect to hear from a conventionalist?

  • “A culture’s customs are unrelated to ethical truths.”
  • “Morality cannot be compared across cultural borders.”
  • “The most important culture is the world’s culture.”
  • “The effects of an action on the culture determine its morality.”

Which of the following statements supports egoism?

  • Advancing the greater good over self-interest creates progress.
  • Individual entrepreneurs often benefit society.
  • The rule of law motivates actions for individuals.
  • Rewarding all athletic participants equally leads to more competitive play.

Which of the following observations poses a challenge to the cultural differences argument?

  • Many cultures disagree on the ultimate purpose of morality.
  • A lot of cultures agree that murder, stealing, and lying are wrong.
  • Some cultures are utilitarian, while others are egoist.
  • Each culture thinks its own moral framework is universal.

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