evidence that habituation

Psych19 exam 2

 

1.

What would provide evidence that habituation has occurred?

(Points : 2)

[removed] The infant opens her mouth to mimic the mother’s open mouth.
[removed] The infant visually follows the caregiver who is walking across the room.
[removed] The infant’s response decreases each time she sees the same red teddy bear.
[removed] The infants pays attention to a new toy handed to her.

 

Question 2.2.

Plasticity means ____.

(Points : 2)

[removed] the neurons in the infant’s brain are connected in a random manner, and all the patterns depend on experience
[removed] the basic organization of areas of the brain depend on early experience
[removed] there is no relationship between experience and neural development
[removed] sensory experiences can strengthen certain neural pathways; less used pathways may disappear

 

Question 3.3.

The relatively stable characteristics of a child’s response to the environment including activity level, sociability, and emotionality are called ____.

(Points : 2)

[removed] temperament
[removed] reflexes
[removed] attachment
[removed] personality

 

Question 4.4.

Motor reflexes undergo some transformations during infancy. What is the typical pattern of change? Think about reaching and grasping as an example.

(Points : 2)

[removed] Motor control begins in the hands and fingers and moves toward the trunk.
[removed] Motor control shifts from the feet to the hands and shoulders.
[removed] Involuntary behavior disappears and voluntary behavior emerges with practice.
[removed] Voluntary behavior becomes involuntary behavior.

 

Question 5.5.

Infants who exhibit a pattern of intense negative reactions to unfamiliar objects, negative mood, and are slow to adapt are displaying which type of temperament?

(Points : 2)

[removed] difficult
[removed] shy
[removed] uninhibited
[removed] slow to warm up

 

Question 6.6.

Which of the following behaviors is NOT used as evidence that an attachment has been formed?

(Points : 2)

[removed] greater relaxation and expressions of comfort with the caregiver
[removed] greater distress with the caregiver than with strangers
[removed] expressions of distress when the caregiver is absent
[removed] efforts by the infant to maintain contact with the caregiver

 

Question 7.7.

Babies who avoid contact with their mothers after separation or who ignore her efforts to interact have a(n) ____ attachment.

(Points : 2)

[removed] secure
[removed] insecure
[removed] anxious-resistant
[removed] anxious-avoidant

 

Question 8.8.

Which attachment pattern is linked with the most serious mental health problems in later childhood?

(Points : 2)

[removed] anxious-avoidant
[removed] anxious-resistant
[removed] secure
[removed] disorganized

 

Question 9.9.

Which of the following has been consistently observed to be a consequence of secure attachments formed in infancy?

(Points : 2)

[removed] success in job placement after college
[removed] positive, close peer relationships in childhood and adolescence
[removed] meaningful relationships with one’s grandchildren in later adulthood
[removed] an ability to face one’s death without great fear

 

Question 10.10.

Which statement best reflects the apparent connection between infant temperament and attachment?

(Points : 2)

[removed] The infant’s temperament influences parental interactions with the infant to form attachment.
[removed] An infant’s temperament is a strong predictor of the type of attachment that will be formed.
[removed] The infant’s temperament influences the caregiver’s self-esteem.
[removed] Only sociable babies form secure attachments.

 

Question 11.11.

In the study of an intervention with mothers and infants who were classified as having an anxious attachment, which one of the following was an outcome of the intervention?

(Points : 2)

[removed] The mothers increased their self-acceptance.
[removed] The mothers showed greater empathy for their children.
[removed] The children improved in their ability to regulate their behavior in coordination with their mother’s.
[removed] All of these.

 

Question 12.12.

According to the “Theory” theory, infants start out with some basic sensory, motor, and cognitive structures. What might modify these structures?

(Points : 2)

[removed] experiences that provide new information
[removed] experiences that support and confirm the structures
[removed] gazing and concentrating
[removed] parental warmth

 

Question 13.13.

What are the first and last phases in the development of causal schemes during the sensorimotor period?

(Points : 2)

[removed] reflexes; experimentation with new means
[removed] reflexes; insight
[removed] first habits; insight
[removed] first habits; experimentation with means

 

Question 14.14.

Objects do not cease to exist when they are out of reach or view. This concept is referred to as ____.

