ENSS141 Stetson University Water and Nutrients and Soil Scientific Report

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Writing a Scientific Report to Present Data I. Introduction A. Give an overview/context for the topic that was explored Example: The diversity of both natural and human-managed landscapes can exhibit different diversity patterns as a result of disturbance regimes and habitat heterogeneity. Cite references to support these ideas with (author, year) at the end of relevant sentences. Include full citation in a List of References at the end. B. Get more specific about the area where you collected data and the specific questions you asked C. BREIFLY state what you measured to address the questions D. Set up and then present your hypothesis II. Methods A. Describe the field site where you collected data—what city or county, near what landmarks or roads, date, weather conditions B. Describe the field methods you used to collect the raw data C. Explain how you further manipulated the data to answer your questions (calculating wood volume and biomass from tree height and diameter) D. Describe any statistical methods you applied III. Results A. Present summaries of the data in tables or graphs. There is no need to print out several sheets of paper of the raw data. B. Describe WITH WORDS the trends in the data that you are presenting in tables or graphs. IV. Discussion A. Summarize the results and interpret the significance of your results B. Revisit your hypothesis in light of your results. Do your results support your hypothesis? Why or why not? C. Explore how your results inform the larger themes developed at the beginning— do they lend support to the general concepts you described, or do they suggest there might be better explanations or frameworks for the patterns you saw? Include at least one additional reference here with proper citation (author, year) and inclusion in the List of References. D. If appropriate, describe any weaknesses of your study and what could be done in the future to improve the study. (Keep this section short. It is not the most important part of your discussion.) E.. Did any new questions arise from this field study that you would explore further if given the time and opportunity? V. List of References (in alphabetical order by first author’s last name) 1 Use this format: Last name, First initials, and [additional names]. Year. Title of article. Journal name volume # : Page # range Example: Anderson, W.B. and D.A. Wait. 2001. Subsidized island biogeography hypothesis: a new twist on an old theory. Ecology Letters 4:289-291. **Extra tips: * It is inappropriate in scientific writing to make irrelevant statements of opinion. For example, “I thought the forest was really pretty.” Or, “I wish we didn’t have to collect data in the cold and pouring rain.” * You need to cite sources of information you are referencing in your introduction and discussion. Please also include a List of References. *It is very important that each student write his or her own report independently. Although all students will have access to the same data, each student will present and interpret the data in their own way. FORMAT FOR LABORATORY REPORTS STETSON UNIVERSITY DEPARTMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE AND STUDIES Basic Formatting: Margins: Font size: 1” all sides 12 pt. Pagination: Arabic numeral, consistent placement throughout Single space within paragraphs Double space after ending each paragraph Align headings for Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results, Discussion, and Literature Cited on left margin. Double space after each section heading. Use consistent font & formatting for section headings. Do not start each section on a new page unless it works out that way coincidentally. Number consecutively and incorporate within the paper body. Name-Year System (described in detail below): List references in alphabetical order by the first author’s last name. Spacing within paragraphs: New paragraph: Section Headings: Tables and Figures: References 2 GRADING RUBRIC FOR LABORATORY REPORTS STETSON UNIVERSITY DEPARTMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE AND STUDIES Total Points: _______/100 TITLE Concisely describes the lab exercise INTRODUCTION Provides an ecological or environmental theoretical framework for the study, demonstrating a clear need for further investigation of the topic. Links to at least one outside reference source and the source is cited correctly States a hypothesis that brings in knowledge and context from class lectures and lab discussion METHODS Contains a detailed description of the field sites Contains a written description of how the study was conducted Contains a description of how data were analyzed RESULTS Includes written, past tense, summary of data of sufficient detail without repeating information in tables and figures; summarizes key findings without interpreting the findings (save that for discussion) Contains appropriate tables and figures Tables and figures are explicitly referred to in text (Table 1, Figure 1, etc.) Figures and tables are clearly labeled (Table 1, Figure 1, etc.) and properly configured DISCUSSION Explains and interprets the results, including a statement as to whether the original hypothesis was supported. Conclusions are logical and follow from the data presented, and do not contradict the outcomes of the statistical tests Compares results