Everything is done. I’m super bad at APA style Please put in APA Format, cover page with running head Coercion, correct grammar, add the reference in text and fix reference page. If you would like to

Everything is done. I’m super bad at APA style Please put in APA Format, cover page with running head Coercion, correct grammar, add the reference in text and fix reference page. If you would like to enhance in any other way it is welcomed. This assignment is going to subjected to “turn it in” which I don’t have access to so hopefully I won’t have to reconstruct it.

Coercion can be defined as the deliberate forcing of an individual to act in a specific manner by using force or threats. The action of coercion violates the persons free will in a manner that obtains the response that is in line with what the person doing the coercion wants. Behaviors such as torture, threats and extortion are considered coercion. For example, a sibling threating to beat up her sister if she doesn’t give up a toy. Placing an individual under duress physically or emotionally and forcing them to act in a manner that is against their own interest is also a symptom of coercion. The main agenda is to force the cooperation of the person being coerced.         In law, coercion is codified as a duress crime. Scientific literature regarding the use of coercion in interrogations have changed over the years.  The use of dehumanization, torture, and psychological pressure tactics use, and limits where legally sanctioned by the Army Field Manual. Reports of abuse surfaced after the secretary of defense, Donald Rumsfeld, gave the green light to use “enhanced interrogation techniques” on “illegal combat’s” after the September 11th attack on the world trade center in New York. Consequently, on his second day in office President Obama executed Executive Order 1349 to restrict legal methods of interrogation/coercion found in the Army Field Manual.

Coercive methods are acceptable in a variety of different scenarios in everyday life and its tactics used by many. Examples range from punishing a child for “bad behavior” too threatening divorce from a spouse for not adhering to marriage vows. Placing someone under duress to get to the truth of a situation is needed in most incidences in my opinion. In instances where an individual is a juvenile or suffers from a diagnosed mental illness coercion tactics may not be justified. A person with mental illness is said to lack the understanding of a crime or the difference between right and wrong and therefore cannot fully comprehend what is being communicated.

There are three stages of a common interrogation technique developed by John E. Reid. The Reid technique initially uses isolation then moves on to informing the suspect of his guilt and convinces him that everyone is aware of his guilt. The next step of the technique provides the suspect with the theory the evaluator came up with regarding the suspects guilt. The final step is explained to the suspect that he would feel better if he confesses to the crime so that help may be provided for him because everyone understands why the suspect committed the crime.  In an article entitled A Rare Look at The Police Tactics That Can Lead to False Confessions a 16-year-old, who’s 13-month-old son died the night before was subjected to the Reid technique by police. After two hours of the police, yelling, lying about evidence and invading ones space the young woman confessed to a crime she did not commit. The death certificate cited respiratory issues that would have require a nebulizer as the contributing factor in the child’s death. The young women later explained that she confessed because the police stated that they would give her help if she did.

According to false confession expert professor Richard Leo “Most of what police do in interrogations that lead to false confessions is legal. Its just the threats and the promises that are not legal”. In all interrogations the main goal should be to find out the truth instead of utilizing coercing techniques on suspects to gain a confession.

References

https://www.pbs.org/wgbh/frontline/article/a-rare-look-at-the-police-tactics-that-can-lead-to-false-confessions/

Opfer, C. (2013, February 19). The Problem With Police Line-Ups. Retrieved August 3, 2018,

from https://www.citylab.com/equity/2013/02/problem-police-line-ups/4724/

Argosy University (2019). Module 2 Interviewing and Interrogations. Retrieved January 26, 2019 fromhttp://www.myargosy.edu

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