Question 1


According to the text, which of the following is NOT one of the ways expert teachers differ from novice teachers?

A. intelligence
B. amount and depth of knowledge
C. insights into problems on the job
D. efficiency

1 points

Question 2


Miss Evans needs to understand how to enhance student motivation, how to manage groups of students in a classroom setting, and how to design and administer tests. Miss Evans needs:

A. content knowledge
B. expert knowledge
C. pegagogical-content knowledge
D. pedagogical knowledge

1 points

Question 3


Valerie and Jamie just performed poorly on a test. Valerie states that next time she is going to try a different study technique, while Jamie states that the teacher is really difficult. Rotter would say that Valerie is _________, and Jamie is __________.

A. external; internal
B. incremental; entity
C. internal; external
D. entity; incremental

1 points

Question 4


Any relatively permanent change in thought or behavior that occurs as a result of experience is called:

A. canalization
B. fixation
C. maturation
D. learning

1 points

Question 5


Kayla sees a dolphin on television. At first she thinks it’s a fish because it is swimming in the ocean. Then she sees that it must come to the surface to breathe. Kayla then begins to form a new schema representing this new information. By forming this new schema, which cognitive mechanism would Piaget say Kayla is using?

A. accommodation
B. disequilibration
C. assimilation
D. equilibration

1 points

Question 6


During this stage of development, language explodes yet thinking is largely pre-logical?

A. Sensorimotor
B. Preoperational
C. Concrete Operational
D. Formal Operational

1 points

Question 7


Which of the following is NOT one of Vygotsky’s three particularly important ideas about cognitive development?

A. internalization
B. schemas
C. zone of proximal development
D. scaffolding

1 points

Question 8


In this psychosocial stage, children learns how to assert themselves in socially acceptable ways which allows them to have a sense of purpose.

A. trust versus mistrust
B. autonomy versus shame and doubt
C. initiative versus guilt
D. industry versus inferiority

1 points

Question 9


With regard to gender development, which of the following statements best incorporates the behaviorist point of view?

A. Gender-role identification arises primarily from psychological crises faced during a particular stage in childhood.
B. People acquire cognitive organizational systems that guide their interpretations of what are and are not appropriate gender roles.
C. Boys and girls are treated differently from the moment they are born.
D. People observe and learn from role models as they follow what they see being rewarded.

1 points

Question 10


In the strange situation test, Barry is not distressed when his mother leaves him with a stranger, and then he ignores his mother when she returns. According to Ainsworth, this is an example of which type of attachment?

A. avoidant attachment
B. secure attachment
C. resistant attachment
D. stranger attachment

1 points

Question 11


Rodney is watching the other children play, but he is not participating. Instead he is playing alone with his toys. Rodney is

A. engaged in social play.
B. an onlooker.
C. engaged in cooperative play.
D. engaged parallel play.

1 points

Question 12


Betty, at age 13, conforms to social rules because she believes it is right to do so. She is probably in Kohlberg’s _______ stage of moral development.

A. preconventional
B. conventional
C. postconventional
D. obedience and punishment

1 points

Question 13


A teacher was talking to the high school principal about the suicide of a male student. The principal said that the male student had taken an overdose of sleeping pills. The teacher thought that was unusual because

A. males are less likely than females to overdose on pills.
B. males overdose on pills more often than females.
C. females are more likely to use guns to commit suicide than males.
D. females are more likely to complete suicide than males.

1 points

Question 14


The ability to understand abstract and often novel concepts which requires us to think flexibly and to seek out new patterns.

A. primary mental ability of number
B. crystallized intelligence
C. group factors
D. fluid intelligence

1 points

Question 15


With regards to the various aspects or components of intellectual abilities described in the text, recognition of the ability to understand and react to the temperaments and moods of other people is most closely linked to the following theorist?

A. Spearman
B. Gardner
C. Cattell and Horn
D. Sternberg

1 points

Question 16


Tracking is part of which type of ability grouping?