and conclusions to other relevant research from at least one citable source; if appropriate, include speculation as to why results are different than expected; may suggest an idea for additional studies or experiments that might resolve remaining questions Links to at least one outside reference source (not the same one as in the introduction) and the source is cited correctly REFERENCES References utilized were appropriate given the context of the study and citations were from approved sources (e.g. avoid stand-alone web pages and your textbook) In alphabetical order, in Name-Year Format OVERALL Appropriate sections included, all of appropriate length and detail. Included information is in the appropriate section. Formatted correctly (margins, spacing, indentation etc.) Free of grammatical and spelling errors Sophistication (depth of content, clarity of exposition) POINTS RECEIVED /POINTS POSSIBLE ____ /3 ____ /6 ____ /3 ____ /4 ____ /6 ____ /3 ____ /3 ____ /6 ____ /6 ____ /2 ____ /5 ____ /6 ____ /6 ____ /6 ____ /5 ____ /3 ____ /3 ____ /6 ____ /3 ____ /10 ____ /5 3 What to Include In a Reference List: Never include in a reference list a document you have not seen. When it is not possible to see an original document, cite the source of your information, do not cite the original assuming that the secondary source is correct. When a reference is available in both print and electronically, always cite the specific version seen. Electronic and print versions can differ significantly. The most common ‘citable’ reference items include: Articles from peer-reviewed journals Books Book chapters (not encyclopedias) Technical reports Note: A standalone web page that is not published as a peer review article, book, book chapter, or technical report does not count as a reference. You may utilize websites as a starting point for finding other literature, but you must find and use original “citable” literature for the references in your final lab reports. There are a variety of reference citation formats used by different disciplines and even different journal publications within the same disciplines. Although style varies from one journal to the next, most scientific publications use variations of the Name-Year format. All reports submitted for the Introduction to Environmental Studies and Science course should use the Name-Year format utilized by the Ecological Society of America and as outlined below. Name-Year System for Citing References Journal Article with Single Author In-text reference: Student input into experimental design has been shown to greatly increase student understanding within the field of climatology (Abbott 2007). In the References section, this source would be cited as: Abbott, J . A. 2007. Measuring thermal variation in a valley environment using a team, filed project designed by students. Journal of Geography 105:121-128. The general format for citing a journal article with a single author is: Last name, First initial. Second initial. Date. Title. Journal title volume number:pages. 4 Journal Article with Two Authors In-text reference: Production of corn biofuels in Florida shows much higher water consumption footprint and nitrogen loading burden than biofuels produced from sweet sorghum (Evans and Cohen 2009). In the References section, this source would be cited as: Evans, J. M. and M. J. Cohen. 2009. Regional water resource implications of bioethanol production in the Southeastern United States. Global Change Biology 15: 22612273. The general format for citing a journal article with two authors is: Last name, First initial. Second initial. and First initial. Second initial. Last name. Date. Title. Journal title volume number:pages. Journal Article with More Than Two Authors* In-text reference: Highly localized nutrient and pulsed rainfall inputs exert complex controls on the food chains and biodiversity patterns of shorebird islands (Anderson et al. 2008). *Note the use of “et al.” for the in-text citation where there are more than two authors In the References section, this source would be cited as: Anderson, W. B., D. A. Wait, and P. Stapp. 2008. Resources from another place and time: Responses to pulses in a spatially subsidized system. Ecology 89:660-670. The general format for citing a journal article with more than two authors is: Last name, First initial. Second initial., First initial. Second initial. Last name, and First initial. Second initial. Last name. Date. Title. Journal title volume number:pages. Books In text-reference: 5 Coarse particulate organic matter is an important food source for shredders (Hauer and Lamberti 1996). In the References section, this source would be cited as: Hauer, F. R. and G. A. Lamberti. 1996. Methods in Stream Ecology, First Edition. Academic Press, San Diego, California, USA. The general format for citing a book with more than two authors is: Last name, First initial. Second initial., First initial. Last name, and First initial. Second initial. Last name. Date. Book title. Publisher, City of publication, State of publication, Country of publication. Books on the Internet If a book is located from an internet source, include the web link at the end of the citation: Hauer, F. R. and G. A. Lamberti. 2007. Methods in Stream Ecology, Second Edition. Academic Press, San Diego, California, USA. Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/book/9780123329080. Book Chapters In text-reference: Nutrients play a controlling role in the physiology of herbaceous plants and the competitive interactions between herb species in the forest environment (Anderson 2003). In the References section, this source would be cited as: Anderson, W. B. 2003. Biotic and abiotic influences on the herbaceous layer: Nutrients. Pages 91-104 in F. S. Gilliam and M. R. Robert, editors. Ecology of the Herbaceous Layer of Forests of Easter North America. Oxford University Press, New York, New York, USA. Please note that the “in” before the editor names is italicized. The general format for citing a book chapter is: Last name, First initial. Second initial., First initial. Second initial. Last name, and First initial. Second initial. Date. Chapter title. Pages in First initial. Second initial. Last name and First initial. Second initial. Last name, editors. Book title. Publisher name, City of publication, State of publication, Country of publication. Technical Reports 6 A technical report is “a separately issued record of research results, research in progress, or other technical studies”. Most technical reports are issued by governmental agencies, but may also originate from universities or other types of research institutions. Advocacy organizations also sometimes issue technical reports, but technical reports from such advocacy groups should only be used with great caution. In text-reference: Use of tidal backflow preventers on stormwater outfall pipes was shown to be a costeffective action for reducing flood risks due to sea-level rise in Tybee Island, GA, over the next thirty years (Evans et al. 2016). In the References section, this source would be cited as: Evans, J. M., J. Gambill, R .J. McDowell, P. W. Prichard, and C. S. Hopkinson. 2016. Tybee Island Sea-Level Rise Adaptation Plan. Project NA100AR4170098. National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration, Georgia Sea Grant, Athens, Georgia, USA. Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/289999590_Tybee_Island_SeaLevel_Rise_Adaptation_Plan. The general format for citing a technical report is: Last name, First initial. Second initial., First initial. Second initial. Last name, and First initial. Last name. Document title. Report number. Government agency, Agency division, City of publication, State of publication, Country of publication. Websites As noted previously, standalone websites do not count as a “citable source” for your lab reports and, therefore, should not be included in your References section. However, you can provide an in-text reference to a website from a credible source that you use for specific information not readily found elsewhere. This in-text reference should include a link to the original webpage that has the information you are referencing and the date you accessed the page. In text-reference: The latest United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) plant profile map for Pistia stratiotes L. (water lettuce) shows this species as native to Florida (http://plants.usda.gov/core/profile?symbol=PIST2; accessed August 28, 2016). If you find a reference that poses difficulty for you to fit into the citation format below, please bring that reference to your lab instructor for assistance. 7 Site I1 I2 I3 I4 I6 I7 Infiltration Rate Inside Nitrogen Inside Phosphorus Inside Potassium Inside 0,00017 40 20 160 0,0005 40 20 40 0,000042 40 20 120 0,0002 40 20 160 0,000036 160 64 80 0,00017 40 8 160 Mean Standard Deviation T-Test (Inside vs. Outside) 0,000186333 0,000168843 0,082539623 60 25,33333333 120 0,181608734 0,04212076 0,253500253 Nitrogen Inside y = -126562x + 83,583 R² = 0,1903 180 160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 0 0,0001 0,0002 0,0003 0,0004 0,0005 0,0006 Infiltration Rate Outside Nitrogen Outside 0,00022 0,000535 0,00012 0,00032 0,000056 0,00010925 0,000226708 Phosphorus Outside 40 40 40 40 40 40 20 20 40 64 120 14 Potassium Outside 160 160 160 160 60 120 40 46,33333333 136,6666667 Site I1 I2 I3 I4 I5 I6 I7 Infiltration Rate Inside Nitrogen Inside Phosphorus Inside 0,000062 40 0,00098 40 0,0028 40 0,000274 40 0,00037 40 0,00009 40 0,00109 40 Mean 0,000809429 Standard Deviation 0,000968349 T-Test (Inside vs. Outside) 0,155363275 40 #DIV/0! 20 20 20 20 20 8 40 Potassium Inside 160 160 160 80 80 80 80 21,14285714 114,2857143 0,379816708 0,011153213 Infiltration Rate Outside Nitrogen Outside Phosphorus Outside Potassium Outside 0,0002778 0,0000898 0,000271 0,000491 0,00018 0,0012 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 40 80 80 40 40 80 80 0,000418267 40 20 62,85714286 Texture inside sandy loam sandy loan clay loamy sand sand silt loam silt loam Texture outside Moisture inside Moisture Outside Organic inside Organic outside sandy loamdamp dry abundant limited silty clay damp damp abundant limited sandy clay dry dry abundant limited loamy sanddamp damp abundant abundant sand damp damp limited none-limited sand clay loam saturate damp abundant limited sandy loamdamp damp abundant limited Location (see map) I1 Stormwater basin discharge capacity Infiltration rate (Qc) Qc = Stormwater Basin at adjacent Stormwater basin infiltration rate x elevated surface Infiltration Rate (m/s) area (m2) area (m/s) 0,000062 909 0,056 I2 0,00098 54,86 0,538 0,0002778 I3 0,0028 4,87 0,0136 0,0000898 I4 0,000274 1021,47 0,279 0,000271 I5 0,00037 81 0,0297 0,000491 I6 0,00009 682,24 0,061 0,00018 I7 0,00109 1017 1,109 0,0012 …
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