Economics Question

General Information on July 21st (pst time )

  • The exam takes place on iLearn.
  • The exam has 2 parts: Part 1 starts at 1:00pm and lasts 60 minutes. Part 2 starts at 2pm [time of exam TBD]
  • For some questions (graphs, long calculations or numerical problems) carefully take photos of ALL your work (or scan) and upload.
  • If you have trouble uploading your work, do not panic, simply email everything to me ASAP.
  • Plagiarism is not allowed: The answers you provide must be in your own words; they cannot be copied from videos, handouts, the internet, your assignments, textbook, or any other answer keys that have been provided over the length of the course. You must also submit figures/diagrams that are your own (not copies from text or other sources). Plagiarism on the exam will result in a ZERO.

More on Part 1 of Exam

  • Part 1 is available only between 1:00pm and 2:00pm; you must submit all answers on iLearn during that time.
  • Once the time runs out, you will not be able to make any further modifications to Part 1.
  • Part 1 has Multiple Choice, True/False questions, fill-in questions. You must submit all answers for Part 1 on iLearn, including the answers for fill-in questions.
  • The structure of part 1 is similar to that on MyEconLab. All fill-in questions require very brief responses; do not provide long answers as you will run out of time on the exam; do not explain anything, 1-3 words are sufficient.
  • For part 1 no uploaded files with answer will be accepted; all answers must be provided on the exam directly.
  • If you think there is an error on the exam, make a note of it, and answer the question as best as you can. Let me know of any issues AFTER the exam.
  • The # of questions in part 1 is TBD. Each question in part 1 is worth 1 point.

More on Part 2 of Exam

  • Part 2 is available starting at 2pm. The exam length is yet to be determined.
  • Part 2 will require written responses with explanations, graphs, and/or numerical work.
  • Number of questions: TBD.
  • Types of Questions: There will be a number of different types of questions ranging in length from short answer to longer problems, as well as numerical problems. Some questions will require calculations. Other questions will require analysis/discussion on a topic, where you be required to elaborate and provide economic reasoning along with your answer. Some questions may require that you explain as much as possible on a given topic. Graphs will be required for some questions.
  • There are two option in submitting your work. Option 1: You can submit your responses to part 2 directly on the exam. There is room for written responses and each questions has the option to submit/upload a photo of your work. Option 2: Alternatively you can submit ALL answers to part 2 separately, by uploading them onto iLearn after the exam ends. I will have a place for you to upload this work as I do for part 2 of all assignments; you will have 10 minutes after the exam to upload your work. It is up to you; do what you think will be easiest. The deadline to upload your work with option 2 will be 10 minutes after Part 2 is due [exact time will be posted on iLearn]; hence you will have 10 minutes after the 2nd part of the exam ends to upload any remaining work (without losing time during the exam). 10 minute is a sufficient time provided you begin uploading your work immediately after part 2 of the exam ends. If you have trouble uploading the photos EMAIL it to me ASAP.

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Economics Question

FIRST ASSIGNMENT ON ONE DOCUMENT

I CURRENTLY SERVE IN THE ARMY AS A DRILL SERGEANT AT FORT BENNING, TRAINING INFANTRY MOTAR MEN

Policy and Your Life

Prepare.png

Prepare: Prior to beginning work on this discussion question, read Chapters 3 and 4 in American Government(ATTACH BELOW), and review the Week 2 Instructor Guidance. In addition, watch the videos provided on federalism: Quick Study of Federalism Part 1 (Links to an external site.), Quick Study of Federalism Part 2 (Links to an external site.), and Quick Study of Federalism Part 3 (Links to an external site.). Review the Week 2 assignment and the Final Paper assignment for more guidance regarding selecting your policy for your Final Paper, which you will also utilize for this discussion.

Reflect.png

Reflect: The U.S. government’s expansive role in public policy is caught in a swirl of conflicting crosscurrents. On the one hand, popular expectations about government’s responsibility to solve problems often exceed the capacity of state and local authorities to respond effectively. On the other hand, policies developed at the national level may not sufficiently reflect the great diversity of interests across the United States to be effective at the local level. Moreover, the search for effective policy is further complicated by theoretical debates about the constitutional framework of federalism. That is, what limits on national power can be derived from the 10th amendment?