A. within-class grouping
B. between-class grouping
C. Joplin Plan
D. regrouping

1 points

Question 17


Which of the following would generally NOT be an appropriate instructional strategy for students with intellectual disabilities?

A. Teach learning strategies and problem-solving strategies.
B. Divide lessons into small, clearly defined steps.
C. Help students learn self-regulation.
D. Make lessons more abstract.

1 points

Question 18


Typically diagnosed when measured performance in a specific skill area is substantially lower than would be expected based on a child’s overall level of measured intelligence.

A. Learning disabilities
B. Mental retardation
D. Autism

1 points

Question 19


Characterized by repetitions, prolongations, or hesitations in articulation that disrupt the flow of speech.

A. receptive language disorder
B. stuttering
C. voicing problems
D. autism

1 points

Question 20


Defined by psychologists as a measure of a person’s social class level based on income and educational level.

A. Hollingshead Index
B. Socioeconomic status
C. Ethnicity
D. Achievement

1 points

Question 21


According to Baumrind, this parenting style is very demanding and unresponsive.

A. Authoritarian
B. Authoritative
C. Accepting
D. Permissive

1 points

Question 22


Jane, a preschooler, insists on dressing herself each morning for school, even though she generally selects mismatching outfits, misses buttons, and wears her shoes on the wrong feet. When her mother tries to dress Jane or fix her outfit, Jane resists help and insists on doing it herself. What stage of psychosocial development best describes Jane’s behavior?

A. trust vs mistrust
B. autonomy vs shame/doubt
C. industry vs inferiority
D. identity vs role confusion

1 points

Question 23


Mr. Samson wants to know just how intelligent his young daughter, Samantha, will be. Dr. Brown tells him that even though Samantha’s upper and lower limits of intelligence have been determined genetically, Mr. Samson can provide her with experiences that will shape her level of intelligence. Dr. Brown is describing which of the following?

A. genetic quotient
B. heritability range
C. intelligence quotient
D. reaction range

1 points

Question 24


Classical conditioning has been used to curtail coyote attacks on sheep. Fresh mutton is tainted with a poison that causes dizziness and nausea. After a while, just the smell of sheep sends the coyotes running away. In this example, what is the CS?

A. poison
B. mutton
C. dizziness and nausea
D. smell of sheep

1 points

Question 25


Classical conditioning has been used to curtail coyote attacks on sheep. Fresh mutton is tainted with a poison that causes dizziness and nausea. After a while, just the smell of sheep sends the coyotes running away. In this example, what is the CR?

A. poison
B. mutton
C. dizziness and nausea
D. smell of sheep

1 points

Question 26


The mechanism by which stimuli similar to the original CS can elicit the CR.

A. stimulus generalization
B. stimulus discrimination
C. temporal contiguity
D. contingency

1 points

Question 27


When the CS is repeatedly presented without the US, which of the following occurs?

A. contingency
B. extinction
C. temporal contiguity
D. spontaneous recovery

1 points

Question 28


A student who receives a star on the board for every fifth “A” grade received is on which schedule of reinforcement?

A. continuous
B. fixed ratio
C. fixed interval
D. variable ratio

1 points

Question 29


The application of an aversive or unpleasant stimulus that decreases the probability of a response.

A. primary punishment
B. presentation punishment
C. removal punishment
D. negative reinforcement

1 points

Question 30


Gaining access to information stored in memory.

A. retrieval
B. encoding
C. storage
D. chunking

1 points

Question 31


Very large, possibly unlimited capacity; it is capable of storing information for very long periods of time, possibly indefinitely.

A. chunks
B. long-term memory
C. short-term memory
D. sensory memory

1 points

Question 32


This memory technique involves taking the information to be learned and trying to associate it with other things you know, or trying to associate various items of the to-be-learned information.

A. chunking
B. elaborative rehearsal
C. maintenance rehearsal
D. procedural rehearsal

1 points

Question 33


Which of the following are the two main categories of long-term memories?

A. procedural and episodic
B. semantic and declarative
C. declarative and procedural
D. episodic and semantic

1 points

Question 34


Ms. Jackson requires her students to recite The Pledge of Allegiance from memory. Which of the following memory tasks is she requesting of her students?