(Points : 2)

[removed] scheme
[removed] primitive causality
[removed] means-end relationship
[removed] object permanence

 

Question 15.15.

Which of the following family factors is tied to increases in an infant’s negative emotionality?

(Points : 2)

[removed] being a first born child
[removed] high levels of marital dissatisfaction for mother or father
[removed] low educational level of mother
[removed] lack of grandparent involvement in childcare

 

Question 16.16.

On her first birthday, Emily looks at her mother as they observe the clown coming to her party. At first Emily is crying. Then her mother smiles and acts very happy, so Emily smiles, too. This is an example of ____.

(Points : 2)

[removed] empathy
[removed] attachment
[removed] visual acuity
[removed] social referencing

 

Question 17.17.

Within the process of communication, which of the following patterns builds a sense of mutuality between the infant and the caregiver?

(Points : 2)

[removed] attend, protest, anger
[removed] trust, mistrust, withdrawal
[removed] coordination, mismatch, repair
[removed] coordination, mismatch, protest

 

Question 18.18.

Mental images, symbolic drawing, and imitation in the absence of a model are examples of which of the following?

(Points : 2)

[removed] concrete thinking
[removed] operational schemes
[removed] representational thinking
[removed] hypothetico-deductive reasoning

 

Question 19.19.

Match the concept with the correct definition.
(Points : 6)

 

Potential Matches:
1 : scaffolding
2 : holophrases
3 : overregularize
4 : receptive language
5 : telegraphic speech
6 : expansion

 

    Answer
    [removed] : two-word sentences
    [removed] : raising the level of a child’s vocabulary
    [removed] : elaborating a child’s expressions
    [removed] : ability to understand words
    [removed] : single-word utterances
    [removed] : apply a grammatical rule inappropriately

 

Question 20.20.

Among the choices below, which is the most important factor that caregivers contribute for the cognitive growth of their toddler?

(Points : 2)

[removed] nutritious meals
[removed] opportunities for verbal interaction
[removed] providing for safety
[removed] enrollment in childcare

 

Question 21.21.

In which type of play do children coordinate their pretense by establishing a fantasy structure, taking roles, agreeing on the make-believe meaning of props, and solving pretend problems?

(Points : 2)

[removed] solitary play
[removed] social play
[removed] social pretend play
[removed] sensorimotor play

 

Question 22.22.

Which of the following describes the direction of fantasy play from the beginning of toddlerhood to the end?

(Points : 2)

[removed] The play becomes less planned and more associational (one action sparks the rest)
[removed] The play relies increasingly on real objects.
[removed] The play is based largely on the imitation of real world characters.
[removed] The play increasingly involves the creation of complex sequences of actions and roles.

 

Question 23.23.

According to Vygotsky’s concept of Zone of Proximal Development, children in pretend play ____.

(Points : 2)

[removed] reveal the areas of competence they are striving to master
[removed] show the limits of their patience
[removed] play best with the children closest to them physically
[removed] often regress in preschool play

Question 24.24.

For a toddler, what is one of the consequences of having strong feelings of shame and doubt?

(Points : 2)

[removed] realistic expectations about performance
[removed] extreme sensitivity to the feelings of others
[removed] seeking out new information
[removed] avoiding new activities

 

Question 25.25.

Which of the following is the psychosocial crisis of toddlerhood?

(Points : 2)

[removed] imitation versus inferiority
[removed] initiative versus guilt
[removed] autonomy versus shame and doubt
[removed] peer group membership versus despair

 

Question 26.26. George is 2 ½ years old. He is with his mother in the grocery store and asks her to buy sugar coated sugar bumps (his favorite cereal). When his mother says no George begins to get upset. He stands in the middle of the aisle with his arms crossed. When his mother asks him to come with her he says “Not until you buy me my sugar bumps!” George’s mother is considering several options to get him to do what she wants. Match the different things she is considering to the different categories of discipline practices discussed in your text.
(Points : 3)

 

Potential Matches:
1 : power assertion
2 : inductions
3 : love withdrawal

 

    Answer
    [removed] : Tell George how disappointed and angry he is making her. If that doesn’t work turn and walk away from him. When he follows she doesn’t talk to him for a while so he can understand how upset he made her.
    [removed] : Explain to George that she understands why he’s angry but acting like this when you don’t get what you want isn’t fair to others. Point out to him that if he continues to stand there, the shopping won’t get done in time and dinner will be late for the whole family.
    [removed] : Threaten to take away George’s video games if he continues to stand there and not move. If that does not work pick him up and put him in the shopping cart.