Write.png

Write: Select a specific policy or piece of legislation that you are interested in and that directly impacts your current or future profession (i.e., your major). For examples, go to the (ATTACH BELOW) downloadfile located in your online classroom. The policy you select should be the same policy that you research for your Final Paper.

In your initial post,

  • Identify your profession or future profession, and provide a brief background on the typical job responsibilities.
  • Discuss what federalism is and why it is important.
  • Discuss your policy or piece of legislation that you have selected for your Final Paper and how federalism impacts it.
  • Discuss the federalism challenges that the policy you have selected is creating or facing.

For example:

  • If you are an education major, how are local, state, and federal government policies affected by the Every Student Succeeds Act or some other piece of education-related legislation?
  • If you are a criminal justice major, how does recent legalization of marijuana in some states affect local, state, and federal marijuana laws?
  • If you are a business major, how does the insurance mandate in the Affordable Care Act affect local, state, and national businesses and their employees?
  • If you are a political science major, how has the recent Citizen’s United ruling affected the amount of money available for campaigns at the local, state, or federal levels?
  • SECOND ASSIGNMENT ON DIFFERENT DOCUMENT
  • Annotated Bibliography and Final Paper Pre-Planning

    This week, you will determine a policy for your Final Paper and begin your research regarding the policy of your choosing. It is important to remember that your paper should focus on a specific policy and that your paper will need to address the following components:

    • Historical and constitutional basis for the American government’s structure
    • The system of checks and balances
    • The various roles (e.g., public opinion, media, special interest groups, etc.) concerning public policy and elections
    • The voting system and election process

    Please watch this video that walks through the steps of the paper development and expands on the four required sections of the paper.Prepare: Since this is the first step in developing your Final Paper, it is recommended that you review downloadbefore beginning this assignment. A model downloadand the POL201 Research Guide are both provided for you within the online classroom to utilize when completing your Final Paper. You should also review the Week 2 Policy and Your Life discussion and the list of some possible policies found in the downloadin your online classroom, before completing this assignment.The first step to researching your Final Paper is selecting a specific policy for your paper, which was part of the Week 2 Policy and Your Life discussion. Your paper must focus on a specific policy that focuses on an aspect of the United States government and ideally, that relates to your major and future career. You should be able to find research that will allow you to support your ideas. If you have questions or would like your instructor to approve your policy, please email them directly and/or discuss with your instructor and colleagues in the Week 2 Policy and Your Life discussion forum.Reflect: Once you have found a topic that interests you, you will begin the research for your Final Paper this week. In addition to establishing your topic and the thesis for your paper, you will also provide an Annotated Bibliography (Links to an external site.) for four of the sources you intend to utilize to support your Final Paper. Each annotation should be a minimum of one full paragraph (five sentences) in length and should explain what the source discusses and how this links to your Final Paper topic. While your textbook can be utilized as a source, it does not count towards your four sources for this assignment. As your paper progresses, it is expected that you will find more sources to support your ideas for a minimum of eight sources are required for the final, with a minimum of five of those sources from the University of Arizona Global Campus Library databases. This research is necessary to develop a strong Final Paper. The following resources will help you to use the library effectively to find sources for your paper:For guidance on using library databases to locate scholarly, peer-reviewed articles click on Help! Need Article (Links to an external site.) and then click the “How Do I Search for Articles” button from the Main Menu.For guidance on identifying the types of sources you can use for academic research, watch this interactive tutorial on Evaluating Sources (Links to an external site.).The Scholarly, Peer Reviewed, and Other Credible Sources (Links to an external site.) table offers additional guidance on appropriate source types. Additionally, the POL201 Research Guide, located within the online classroom, is designed to help you find sources for your paper. If you have questions about whether a specific source is appropriate for this assignment, please contact your instructor. Be sure that the sources you are utilizing to support your ideas are valid, reliable, and not overly bias. For information on identifying information bias, watch this interactive tutorial on Subjective and Objective Statements (Links to an external site.).Write: To complete the assignment, download the (ATTACH BELOW) downloadfrom the online classroom to your computer, fill it out, and submit it via Waypoint. Within the worksheet, you will address your policy, find four scholarly sources to support your policy, and explain the significance of each of your four sources. Please be sure that each section is at least a full paragraph (minimum of five sentences) in length and fully addresses the questions presented. All references should be listed in full APA format and cited appropriately.

