human nature

Final Examination

Multiple Choice Questions (Enter your answers on the enclosed answer sheet)

1) Writers and philosophers tell us about human nature. Why do we also need psychology?

A) Writers and philosophers ignore maladjusted personalities.

B) Psychology allows a systematic understanding of human nature. C) Writers and philosophers ignore human motivation.

D) Psychology is concerned with values, which writers and philosophers ignore.

2) Which of the following kinds of questions are not addressed by personality theory?

A) questions about personality dynamics B) questions about personality description C) questions about personality development D) questions about personality diffusion

3) When we ask, “How do people adjust to their life situations?” and “How does their thought affect what they do,” we are asking questions about the

of personality.

A) destiny

B) dynamics

C) development

D) description

4) A diagnosis, made by a clinician, describes a person using

A) a type.

B) non-scientific measurement. C) a trait.

D) a factor.

5) A hypothesis is

A) a proposal to change the way personality is developed, based on theoretical considerations.

B) a statement saying how a theoretical construct can be measured. C) a prediction about observations in research.

D) an abstract statement telling how two theoretical constructs are related.

Final Examination

6) Which statement best describes the relationship between theory and research?

A) When research has become sophisticated, with good measuring instruments, theory is no longer necessary.

B) Theory influences research by suggesting research ideas, but research has no impact on theory.

C) Theory and research mutually influence one another.

D) Theory and research are separate disciplines within personality psychology.

7) A researcher is interested in testing the proposition that watching a lot of television causes increased aggressiveness among children at school. This can be tested by conducting an experiment in which the independent variable is

A) watching a lot of television. B) aggressiveness.

C) being in school. D) age.

8) A is a conceptual tool for understanding certain specified phenom- ena.

A) theory

B) psychological test

C) variable

D) theoretical construct

9) Tests, such as inkblot tests, which ask people to respond to ambiguous stimu- li, are called

A) self-report measures. B) projective tests.

C) behavioral measures. D) response measures.

10) Material that is not in awareness at a particular time, but that can readily be recalled if we try, is

A) postconscious. B) preconscious. C) conscious.

D) unconscious.

Final Examination

11) Hypnosis is best described as

A) an epileptic-like seizure. B) a fraudulent claim.

C) a separate state of consciousness. D) a state of great suggestibility.

12) The id functions according to

A) tertiary process.

B) secondary process. C) primary process.

D) the reality principle.

13) Which of the defense mechanisms listed below is the most primitive? A) rationalization

B) identification

C) denial

D) projection

14) A person who unconsciously hates a sibling, but consciously feels only love for the sibling, is using the defense mechanism of

A) projection.

B) identification. C) isolation.

D) reaction formation.

15) Attitudes toward money are, according to psychoanalytic theory, related to development during the stage.

A) phallic

B) anal

C) oral

D) latency

16) Sex roles, according to Freud, are learned at about age

A) fourteen. B) ten.

C) two. D) four.

Final Examination

17) Experimental research on memory finds that

A) false memories can be created in highly neurotic subjects, but not in those who are psychologically well-adjusted.

B) through suggestion, research subjects report false memories of being lost in a shopping mall.

C) true memories and false memories can easily be distinguished using brain scans.

D) false memories of childhood sexual abuse are easily created under laboratory conditions.

18) Modern researchers report that

A) stress impairs animals’ memory in experimental studies.

B) psychotic delusions are accompanied by changes in brain functioning. C) traumatic stress can influence brain functioning in humans.

D) all of the above

19) The fact that Martin Luther King, Jr. expressed himself within the Christian symbols of his own heritage, rather than using symbols from other religious traditions,

A) was evidence that he had not developed to his full potential.

B) was consistent with Jung’s advice that people stay within the symbols and mythology of their own heritage.

C) would have been a disappointment to Jung. D) shows that he was prejudiced.

20) Compared to Freud, Jung’s theory is

A) more concerned with early childhood experience. B) mystical.

C) less concerned with heredity. D) highly deterministic.

21) When Jung and Freud first met

A) they had much to talk about (13 hours worth!).

B) they argued, and decided they could not be colleagues. C) they planned to set up a joint therapy clinic.

D) Jung asked to be Freud’s patient.

Final Examination

22) Jung refers to the total, integrated personality as

A) the persona. B) the Self.

C) the animus.

D) the Great Mother.

23) Individuation is the process of

A) finding a social identity.