 

Question 27.27.

Match the following terms and their definitions.
(Points : 4)

 

Potential Matches:
1 : gender
2 : sexual orientation
3 : sex
4 : gender-role standards

 

    Answer
    [removed] : cultural expectations about appropriate behavior for girls and boys, men and women
    [removed] : biologically based distinctions based on chromosomal information
    [removed] : one’s preference regarding the sex of an intimate partner
    [removed] : the integrated cognitive, social, and emotional schemes associated with being male or female

 

Question 28.28.

Which of the following is the earliest component of gender role identification to be achieved?

(Points : 2)

[removed] sex-role preference
[removed] correct use of gender labels
[removed] sex-role standards
[removed] understanding that gender is constant

 

Question 29.29.

For the early-school-age child, moral development involves a process of learning the family’s moral code and then using it to guide behavior. This is called ____.

(Points : 2)

[removed] gender-role preference
[removed] avoidance conditioning
[removed] internalization
[removed] induction

 

Question 30.30.

Joelle, a 6-year old, really wants to eat a cookie out of the cookie jar. However she remembers how mad her mother got at her when she ate a cookie right before dinner last week and she starts to feel anxiety. In the end, Joelle decides not to eat the cookie and this reduces her anxiety. This is an example of ____.

(Points : 2)

[removed] operant conditioning
[removed] reward conditioning
[removed] avoidance conditioning
[removed] anxiety conditioning

 

Question 31.31.

Every day Johnny watches Tally get in trouble when she rides her bike further than their mother allows them to go. Johnny really wants to go around the corner when riding his bike but he knows his mother will be angry and that he will get in trouble, so he stops at the corner and turns back towards their house on his bike. This is an example of ____.

(Points : 2)

[removed] observation of models
[removed] cognitive schemes
[removed] help giving behaviors
[removed] punishment

 

Question 32.32.

According to cognitive developmental theory, advances in moral reasoning occur when a child has to reconcile new views about basic moral concepts with existing views about what is right or wrong. This process is called ____.

(Points : 2)

[removed] social convention
[removed] empathy
[removed] conventional morality
[removed] equilibration

 

Question 33.33.

Perspective taking differs from empathy in which way?

(Points : 2)

[removed] They are both social skills.
[removed] Perspective taking does not occur at the early-school-age period.
[removed] Perspective taking involves recognizing differences in point of view rather than similarities.
[removed] Perspective taking increases a child’s egocentrism.

 

Question 34.34.

People who have high self-esteem tend to ____.

(Points : 2)

[removed] have strong positive evaluations of all of their abilities
[removed] find that failure increases their feelings of doubt about their basic worth
[removed] use a variety of strategies to minimize the importance of negative feedback
[removed] derive this sense of self-worth primarily through pretend activities

 

Question 35.35.

Group games during early school age often permit children to shift roles. This contributes to which of the following?

(Points : 2)

[removed] perspective-taking abilities
[removed] fantasy
[removed] emotional regulation
[removed] self-esteem

 

Question 36.36.

Which of the following is true about the groups girls and boys prefer during early school age?

(Points : 2)

[removed] Girls prefer two-person groups, while boys prefer larger groups.
[removed] Boys prefer two-person groups, while girls prefer larger groups.
[removed] Girls prefer mixed-sex groups while boys prefer same-sex groups.
[removed] Boys prefer mixed-sex groups while girls prefer same-sex groups.

 

Question 37.37.

Children who suffer extreme feelings of guilt are likely to believe that ____.

(Points : 2)

[removed] their thoughts cause the misfortunes of others
[removed] they can be forgiven for their mistakes
[removed] the good things that happen to them are a result of their efforts
[removed] they are a lot like other friends

 

Question 38.38.

How is attachment formation in infancy related to friendship formation?

(Points : 2)

[removed] Children who are securely attached do not need friends.
[removed] Children who are anxiously attached make friends readily.
[removed] Children who are securely attached are more popular and more comfortable in social interactions.
[removed] Children who are securely attached look for one best friend with whom to share their feelings.