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Economics Question

General Information on July 21st (pst time )

  • The exam takes place on iLearn.
  • The exam has 2 parts: Part 1 starts at 1:00pm and lasts 60 minutes. Part 2 starts at 2pm [time of exam TBD]
  • For some questions (graphs, long calculations or numerical problems) carefully take photos of ALL your work (or scan) and upload.
  • If you have trouble uploading your work, do not panic, simply email everything to me ASAP.
  • Plagiarism is not allowed: The answers you provide must be in your own words; they cannot be copied from videos, handouts, the internet, your assignments, textbook, or any other answer keys that have been provided over the length of the course. You must also submit figures/diagrams that are your own (not copies from text or other sources). Plagiarism on the exam will result in a ZERO.

More on Part 1 of Exam

  • Part 1 is available only between 1:00pm and 2:00pm; you must submit all answers on iLearn during that time.
  • Once the time runs out, you will not be able to make any further modifications to Part 1.
  • Part 1 has Multiple Choice, True/False questions, fill-in questions. You must submit all answers for Part 1 on iLearn, including the answers for fill-in questions.
  • The structure of part 1 is similar to that on MyEconLab. All fill-in questions require very brief responses; do not provide long answers as you will run out of time on the exam; do not explain anything, 1-3 words are sufficient.
  • For part 1 no uploaded files with answer will be accepted; all answers must be provided on the exam directly.
  • If you think there is an error on the exam, make a note of it, and answer the question as best as you can. Let me know of any issues AFTER the exam.
  • The # of questions in part 1 is TBD. Each question in part 1 is worth 1 point.

More on Part 2 of Exam

  • Part 2 is available starting at 2pm. The exam length is yet to be determined.
  • Part 2 will require written responses with explanations, graphs, and/or numerical work.
  • Number of questions: TBD.
  • Types of Questions: There will be a number of different types of questions ranging in length from short answer to longer problems, as well as numerical problems. Some questions will require calculations. Other questions will require analysis/discussion on a topic, where you be required to elaborate and provide economic reasoning along with your answer. Some questions may require that you explain as much as possible on a given topic. Graphs will be required for some questions.
  • There are two option in submitting your work. Option 1: You can submit your responses to part 2 directly on the exam. There is room for written responses and each questions has the option to submit/upload a photo of your work. Option 2: Alternatively you can submit ALL answers to part 2 separately, by uploading them onto iLearn after the exam ends. I will have a place for you to upload this work as I do for part 2 of all assignments; you will have 10 minutes after the exam to upload your work. It is up to you; do what you think will be easiest. The deadline to upload your work with option 2 will be 10 minutes after Part 2 is due [exact time will be posted on iLearn]; hence you will have 10 minutes after the 2nd part of the exam ends to upload any remaining work (without losing time during the exam). 10 minute is a sufficient time provided you begin uploading your work immediately after part 2 of the exam ends. If you have trouble uploading the photos EMAIL it to me ASAP.
  • If you choose to take photos of your written responses to upload, make sure it is legible so that I have the ability to grade your work. It is best to submit image files directly; do not copy the images into word and then submit a pdf since the quality of the image is drastically reduced; also the photos can be too small when cut and pasted into other file formats.
  • Please do not submit your work using “apple pages” as I do all my work on a PC and cannot view these pages. Photos/scans are fine. Also, do not submit your work in a zip file, submit/uploda each file separately so that it displays on iLearn.