B) discovering one’s major personality traits. C) re-centering in adult development.

D) finding the one individual who will be a life-long love partner.

24) Jung suggested that the center of personality ought to be

A) balanced between the conscious and unconscious aspects of personality. B) in the unconscious aspects of personality.

C) in the conscious aspects of personality. D) outside of personality.

25) According to Jung, prejudice against racial minorities involves projection of the

A) shadow.

B) dominant function. C) animus.

D) anima.

26) A patient who has conflicted, unconscious, emotional ideas about his or her mother is said (in Jungian theory) to have

A) an archetype.

B) a mother complex. C) a Great Mother.

D) a transference.

27) Jung devised the Word Association Test in order to explore

A) the collective unconscious. B) complexes.

C) active imagination. D) transference.

Final Examination

28) Research on early memories

A) shows that they are not important, and that Adler’s predictions were not con- firmed.

B) has not been conducted.

C) confirms that they correlate with many behaviors. D) shows that early memories are usually inaccurate.

29) Which phrase did Adler use to refer to people who do not develop in a healthy way?

A) retarded

B) neurotic misfits

C) mistaken styles of life

D) psychologically underdeveloped

30) Adler categorized delinquents as type people. A) brutal

B) getting

C) ruling

D) aggressive

31) Adler recommended that parents should

A) indulge their children.

B) teach their children about sex roles. C) avoid pampering their children.

D) punish any early signs of homosexuality.

32) The most favorable birth order, according to Adler, is the

A) youngest child. B) first-born.

C) second-born. D) only child.

33) Adler’s major criterion for psychological health is

A) creativity.

B) the absence of anxiety.

C) high achievement in school. D) social interest.

Final Examination

34) Adlerian therapy aims to increase people’s

A) social interest.

B) ability to recall dreams. C) self-disclosure.

D) ambition.

35) The term “family constellation” refers to

A) the number, age, and sex of siblings.

B) the fact that grandparents are also important in determining personality. C) the family’s beliefs about who is the “star.”

D) the genetics of personality.

36) In his epigenetic principle, Erikson compared development with

A) an actor or actress learning a script. B) the biological development of a fetus. C) the spiritual development of a soul.

D) the motion of objects as described in physics.

37) In Erikson’s third psychosocial stage, the child acts in a(n) mode. A) incorporative

B) intrusive

C) incompetent

D) selfish

38) According to Erikson’s theory, a sense of inferiority is particularly likely to develop during the stage of development.

A) second B) fourth C) third

D) fifth

39) Teenagers who are rebellious, nonconforming, and philosophically concerned are typical of those in the category of on Marcia’s measure.

A) Moratorium

B) Identity Achiever

C) Foreclosure

D) Identity Diffusion

Final Examination

40) Research finds that people are more likely to be concerned with helping other people, through work or political activity or social activism, if they are high in

A) integrity. B) autonomy. C) trust.

D) generativity.

41) According to Erikson, the crisis of infancy is

A) life or death.

B) autonomy or shame. C) eat or throw up.

D) trust or mistrust.

42) The experience of basic anxiety is the feeling of being in a poten- tially helpless world.

A) loved but challenged

B) armed and dangerous

C) responsible and in charge

D) isolated and helpless

43) Which of the following is not one of the three interpersonal orientations de- scribed by Horney?

A) moving alongside

B) moving against

C) moving away

D) moving toward

44) People who adopt the resignation solution are seeking

A) self-actualization. B) freedom.

C) mastery. D) love.

Final Examination

45) Culture, according to Horney, encourages women to develop

A) fear of failure. B) fear of men.

C) fear of relationships. D) fear of success.

46) Research on the relationship between sex role orientation and mental health shows that

A) psychological femininity is associated with higher mental health in women, but not in men.

B) psychological masculinity is associated with higher mental health in both sexes.

C) psychological masculinity is associated with higher mental health in men, but not in women.

D) psychological femininity is associated with higher mental health in both sexes.

47) Which interpersonal orientation(s) does a healthy person use, according to


A) moving toward, against, and away

B) moving away, but not toward or against C) moving toward, but not against or away D) moving against, but not toward or away

48) Allport grew up in

A) Vienna.

B) an orphanage. C) India.

D) the American Midwest.

49) Allport described traits as traits that are possessed by only one person.