 

Question 39.39.

Some children who are rejected tend to be disruptive and aggressive; others tend to be socially withdrawn. Which of the following statements is more characteristic of the aggressive/disruptive children than the socially withdrawn group?

(Points : 2)

[removed] They tend to experience difficulty dealing with stress.
[removed] They tend to display inappropriate affect and unusual behavioral mannerisms.
[removed] They are more likely to benefit from organized sports programs.
[removed] They are more likely to attribute hostile intentions to others.

 

Question 40.40.

According to Piaget’s Theory, an action or transformation that is carried out in thought rather than in action is called ____.

(Points : 2)

[removed] a formal transformation
[removed] fantasy thinking
[removed] a mental operation
[removed] a cerebral manipulation

 

Question 41.41.

Why does Piaget use the term “concrete” to describe the quality of thinking that is characteristic of middle childhood?

(Points : 2)

[removed] Children can only reason about inanimate objects at this stage.
[removed] His father was a stoneworker and this term was invented out of respect for his father.
[removed] The term highlights the focus on real objects rather than hypothetical situations and relationships.
[removed] The term reflects Piaget’s concerns about the intellectual rigidity and vulnerability of middle childhood.

 

Question 42.42.

Milly is thinking about why she is feeling sad and disappointed. This kind of thinking is called ____.

(Points : 2)

[removed] depression
[removed] psychological mindedness
[removed] inferiority
[removed] shame

 

Question 43.43.

According to Robert Sternberg, there are three kinds of intelligence. However, tests of intelligence typically only assess one of these. Which one is that?

(Points : 2)

[removed] creative intelligence
[removed] analytic intelligence
[removed] practical intelligence
[removed] interpersonal intelligence

 

Question 44.44.

During middle childhood, self-evaluation is strongly influenced by ____.

(Points : 2)

[removed] combinational skills
[removed] comparisons with the performance of peers
[removed] trust in one’s parents as economic providers
[removed] the ability to maintain emotional control

 

Question 45.45.

A person’s sense of confidence that he or she can perform behaviors in a specific situation is called ____.

(Points : 2)

[removed] self-efficacy
[removed] effortful control
[removed] conservation
[removed] zone of proximal development

 

Question 46.46.

Tally, an 8-year-old, watches Claire climb the rock wall. Tally had been scared to try it until she saw Claire do it. This is an example of how Tally’s self efficacy can be raised through ____.

(Points : 2)

[removed] enactive attainments
[removed] vicarious experiences
[removed] verbal persuasion
[removed] physical state

 

Question 47.47. At the end of seventh grade Maria was doing great in her science class and really enjoyed it. She signed up for Mr. Turner’s advanced science next year. She was a bit nervous but thought to herself, “Sure it will be more challenging but I’ve done so well in science this year I bet I can handle it!”.

From the perspective of self efficacy the above description reflects the influence of ______ and should contribute ________ to Maria’s belief in her ability to ability to do well in the harder science class.
(Points : 3)

[removed] enactive attainments / positively

[removed] vicarious experiences / positively

[removed] verbal persuasion / negatively
[removed] verbal persuasion / positively

 

Question 48.48. During the first week of advanced science class Mr. Turner gave a pop quiz. Even though she read the chapter, Maria’s heart was racing and she got confused. She ‘blanked’ out on several questions. She did not score well. On seeing her score she thought to herself “I could have done better, but I was too nervous.”

From the perspective of self efficacy the above description reflects the influence of ______ and should contribute ________ to Maria’s belief in her ability to ability to do well in the harder science class. (Points : 2)

[removed] enactive attainments / positively
[removed] physical state / negatively

[removed] verbal persuasion / positively

[removed] vicarious experiences / negatively

 

Question 49.49.

How is a sense of self-efficacy related to persistence?

(Points : 2)

[removed] Children who have a positive sense of self-efficacy give up after they fail.
[removed] Children who have a low sense of self-efficacy try harder after they fail.
[removed] Children who fail often are more likely to believe the encouragement offered by others.
[removed] Children who have a low sense of self-efficacy are likely to give up after a failure experience.

 

Question 50.50.