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Economics Question

Consider an example of the Mars chocolate bar; if the supply and demand curves represented as:

Qs = 2p; Qd = 18 –p

Solve:

a)Equilibrium price and equilibrium quantity and calculate total revenue?

b)If there were a price celling equal to 7 SAR per chocolate bar imposed, calculate the price elasticity of demand? Does this consider elastic, inelastic or unit elastic? Also, calculate the total revenue?

c)Now consider the Bounty chocolate bar market; if the supply and demand is:


d)Compare the total revenue for the Bounty bar and the total revenue for the Mars chocolate bar. Which one of product’s total revenue has been increased after the price have been increase and why? Explain in words and show the difference in numbers as well.

e)Recall part a (the Mars chocolate bar); Calculate the CS & PS. Also, calculate total surplus. Hint; you need to set Qs=0 & Qd=0 to find the intercept and calculate the CS, PS. Where the CS is the area between the intercept for demand and the equilibrium price you found on part a. Do not forget that this area is a triangle so carefully calculate the area. The same thing for PS.

f)Now, if the government impose sales tax equal to 50% which is equal to 3 SAR per Mars chocolate bar; if 2 SAR of the tax bared by the buyer and 1 SAR bared by the seller. calculate the CS, PS, tax revenue, DWL and total surplus. What happened to the total surplus after imposing tax (increase/decrease/does not change)? Hint: PD = 8 and PS = 5. The intercept points for the supply and demand on this part are the same as the ones on part e. To find the quantity, plug either the price for the buyer on the demand curve formula or the price for the seller on supply curve formula. Also, remember CS, PS & DWL have triangle area, whereas tax revenue has rectangular area. Graph this manually so you can easily find the answer.

g)Without calculation, would you expect to have higher/ lower government revenue and DWL on bounty and why?


Q2.

Assume that Saudi Arabia produce only two products; Clothes and Shoes where are the price and quantity produced are:

Year

Clothes

Pair of shoes

2018 (base year)

P= 200 SAR

Q= 1,000

P= 100 SAR

Q= 2,000

2019

P= 200 SAR

Q= 1,100

P= 100 SAR

Q= 2,100

2020

P= 240 SAR

Q= 900

P= 120 SAR

Q= 1,900

Calculate GDP deflator for the years 2018, 2019 and 2020. Also, calculate the Nominal and real GDP growth on 2019 & 2020, compare between real and nominal GDP by explaining in words why they are different or the same on each year. Calculate the 2019 & 2020 inflation rates.


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Economics Question

EC303: Guidelines for Topic Papers

You will choose a twoyear timeperiod from the last 20 years. For this period, you should analyze Fed policymaking
through key macroeconomic indicators of the business cycle.

For your timeperiod, use actual data supported by tables or graphs for each indicator and write at least one
paragraph on each of the following indicators:

economic growth as measured by real GDP

the price level, i.e., if inflation was problematic

interest rates and how they were influenced by the Fed

the targets and goals of monetary policy and the Fed Chairman’s leadership in attaining them

Organization

Your paper consists of the items below which should be in the following order:

1. Cover sheet (title page) containing the following: assigned topic, your name, course name, date
2. Introductory paragraph states the topic and the thesis, i.e., the general conclusion that is supported by the body of
the paper.
3. Second paragraph is a general description of data presented in tables or graphs. There should be at least one
table/graph per indicator (that means a total of four tables/graphs). Tables/graphs should be labeled, the data
source must be identified, and they should be on a separate page or pages as an attachment between the body
of the paper and the Works Cited page. Data may be found in Federal Reserve Bulletin and other sources (see
below).
4. Remaining paragraphs address the four indicators listed above, including more detailed analysis of data.
5. The conclusion summarizes and restates the thesis.
6. Works Cited page containing your research sources is the final page.

Paper Format

1,000 1,200 words, not including the Works Cited page. Verify this with wordcount in your software and include
the actual word count typed at the bottom of the last page of text, before the attachments and Works Cited page. Points
will be deducted for no word count, word count in the wrong place, and for counts under 1,000 or those over 1,200.
typed, doublespaced, on white paper, with page numbers centered at the bottom of the page

Topic Paper Grading Criteria:

Application of Economic Theory* 50 points
Presentation and Analysis of Data* 25 points
Research 50 points
Organization (as listed above) 25 points
Format 25 points
Topic selection and resources100 points
Submitted in Unit 3 300 TOTAL

*Questions to think about defined below

Application of Economic Theory:

Are concepts based in economic theory from course lectures and applied to the realworld data?
Are all economic terms defined?
Are economic concepts explained and interpreted accurately?
Are facts presented and cited accurately?
Is a thorough understanding of concepts demonstrated?