A) common B) individual C) cardinal

D) central

Final Examination

50) Secondary traits describe ways in which

A) people try to get their own way in competitive settings. B) personality can be measured by questionnaire.

C) people are inferior to others.

D) people are consistent, but in ways that affect few behaviors.

51) According to Allport, there is little personality change after age


A) 30
B) 18
C) 5
D) 3

52) Instead of “intrinsic religious orientation,” Batson suggests that “ ”

leads people to non-judgmental concern for helping others.

A) Christianity

B) religious fundamentalism

C) religion as quest

D) extrinsic religious orientation

53) In their classic study of rumor transmission, Allport and Postman found that

A) eyewitnesses are more accurate than is generally believed. B) rumor transmission cannot be studied in the laboratory.

C) often a black was reported, wrongly, to have been holding a knife. D) rumors increase the amount of violence, the more they are retold.

54) A procedure predicts behavior from several variables at once. A) statistical

B) correlational


D) multivariate

Final Examination

55) Cattell thought that factors were required to make good prediction of behavior.

A) 16
B) 2
C) 10
D) 5

56) Constitutional, dynamic source traits such as anger, curiosity, and fear are called

A) sentiments. B) attitudes.

C) metaergs. D) ergs.

57) Connie is imaginative and artistic, and more liberal and broad-minded than most people. The factor that best describes her is

A) agreeableness

B) neuroticism C) extraversion D) openness

58) Warmth, gregariousness, assertiveness, activity, excitement-seeking, and posi- tive emotions are of extraversion.

A) facets

B) opposites

C) operational definitions

D) invalidation

59) Cattell’s major contribution has been to

A) social psychology. B) psychotherapy.

C) interview techniques. D) measurement.

Final Examination

60) Evolutionary theory has implications for

A) altruism.

B) sexual behavior. C) emotions.

D) all of the above

61) The sexes differ in attitudes toward sexual promiscuity, according to evolu- tionary theory, because of

A) parental uncertainty.

B) differences in the age of puberty. C) differences in parental investment. D) different social norms.

62) Evolution selects for parents who

A) abuse their children. B) nurture their children. C) have only one child.

D) adopt children.

63) High levels of BIS activity are associated with

A) attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. B) anxiety.

C) criminal behavior. D) all of the above

64) In J. A. Gray’s theory, low levels of the neurotransmitter dopamine are associ- ated with

A) alcoholism.

B) goal-directed behavior. C) reward dependency.

D) harm avoidance.

Final Examination

65) Tiger Woods’ ability to hit a golf ball well is an example of which component of the Basic Behavioral Repertoire?

A) Language-Cognitive B) Motor-Conditional C) Sensory-Motor

D) Emotional-Motivational

66) Matthew has learned to tease his little sister, Jane. When he first meets his cousin, Sarah, he teases her, too. What learning concept best explains this teasing of Sarah?

A) discrimination

B) negative reinforcement

C) generalization

D) ratio schedule reinforcement

67) A shortcoming of continuous reinforcement is that it produces learning that is

A) difficult to eliminate.

B) impossible to generalize to new situations. C) not measurable by observers.

D) not resistant to extinction.

68) The first step in behavior modification is

A) making a functional analysis of the behavior to be changed. B) selecting a reinforcer.

C) deciding on a schedule of reinforcement. D) extinguishing the undesirable behavior.

69) Staats developed a theory called

A) tokenism.

B) behavioral psychology.

C) psychological behaviorism. D) repertory psychoanalysis.

Final Examination

70) In addition to Freud’s first three psychosexual stages, Dollard and

Miller described a fourth stage, concerned with conflict over

A) sex roles. B) playmates. C) siblings.

D) anger.

71) Dollard and Miller postulated that interfering with an organism’s be- havior which would reduce a drive (for example, preventing a hungry animal from eating) would produce

A) aggression. B) apathy.

C) identification.

D) discrimination learning.

72) Language is, for Dollard and Miller, the key to understanding Freudian


A) superego

B) id

C) ego

D) defensive

73) Expressing difficult emotions by writing about them has been shown to

A) increase physical health

B) reduce feelings of anxiety

C) reduce feelings of depression

D) all of the above

74) Miller and Dollard suggested that “in order to learn, one must want some- thing, notice something, something, and get something.”

A) decide

B) do

C) give

D) ask for

Final Examination

75) The term consistency paradox refers to

A) the paradox that most personality theories seem to be saying the same thing, only in different words.

