Forum 4 discussion board

I’m working on a Law exercise and need support.

Hey I need 250 word replies to EACH discussion post along with references. Please be advised when doing responses it is like having a conversation.

The original Discussion Post is: Provide a brief history of the sex offender notification/registration in the United States and explain the specific sex offender registration laws in your state (or a state that you are curious about). Review the presentation titled, “Corrections (Part 2)” found in the Reading & Study folder of Module/Week 7. Expound upon ways to effectively manage high-risk sex offenders in our communities; consider challenges they may experience when attempting to reintegrate back into society. From a Christian viewpoint, justify whether or not life-long sex offender registration is a just concept.

1) “In 1947, California became the first state within the United States to maintain a sex offender registry. Individuals convicted of sex offenses were required to provide law enforcement authorities with their place of residence and check in annually around their birthdays. California officials passed this law in an effort to enhance public safety and prevent recidivism” (Worley and Worley, p. 335, 2013). Offenders before 1947 were able to still live their lives and not have the stigma and reputation on them of a sex offender. This law passed in California impacted the United States forever. Most states have adopted this sex offender registry, so the community is made aware of the sex offenders in their areas. This has affected the offender in regard to their life, reputation, and future job opportunities.

In South Carolina, the state where I currently live, the government officials and local law enforcement use the sex offender registry. They want to protect the safety of the community and notify the community of any registered sex offender and their location/address. This provides the community information and awareness of what sex offenders are where and this helps the community to make decisions to avoid those areas for themselves and/or their children. For South Carolina, and other States in the United States, this is a great tool for helping the public be aware, reduce recidivism, and reduce sex offenses throughout the country.

The impact of reintegrating sex offenders in the community is very difficult. “but the unique label of “sex offender” can obstruct community re-entry even more profoundly. Sex offenders in many states report employment difficulties, housing disruption, relationship loss, threats and harassment, and property damage” (Levenson, Grady, and Leibowitz, p. 11, 2016) This registry makes it hard for less violent, first time offenders because they are on the registry for many years, and sometimes life. This negatively impacts the rest of their lives for having to deal with the negative stigma and consequences from people in the community. This also effects their job opportunities because most jobs may not allow a registered sex offender to work for them based on the job requirements. On the other hand, the offender was the one who decided to commit the crime, so this is a consequence of their actions.

In a Christian world view, life-long sex offender registration is a concept. The Bible tells us in John 1, to repent of our sins. When Jesus died on the cross, it was for our sins. He knew we would sin here on earth. He tells us to repent of our sins and we will be cleansed and forgiven. Sex offenders deserve the same treatment. Most of them will not have the same mentality their whole life, that they did when the crime was committed because people change and learn from their mistakes.

2)Sexual offenses are widely considered the most invasive types of crimes and typically evoke more serious social reactions than other violent crimes such as robbery or assault. When the victims of these offenses are minors – particularly young children – the social reactions are even more severe.

Two of the best known victim memorial laws are the Jacob Wetterling Crimes Against Children and Sexually Violent Predators Act (1994) and Megan’s Law (1996), both of which pertain to sex offenders. In 1994, Congress passed the Jacob Wetterling Crimes Against Children and Sexually Violent Predators Act, which required states to create a centralized list of sexual offenders living in the state as a tool for law enforcement. Two years later, an amendment to the Act, known as Megan’s Law, expanded the role of these databases and required states to notify community members when a sexual offender moved into the area (Sarah Koon-Magnin. 2015).

In 2006, the Adam Walsh Act replaced these two pieces of legislation with its Sexual Offender Registration and Notification Act (SORNA) which set forth a more comprehensive set of standards to increase cross-state consistency in sex offender management. Important features of this law include the establishment of a minimum length of registration requirement (15-years, 25-years, or life, depending on the conviction offense), the addition of a 10-year prison sentence for failure to register as a sex offender, and the extension of registry requirements to juveniles who were 14 or older at the time of the crime (Sarah Koon-Magnin. 2015).

Surprisingly within the last decade, there has been a trend amongst Western countries to adopt sexual offender registries as a way of preventing and/or reducing sex crimes. The scope and confidentiality of sexual offender registries vary internationally. While some jurisdictions track offenders with GPS technology and release their personal and professional information to the public in other jurisdictions, registries are police databases that can identify sexual offenders if they commit future crimes, but offenders’ personal information is withheld from the public

In Atlantic City where I live, as part of the reintegration process there was a large protest after a woman who was bathing saw a shadow appear by her bedroom while she was showering one night. It was not too long that the residents of the Munroe park district (Which has two schools less than a mile from each other) realized that the motels were used to house Sex Offenders. The Mayor was called in and it was a very heated issue and discussion because not only were residents concerned, but the school principals, Mayor, city Council were all upset because it was an expectation that such reintegration within the community should be made public (Simmons, Melanie L. 2019).

I believe that a sex offender especially a pedophile should consider the societal outrage before they are reintegrated within the society.The Lord of the Old Testament said particularly in Exodus 22: 22-24, “You shall not abuse any widow or orphan. If you do abuse them, when they cry out to me, I will surely heed their cry; my wrath will burn, and I will kill you with the sword, and your wives shall become widows and your children orphans (The Holy Bible. The New Revised Standard version, 1991).God spoke against violating the vulnerable and they cannot be protected if we don’t at least have an idea of the main ones to protect them from.Within the United states, Sex Offender Registration is definitely a concept because many persons will not check and access the files and it is very unlikely that the offender will reintegrate into his initial crime area.

References:

Sarah Koon-Magnin (2015). Perceptions of and support for sex offender policies: Testing Levenson, Brannon, Fortney, and Baker’s findings. Journal of Criminal Justice: Volume 43, Issue 1, ISSN 0047-2352. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcrimjus.2014.12.007.

Simmons, Melanie L. (2019). Evaluating the legal assumptions of Victoria’s Sex Offender Registration Act 2004 from a psychological perspective, Psychiatry, Psychology and Law, 26:5, 783-796, DOI: 10.1080/13218719.2019.1642254

The Holy Bible.The New Revised Standard Version. (1991).New York, NY: The American Bible Society.

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