Presentation and Analysis of Data:

Are the data presented professionally in a table or graph, with the data source included?
Are the data used to support the thesis?
Are the data interpreted properly?
Are the data well organized and presented effectively?

Research Sources

The Federal Reserve Bulletin is required for one of your research sources. This Fed publication contains articles as well
as data and is available in Academic OneFile, an online database available from Park University library. Fulltext articles
are available from 19792005 in Academic OneFile. More recent articles can be found on the Fed’s website
(federalreserve.gov). In addition, you must use one citation from your textbook plus at least one additional research
source that discusses the timeperiod. Thus, you should have at least three citations in the body of the text and at
least three different references on your Works Cited page.

Use of the Internet:Conducting scholarly research by simply Googling your specific topic will yield very little useful
information. You should find at least one article through Park Library’s online database or a government source; that
reference will contain more references that you can pursue. NOTE: If your Works Cited page has only Internet sites, you
would receive zero points for research.

Unacceptable Sources: In general, citations from Internet websites will NOT count as a required source unless the
citation is from a U.S. government website. The Internet can be used to find online versions of publications, but such
citations should be made only for articles that are published in paper form (i.e., can be found in a library). For instance,
you could use a New York Times article that is downloaded from the Internet. Cutting and pasting information from the
Internet is plagiarism. Encyclopedias (e.g., Wikipedia), textbooks other than the course textbook, and abstracts of articles
are not valid sources. Required and Recommended Sources:

Federal Reserve Bulletin (required, available in EBSCO or on the FED website)
the relevant chapter of your textbook (required)
the St. Louis Fed’s online database, FRED
other regional Fed publications
The Wall Street Journal
New York Times online (email notices of this are available for free)
CNN Financial News online
The Economist (magazine)
any academic or nonacademic journal available through Park University library
library books
government publications (e.g., those of the Fed or the U.S. Treasury)

APA Format


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Economics Question

you are required to write an essay up to 1000 words on qualitative research, data collection and analysis methods justification for a real or an imaginary research project. This is a practice run (i.e. shorter version) for the “Materials and Methods chapter” of a bachelor’s thesis to practice justification of your methodological choices.

To write, you have to make up an imaginary research project and discuss how to do it qualitatively.

Recommended structure (no need to have separate chapters, though) and content of the essay is as follows:

  • Introduction. Set the research context and present the research purpose (why and what you are trying to find out).
  • Research method choice and justification. What kind of qualitative approach are you applying to your study? Why it suits best (i.e. how it connects with the purpose of the study)?
  • Sample selection and justification. How is the sample composed? Any particular method for sample compilation? Why that sample?
  • Data collection method description and justification. What will be the data (type, kind, etc.)? Why that kind of data? How will the data be collected? Why in that way? Why is it the best way? How does it help to achieve the research purpose?
  • Data analysis method selection and justification. Which method will be applied to data analysis? Why that particular method?
  • Ethical implications. What needs to be taken into account when collecting, recording, storing and analysing the data?
  • Conclusion. Summary of the thoughts. Final words how all the choices discussed in the essay will help you to achieve the research purpose.
  • Reference list. List of sources used in the essay. Formatted for a thesis.

NB! All the elements do not have to have separate chapters/headings. You can write it as a three-chapter essay also: introductions, research methods, conclusion. Or if you feel more comfortable, you can write the essay without any headings as a singular written work; keep in mind that it has a flow of intro, body and conclusion.

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Economics Question

Introduction

Researchers and policy makers are interested in the (statistical) relationship between a

worker

s level of education and the (hourly) wage that they receive. Consider the following

econometric model:

ln wagei

=

β0 + β1 educi + δ Xi + εi (1)

where X represents a full set of control variables that are important determinants of wages

and εi is a random error which is (approximately) normally distributed with ε

N (0, σ

2

ε )

.

While it is expected that β1 > 0 such that more educated workers generally earn higher

wages (conditional upon other determinants of wages), you are ultimately interested in

magnitude of β1

.

