Influence of Collectivism

Article 1

The Influence of Collectivism and Rater Error On Organizational Citizenship and Impression Management Behaviors

Kim, P., & Lee, J. (2012).

What is the study about?

In this study the aim was to distinguish empirically between organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) and impression management behavior (IMB), and to examine the relative contributions of collectivism and rater error to those behaviors.

The reason why I chose this study is because organizational citizenship behavior enhances organizational performance, so this study not only relates to rater error, but also the topic of organizational performance well ties together what the class is about

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Definitions

Organizational citizenship behavior(OCB): prosocial organizational behavior (Brief & Motowidlo, 1986), civic organizational behavior (Graham, 1991), organizational spontaneity (George & Brief, 1992), intraorganizational volunteerism (Peloza & Hassay, 2006), and contextual performance (Borman & Motowidlo, 1993).

Impression management behavior(IMB) is a behavior that individuals employ to protect their self-image or influence the way they are perceived by others (Schlenker, 1980).

Now let’s go over some terminalogies

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Definitions

Individualism: refers to a self-orientation, an emphasis on self-sufficiency and control, and the pursuit of individual goals that may, or may not, be consistent with group goals (Wagner, 1995)

Collectivism: involves subordination of personal goals to those of a larger group and emphasizes sharing, cooperation, group harmony, and concern for group welfare (Wagner, 1995)

The definitions of ….

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Hypotheses

Hypothesis 1: An individual’s collectivism will be positively associated, and individualism will be negatively associated, with organizational citizenship behavior. Hypothesis 2: An individual’s collectivism will be negatively associated, and individualism will be positively associated, with impression management behavior.

The first two hypotheses are focusing on the relationship between collectivism and organizational citizenship behavior or impression mangement

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Hypotheses

Hypothesis 3: Perceived rater error will be negatively associated with organizational citizenship behavior. Hypothesis 4: Perceived rater error will be positively associated with impression management behavior.

Hypothesis 5: Perceived rater error will be negatively associated with in-role behavior.

These three hypotheses is emphasizing the perspective of rater error

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Results

Hypothesis 1 & 2: Found that there was a positive relationship between collectivism and impression management behavior (IMB) as well.

Hypothesis 3, 4 &5: Perceived rater error tends to make employees decrease their organizational citizenship behaviors (OCBOs) and in-role behaviors (IRBs).

perceived rater error neither decreases nor increases impression management behavior (IMB).

Strategies

Rater training

Redesign of rating process

Climate of fair treatment for employees (Folger & Greenberg, 1985; Werner, 2000).

As you can see, rater error has impact on organizational citizenship behavior, so going back to the textbook, rater training is very important as well as some other strategies that was mentioned in the study such as rater training, redesign of rating process, and inculcation of a climate of fair treatment for employees

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Article 2

Morning Employees Are Perceived as Better Employees: Employees’ Start Times Influence Supervisor Performance Ratings.

Yam, K.C., Fehr, R., & Barnes, C.M. (2014)

What is the study about?

Stereotyping literature to suggest that supervisor ratings of job performance are affected by employees’ start times.

Later start time leads supervisors to perceive employees as less conscientious. These perceptions in turn cause supervisors to rate employees as lower performers.

Supervisors should remain mindful of the morning bias and ensure that their performance ratings are based on more reliable performance metrics

Stereotyping literature to suggest that supervisor ratings of job performance are affected by employees’ start times.

which is the time of day they first arrive at work.

Even when accounting for total work hours, objective job performance, and employees’ self-ratings of conscientiousness, we find that a later start time leads supervisors to perceive employees as less conscientious. Later start time leads supervisors to perceive employees as less conscientious. These perceptions in turn cause supervisors to rate employees as lower performers.

So the purpose of this study is to help supervisor remain the morning bias and ensure that their performance ratings are based on more reliable performance metrics

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Hypotheses

Hypothesis 1: Employee start time is negatively associated with supervisor perceptions of employee conscientiousness.

Hypothesis 2: The relationship between employee start time and supervisor ratings of job performance is mediated by supervisor perceptions of employee conscientiousness.

Hypothesis 3: The indirect effect of employee start time on supervisor ratings of performance via perceived conscien- tiousness is moderated by supervisors’ chronotypes, such that the indirect effect will be strong when supervisors are “larks,” but dissipate when supervisors are “owls.”

Results

Study 1: Hypothesis 1: participants display a morning bias and automatically associate morningness with conscientiousness.

Study 2: Hypothesis 1, 2 & 3: employee start times are meaningfully related to supervisors’ performance ratings.

Study 3: Hypothesis 3: When participants were larks, the mediated model was significant.

When participants were owls, however, the mediated model was not significant

Strategies

flexible work practices(FWP): allow employees to meet obligatory duties, while enabling organizations to attract and retain talent by enhancing employees’ job satisfaction and commitment to the organization.

It helps supervisors better understand how they rate their employees’ performance.

Rater Error training

allow employees to meet obligatory duties such as driving their children to school and caring for aging parents, while enabling organizations to attract and retain talent by enhancing employees’ job satisfaction and commitment to the organization.

Going back to the textbook, isn’t rater training is important as well? Employees need to be aware of range of possible errors.

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Article 3

Does Rater Personality Matter? A Meta-Analysis of Rater Big Five- Performance Rating Relationships

Harari, M. B., Rudolph, C. W., & Laginess, A. J. (2015)

References

Aguinis, H. (2013). Performance management. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.

Harari, M. B., Rudolph, C. W., & Laginess, A. J. (2015). Does rater personality matter? A meta‐analysis of rater Big Five–performance rating relationships. Journal Of Occupational And Organizational Psychology, 88(2), 387-414. doi:10.1111/joop.12086

Kim, P., & Lee, J. (2012). The influence of collectivism and rater error on organizational citizenship and impression management behaviors. Social Behavior And Personality, 40(4), 545-556. doi:10.2224/sbp.2012.40.4.545

Yam, K.C., Fehr, R., & Barnes, C.M. (2014). Morning employees are perceived as better

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