Some children who perform well on standardized tests perceive themselves to be below average in academic ability. According to your text what might be one reason for this?

(Points : 2)

[removed] These children have parents who have a low opinion of their abilities.
[removed] These children have been praised too much by parents so they have no realistic standard by which to judge their abilities.
[removed] These children are good test takers, but they don’t perform well in school.
[removed] These children feel guilty about being so smart.

 

Question 51.51.

Team sports emphasize which of the following concepts?

(Points : 2)

[removed] the win-win approach to conflict resolution
[removed] conservation of volume
[removed] interdependence of team members
[removed] empathy with the victim

 

Question 52.52.

A student who believes in her ability to approach a new situation and “get the job done” demonstrates ____.

(Points : 2)

[removed] inertia
[removed] competence
[removed] responsibility
[removed] egocentrism

 

Question 53.53.

Which of the following is an example of a secondary sex characteristic?

(Points : 2)

[removed] onset of menarche
[removed] growth of the penis
[removed] maturation of breasts
[removed] production of mature sperm

 

Question 54.54.

Which of the following is a criticism of formal operational reasoning as a stage of cognitive development?

(Points : 2)

[removed] It does not describe the sensory based reasoning of which adolescents are capable.
[removed] It does not deal with the ability of adolescents to raise hypotheses about an unknown future.
[removed] It is not broad enough to encompass the many dimensions along which cognitive functioning changes in adolescence.
[removed] It includes too many dimensions such as the biological basis and social context of reasoning.

 

Question 55.55.

According to the text, egocentrism may best be described as ____.

(Points : 2)

[removed] an attitude children have that they are better than other people
[removed] a limited perspective a child displays at the beginning of each new phase of cognitive development
[removed] a feeling of self-admiration
[removed] a sense that one’s own peer group is better than other peer groups

 

Question 56.56.

Adolescents may believe that their thoughts and feelings are unique; that no one else is thinking what they are thinking. Elkind referred to this as ____.

(Points : 2)

[removed] a personal fable
[removed] a contextual dilemma
[removed] cognitive dissonance
[removed] an imaginary audience

 

Question 57.57.

Larson and Lampman-Petraitis gave electronic paging devices to monitor adolescents’ emotions. They found that adolescents experienced ____.

(Points : 2)

[removed] frequent, sudden shifts from intense anger to intense joy
[removed] more positive emotions than younger children
[removed] more mildly negative emotions than younger children
[removed] an increase in variability of emotions with age

 

Question 58.58.

Which of the following is an example of an internalizing problem?

(Points : 2)

[removed] feelings of worthlessness
[removed] feelings of hopefulness
[removed] feelings of aggression directed toward property
[removed] feelings of romantic attraction

 

Question 59.59.

According to your text, how is the problem of anorexia linked to the topic of emotional development?

(Points : 2)

[removed] Girls with anorexia have other externalizing problems as well.
[removed] Anorexia is associated with difficulties accepting and expressing emotions.
[removed] Anorexia is associated with difficulties in impulse control.
[removed] Guilt is not experienced among adolescents with anorexia.

 

Question 60.60.

Which of the following statements about peer pressure is most accurate?

(Points : 2)

[removed] Peer groups demand total conformity. There is little room for variations in temperament or behavior.
[removed] Most peer groups do not expect any significant level of conformity. They usually have an “anything goes” philosophy.
[removed] Peer pressure is usually exerted in a few select areas that give the group stability and help the individual members achieve a sense of group identity.
[removed] Adolescents are usually in great conflict with most of the expectations of their peer group.

 

Question 61.61.

Match the term and its definition.
(Points : 6)

 

Potential Matches:
1 : peer pressure
2 : Egocentrism
3 : Alienation
4 : group identity
5 : secular growth trend
6 : formal operations

 

    Answer
    [removed] : lack of connection or sense of belonging with a social group
    [removed] : expectations and demands to conform to the norms of one’s peer group
    [removed] : a tendency for earlier onset of puberty and achievement of adult height from one generation to the next
    [removed] : a stage of cognitive development characterized by reasoning, hypothesis generating, and hypothesis testing
    [removed] : a belief that others reason about situations in the same way, using the same logic that you use
    [removed] : a sense of group belonging in which one’s special needs are met and one has a sense of social connection.

 

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