1The data fifile assignment2.csv contains 2,086 observations on individuals currently aged

24

34 at the time of interview, which may be used to estimate the econometric model

(1)

. This data fifile contains the following variables

lnwage

=

Natural logarithm of hourly wage

educ

=

Years of completed education

exper

=

Years of labour market experience

expersq

=

Years of labour market experience squared

disadv

=

1 if live in a disadvantaged region, 0 otherwise

city

=

1 if live in a major city, 0 otherwise

The data fifile also provides some variables for these individuals ten years prior to interview:

city10

=

1 if lived in a major city 10 years ago, 0 otherwise

region10 j

=

1 if lived in region j 10 years ago, 0 otherwise, j

=

1, 2,

. . . 9

The data fifile also contains some information on the education of the individual

s parents:

motheduc

=

Completed years of education of mother

fatheduc

=

Completed years of education of father

both nohs

=

1 if both parents did not complete high school, 0 otherwise

You will need to use the following packages to complete this assignment:

stargazer : for easily generating regression output

car : for easily conducting hypothesis tests in R

sandwich : for calculting robust standard errors in R

AER : for estimating linear models using the Instrumental Variable (IV) estimator in R

These can be installed directly in RStudio from the packages tab or by using the com

mand install.

packages() and inserting the name of the package in the brackets.

Note: You are required to complete this assignment using the R statistical software.

Please include a copy of your R script fifile with your assignment submission (for an

additional fifive (5) marks)

.

Please insert your full R script fifile as an Appendix attached to the end of your submitted

assignment. You only need to submit a single fifile for your assignment that contains both

your assignment answers and your R script fifile. Do not submit your R script fifile as

a separate fifile in Canvas.

2a) 10 marks] Consider the following econometric model:

ln wagei

=

β0 + β1 educi + β2 experi + β3 expersq100i

+ β4 disadvi + β5 cityi

+ β6 city10i +X

9

j

=2

β7j

region10 ji + εi (2)

where region10 1 (Region 1) is the omitted category

.

Note that:

expersq100i

=

expersqi

100

=

exper

2

i

100

i) [2 marks] What is the interpretation of the population parameter β1 in model

(2)?

ii) [2 marks] What is the interpretation of the population parameter β4 in model

(2)?

iii) [6 marks] Estimate the econometric model (2) by the method of Ordinary

Least Squares (OLS) with robust (Huber

White) standard errors. Us

all the variables relating to the individual

s geographic location 10 years ago

are important determinants of wages. Your answer should clearly state the

ln wagei

=

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Economics Question

Please upload a Word document using APA format for this assignment (see attached for the template). Where applicable, you must show your derivations, analysis and how you obtained the responses/answers. Use title page, in-text citations, references, appropriate font size, double spaces, etc where appropriate. The assignment will be graded for content, APA formatting, met deadlines for submission.

Today’s urban transportation planning process is being impacted by the President’s Stimulus Plan. High speed rail is one such option to congestion along the highways of urban areas. These projects have two sides to them. There are those who support high speed rail and those who do not support high speed rail. You have been chosen to not support the Stimulus Plan for use of high speed rail to ease congestion. Your task is to help decision makers make up their minds. So, you are now on the opposing side. Discuss how this Stimulus Plan for high speed rail will not work. You can use any reference. But, you must also present your opinion based on facts and data, not just because you don’t like it. You will have to provide evidence to back up what you believe is a bad idea. (25 points)

Most (97 percent) roads and streets in the United States are under the jurisdiction of State and local governments. The Federal jurisdiction is mainly limited to National Parks, National Forests, and other government-owned land. Discuss what issues and problems might be common between the Federal jurisdiction and the State and Local governments, and what issues and problems might be unique to the Federal government compared to the State and local governments. List the common and unique attributes and provide a brief explanation to support your choice. Use references in APA format and also offer your own opinion on what you think of these issues and problems. (25 points)

