empiricism

_______ was a Western philosopher whose commitments to empiricism led him to conclude the self was but a fiction.

A. Immanuel Kant

B. C. J. Ducasse

C. David Hume

Incorrect D. Thomas Hobbes

E. René Descartes

Answer Key: C

Question 2 of 30 Score: 0.5 (of possible 0.5 points)

Elmer Sprague declares that “I perceive my perceptions” is ________.

A. logically impossible

B. part of the materialist view

Correct C. an odd thing to say

D. a logically necessary truth

E. true only because God perceives all perceptions

Answer Key: C

Question 3 of 30 Score: 0.5 (of possible 0.5 points)

________ is said to have wrought a Copernican revolution in knowledge.

Correct A. Immanuel Kant

B. John Locke

C. George Berkeley

D. David Hume

E. René Descartes

Answer Key: A

Question 4 of 30 Score: 0 (of possible 0.5 points)

________ was Socrates’ disciple.

A. Plato

B. Aristotle

C. Parmenides

D. All of the above

Incorrect E. a and b only

Answer Key: A

Question 5 of 30 Score: 0.5 (of possible 0.5 points)

In the dialogue of the same name, Crito comes to Socrates as his

A. lawyer.

B. teacher.

C. executioner.

Correct D. close friend.

E. student.

Answer Key: D

Question 6 of 30 Score: 0 (of possible 0.5 points)

_________ construes the self as an entity whose perceptions are the basis for the reality of physical objects.

A. Idealism

B. Phenomenology

Incorrect C. Pragmatism

D. Existentialism

E. Materialism

Answer Key: A

Question 7 of 30 Score: 0.5 (of possible 0.5 points)

As Hobbes uses the term, a Leviathan is ________.

A. a political despot

B. a sea monster

C. an irrational desire

Correct D. a government

E. a religious myth

Answer Key: D

Question 8 of 30 Score: 0.5 (of possible 0.5 points)

Inductive reasoning is reasoning that starts with ________ and arrives at ________.

A. highly probably knowledge, certainty

B. causes, effects

C. facts in the phenomenal world, facts in the noumenal world

D. relations of ideas, matters of fact

Correct E. specific observations, general probable laws

Answer Key: E

Question 9 of 30 Score: 0.5 (of possible 0.5 points)

________ wrote: “Existence precedes essence.”

A. Plato

B. Aquinas

Correct C. Jean-Paul Sartre

D. Aristotle

E. Albert Einstein

Answer Key: C

Question 10 of 30 Score: 0 (of possible 0.5 points)

Plato believed the self consisted of ________.

Incorrect A. reason, spirit, and soul

B. reason, appetite, and desire

C. reason, aggression (emotion), and appetite

D. id, ego, and psyche

E. mind, body, and soul

Answer Key: C

Question 11 of 30 Score: 0 (of possible 0.5 points)

Hume can right be considered to be ____________.

A. an empiricist

B. a rationalist

Incorrect C. a skeptic

D. a transcendental idealist

E. both A and C above

Answer Key: A

Question 12 of 30 Score: 0.5 (of possible 0.5 points)

_________ said “If no one asks me, I know what time is; if someone asks and I want to explain it, I do not know.”

A. J. M. E. McTaggart

Correct B. Saint Augustine

C. J. J. C. Smart

D. Immanuel Kant

E. Henri Bergson

Answer Key: B

Question 13 of 30 Score: 0.5 (of possible 0.5 points)

Maintenance needs are needs associated with _______.

A. achieving one’s full potential

B. having a life that is comfortable

C. developing one’s mind and emotions

D. securing one’s position in society

Correct E. living as a human being

Answer Key: E

Question 14 of 30 Score: 0 (of possible 0.5 points)

Desmond Morris suggests that apparently unselfish behavior is actually a kind of selfish activity, aimed at ________.

A. satisfying a desire to feel virtuous

B. building a reputation for kindness

C. intimidating others

D. preserving one’s genes

Incorrect E. All of the above

Answer Key: D

Question 15 of 30 Score: 0.5 (of possible 0.5 points)

________ is the study of what appears to consciousness.

A. Existentialism

Correct B. Phenomenology

C. Pragmatism

D. Solipsism

E. Idealism

Answer Key: B

Question 16 of 30 Score: 0.5 (of possible 0.5 points)

Descartes applied his method of doubt to ________.