B) the challenge of understanding how people can develop across a lifetime yet still remain consistent.

C) the discrepancy between research, which shows that people act differently in different situations, and common sense, which says they are consistent.

D) people’s efforts to seem consistent to other people.

76) Delay of gratification is easier if

A) the child sees models who delay their own gratification. B) the rewards are visible.

C) the child thinks about how good the reward is. D) all of the above

77) Bandura and colleagues demonstrated that children can learn

through modeling.

A) arbitrary playful behaviors

B) performance standards

C) aggression

D) all of the above

78) In his studies of film-mediated aggression, children watched models behave aggressively toward

A) children.

B) a Bobo doll. C) animals.

D) other adults.

79) In his studies of aggressive behavior, Bandura found that

A) children increased their aggression if the model was punished for being ag- gressive.

B) children stopped their aggression if it led to physical injury. C) boys were more aggressive than girls.

D) children imitated live models, but not models seen on film.

Final Examination

80) Kelly’s concept of helps understand unconscious and emotional experience.

A) preemption

B) constructive alternativism

C) preverbal constructs

D) the Dichotomy Corollary

81) According to Sherry, “Most people are selfish.” Her therapist asks her, “What are the other people like, the ones who are not selfish?” The therapist is ask- ing about the .

A) concrete construct

B) contrast pole C) likeness pole D) core construct

82) ”Slot-movement” refers to

A) role changes, such as moving from being a student to being an employee. B) gambling.

C) radical changes, such as from atheist to “born-again Christian.” D) a method for scoring personality tests.

83) What is the third phase of the C-P-C cycle? A) calibration

B) control

C) circumspection

D) counting

84) In order to have a relationship with someone, according to Kelly’s Sociality

Corollary, you must

A) have the same personal constructs. B) mutually trust one another.

C) mutually respect one another.

D) understand that person’s construct system (or be understood by that person).

Final Examination

85) When people are emotionally disturbed or criminals, Rogers blamed

A) bad genetic influences. B) their parents.

C) social forces.

D) them for a lack of will power.

86) Which of the following is not a characteristic of a fully functioning person, according to Rogers?

A) creativity

B) openness to experience

C) the experience of freedom

D) adaptation to others’ expectations

87) Which of the following was not one of the characteristics of a fully function- ing person listed by Rogers?

A) creativity

B) existential living

C) openness to experience

D) social interest

88) Rogers called his therapeutic method

A) self-actualization therapy. B) revised psychoanalysis.

C) client-centered therapy. D) individualized therapy.

89) A person who is “metamotivated”

A) is in the middle of the need hierarchy.

B) is passive and receptive, rather than active.

C) feels determined by forces beyond his or her control. D) is trying to restore homeostasis.

Final Examination

90) Which of the following characteristics is typical of D-love?

A) facilitation of each partner’s growth

B) independence for both partners

C) jealousy

D) self-actualization

91) Maslow described self-actualized people as thinking like a(n) A) psychologist.

B) politician. C) scientist. D) artist.

92) People who score high on self-actualization are also likely to score high on various measures of

A) mental illness. B) mental health. C) sexual guilt.

D) alcohol abuse.

93) Karma refers to

A) intentional, willful activity.

B) the selfless ideal of Buddhism.

C) good or bad consequences for our actions. D) detachment.

94) Buddhism describes moments of perception.

A) 25
B) 5
C) 17
D) 10

95) Attending to the first levels in the moments of perception (those things that are below traditional levels of conscious attention) is called .

A) anatta

B) perceptual yearning C) focused awareness D) pure awareness

Final Examination

96) Uri has been meditating for many years. What is likely true about his psycho logical state?

A) He has low levels of ego development B) He has higher moral reasoning skills. C) He has a constant identity crisis.

D) He lacks coping skills.

97) Which of the following theorists described personality adjustment as “devel- oping to your full potential”?

A) Freud B) Cattell C) Horney D) Maslow

98) One value that some people seek in personality theory, but that is not listed by the text as a criterion of a good theory, is

A) applied value.

B) optimism about human nature. C) comprehensiveness.

D) verifiability.

99) Rogers’s “actualizing tendency” is based upon a(n) metaphor. A) mechanistic

B) information processing

C) organic

D) political

100) The approach that advocates combining various theories into one systematic whole is called

A) pluralism.

B) unified theory. C) eclecticism.

D) none of the above