A. recognition
B. paired-associates recall
C. free recall
D. serial recall

1 points

Question 35


Suppose the main exports of a given country are olive oil, cheese, automobiles, and designer dresses. You might ask students to imagine as vividly as possible a bottle of olive oil driving an automobile, wearing a designer dress, and eating a piece of cheese.

A. categorical clustering
B. pegwords
C. interactive images
D. keywords

1 points

Question 36


Samantha learns French one semester, and then takes a Spanish class the next semester. When Samantha tries to remember how to say something in French, she can only think of the Spanish vocabulary she learned. This is an example of which of the following?

A. retroactive interference
B. proactive interference
C. decay
D. categorical clustering

1 points

Question 37


The process of drawing specific, logically valid conclusions from one or more general premises.

A. inductive reasoning
B. problem solving
C. transfer
D. deductive reasoning

1 points

Question 38


Ms. Smoate tells her students that mammals are animals that are warm-blooded and nurse their young. She next points out that a cat is warm-blooded and nurses its young. Therefore a cat is a mammal. Ms. Smoate is teaching which of the following?

A. inductive reasoning
B. deductive reasoning
C. automaticity
D. transfer

1 points

Question 39


This type of transfer occurs when a highly practiced skill is carried over from one situation to another, with little or no reflective thinking.

A. backward-reaching
B. negative
C. low-road
D. high-road

1 points

Question 40


This may explain why students are so reluctant to check their work, proofread their papers, and think before they talk.

A. availability heuristic
B. representative heuristic
C. overconfidence
D. mental set

1 points

Question 41


When students enter middle school,

A. their levels of school interest, self-confidence, and grades increase.
B. their levels of school interest and self-confidence increase while grades decline.
C. their levels of school interest, self-confidence, and grades decline.
D. their levels of school interest and self-confidence decline while grades actually increase.

1 points

Question 42


Which of the following options is NOT a primary characteristic of the educational disability category Emotional Disturbance?

A. significant difficulty establishing and maintaining interpersonal relationships with peers and adults
B. an inability to learn that is not described by cognitive or other factors
C. an inability to participate in a general education setting with non-disabled peers
D. a tendency to develop physical symptoms or fears associated with personal or school problems

1 points

Question 43


The removal or cessation of an unpleasant stimulus, which as a consequence increases the likelihood of future occurrence of the behavior.

A. positive punisher
B. negative punisher
C. positive reinforcer
D. negative reinforcer

1 points

Question 44


A reward following a behavior that strengthens the behavior and leads to increased likelihood of future occurrence of the behavior.

A. positive punisher
B. positive reinforcer
C. negative reinforcer
D. negative punisher

1 points

Question 45


Helpless students tend to have __________. Mastery-oriented children have __________.

A. learning goals; performance goals
B. performance goals; learning goals
C. performance goals; performance goals
D. learning goals; learning goals

1 points

Question 46


Giving lectures, asking questions, and leading discussions are examples of which approach to teaching?

A. student-centered
B. activity-based learning
C. teacher-centered
D. peer instruction

1 points

Question 47


Which of the following levels of Bloom’s cognitive domain consists of understanding something, without necessarily being able to relate it to other things?

A. knowledge
B. comprehension
C. application
D. analysis

1 points

Question 48


Which theorist described in the text is most likely to propose that students whose basic needs (i.e., needs for adequate nutrition, safety, and security) are unmet will not be primarily motivated to learn in the classroom environment.

A. Piaget
B. Maslow
C. Thorndike
D. Baumrind

1 points

Question 49


This cooperative learning method encourages the interdependence of group members. Students are assigned topics in which to become expert, compare notes with other experts in their topic area, and then teach other group members about their topic.

A. puzzle
D. jigsaw

1 points

Question 50


Direct instruction has been criticized for which of the following reasons?

A. It limits the types of thinking students engage in.
B. It demands higher-order processing what students have learned.
C. It is too difficult to plan and implement.
D. It is too intense for younger children.

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