A. the goodness of God

B. sensation

C. mathematical operations

Correct D. everything

E. his own existence

Answer Key: D

Question 17 of 30 Score: 0.5 (of possible 0.5 points)

Plato believed his forms ________.

A. must be real

B. must exist outside the mind

C. must exist in a transcendent realm

D. are inaccessible to human senses

Correct E. All of the above

Answer Key: E

Question 18 of 30 Score: 0.5 (of possible 0.5 points)

For Aristotle, aiming at the mean ________.

A. means avoiding both excess and deficiency

B. will promote happiness

C. will promote moral virtue

Correct D. All of the above

E. a and b only

Answer Key: D

Review

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Question 19 of 30 Score: 0 (of possible 0.5 points)

The new idealists think that reality is dependent on ______.

A. our ideas

Incorrect B. our language

C. our perceptions

D. our system of concepts

E. b and d

Answer Key: E

Question 20 of 30 Score: 0.5 (of possible 0.5 points)

The existentialist Jean-Paul Sartre is a

A. Freudian

Correct B. libertarian

C. determinist

D. compatibilist

Answer Key: B

Question 21 of 30 Score: 0.5 (of possible 0.5 points)

Karma means literally _________

Correct A. Action

B. Movement

C. Rightness

D. Fate

E. Law

Answer Key: A

Question 22 of 30 Score: 0.5 (of possible 0.5 points)

The three traditional fields of philosophy are ________.

A. religion, ethics, and logic

B. metaphysics, logic, and ethics

Correct C. epistemology, metaphysics, and ethics

D. ethics, metaphysics, and religion

E. metaphysics, epistemology, and logic

Answer Key: C

Question 23 of 30 Score: 0 (of possible 0.5 points)

The goal of philosophy, called autonomy, is to be _______.

A. able to live by a clearly-defined set of principles

B. free of obligations toward other people

C. free to decide for yourself what you will believe

D. able to choose for yourself how you will act

Incorrect E. None of the above

Answer Key: C

Question 24 of 30 Score: 0.5 (of possible 0.5 points)

In the United States, at least, philosophy once proceeded as if

A. Only ancient people did philosophy

B. Only the elite should do philosophy

C. Only the rich should do philosophy

D. Only the wise should do philosophy

Correct E. Only Caucasian males did philosophy

Answer Key: E

Question 25 of 30 Score: 0.5 (of possible 0.5 points)

Hume’s skepticism includes doubt about the existence of ________.

A. ideas

B. impressions

Correct C. the external world

D. time

E. b and d

Answer Key: C

Question 26 of 30 Score: 0 (of possible 0.5 points)

Hume distinguishes ideas from impressions on the basis of their ________.

A. origins

B. clarity and distinctness

C. force and vivacity

D. truth value

Incorrect E. a and b only

Answer Key: C

Question 27 of 30 Score: 0.5 (of possible 0.5 points)

Behind the idea of the Turing test is a ________ view of consciousness.

A. Platonist

B. dualist

C. rationalist

Correct D. functionalist

E. feminist

Answer Key: D

Review

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Question 28 of 30 Score: 0.5 (of possible 0.5 points)

Logical positivists ________.

A. try to understand the world by understanding language

B. object that neither idealism nor materialism has paid sufficient attention to their use of language

C. invented the process of bracketing to set aside language that fails to satisfy the criterion of verifiability

D. All of the above

Correct E. a and b only

Answer Key: E

Question 29 of 30 Score: 0.5 (of possible 0.5 points)

For ________ pragmatism was a tool for understanding the function of ideas in personal experience as instruments of will and desire.

A. Edmund Husserl

B. John Dewey

C. Herbert Spencer

D. C. S. Peirce

Correct E. William James

Answer Key: E

Question 30 of 30 Score: 0.5 (of possible 0.5 points)

Which is NOT a type of memory identified in the text.

Correct A. transcendental

B. habit

C. personal

D. factual

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