The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) went into effect on January 1, 1994. This sweeping agreement is designed to open the borders separating Canada, Mexico, and the United States to the free exchange of goods and services. There are many pros and cons of NAFTA that have emerged since 1994. The future of NAFTA is in the wind these days. It may fail or succeed for the next ten years. You job is to help Congress and other decision makers to decide what course of action they should take regarding NAFTA’s future. You are to take the side that NAFTA is a bad business investment; you are to represent the “con” side of the argument. So, discuss why you would defeat or destroy NAFTA or morph it from its current state to some other new state. (25 points)

In early 1990s with a second wave of low-cost carriers (LCCs), which led to the second period of strong traffic growth from early 1993 through early 2000, Southwest Airlines arguably provided the blueprint for U.S. Between 2006 and 2009 a fuel crisis happened and a recession for business and the transportation industry. What is the impact today on LCC’s in order to be competitive in this economy coming on the heels of this recession? (25 points)

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Economics Question

The dataset they will use for their projects, and its detailed
description, which is expected include:

  • the source of the dataset
  • The list of the potential variables that will be used, their
    measurement units, units of observation, and description of the
    listed variables as provided by the source
  • summary statistics (min, max, mean, median, and standard
    deviation of the variables, and correlations in between all
    variables they will use for their analysis)
  • any problems or unexpected findings they see with the
    summary statistics and/or sample (if any)
    Where to find data? Some data sources that may help:

i. R package titled: “Wooldridge” has the datasets of our
textbook, and you may use the ones
that we don’t use
for our homework assignments The
datasets that you are not allowed to use for your
projects are listed under the Canvas folder DATASETS.
(An announcement will also be shared about this
option, and the related Canvas assignments’
description sections will also list this information.)

ii. IF you collect data outside the ones of our textbook;
however, I may give you extra points for extra data
effort (please also see below for further notes on grading
of the final project report). For that, some sources that
may help are:

o https://www.aeaweb.org/resources/data/u
s-other-data

o https://libraryguides.unh.edu/Econ726
o

Final Project Report (80 pts)

Students are expected to submit an electronic copy of their project reports,
as well as the code and data that they used in their projects (via the related
Canvas assignment as well as via email) latest by the stated deadline (see the
Canvas course calendar for the related deadline).

Please note that failure to successfully submit the final project reports, latest
by the stated deadline, will result in the grade weight of project being added
to that of the final (A full project grade of zero, mentioned at any point
on this document, means that the grade weight of project being added to
that of the final except for the case of plagiarism. In the case of
plagiarism, student will get an F automatically, and further disciplinary action
will be taken). No extensions are going to be given. It is also absolutely the
students’ responsibility to make sure that the instructor receives the correct
copy of the final project report, on time. (Failed email deliveries for any
reason, forgotten or incorrect attachments, non-readable assignments, etc.
are all going to be considered as a no submission. Please also see the main
syllabus for examples of unsuccessful submissions.)

FINAL PROJECT REPORT (Deadline is listed on the Canvas calendar of the
course)

  • Min. 2000, max. ~5000 words (excluding figures, tables, etc.)
  • Project Report is required to include all of the following four sections, with
    each one explaining the listed at minimum, and it is expected to be one
    coherent paper that embodies all of these four sections. And, as an
    attachment to the project, students also are expected to share their code
    (or spreadsheets if they are using Excel), and the data that they used in
    estimation.

    SECTION-1 (10 pts)

    • Project report’s introduction
    • Research question and reasoning
      o Any research, and related reading

    o Connection of the research question to Economics (or the
    related discipline), and reasoning

    • Data and model description
      o Description of the variables, and the equation(s) to be
      estimated
    • Description and discussion of the dataset in connection with the
      research question
      o Summary statistics and discussion of the data and the sample
    • Identification and discussion of unexpected/problematic data
      properties (if any), and proposed/applied solutions
      SECTION-2 (10 pts)
    • Regression Analysis (at least one multiple linear regression model
      must be estimated to be able to get a grade above zero)
    • Interpretation of estimates/findings in connection with the research
      question, and discussion of the findings
    • Identification and discussion of unexpected/problematic results
      SECTION-3 (40 pts)
    • Assumptions made for the methodology to work, given the research
      question and the related data
    • Any possible violations of these assumptions and their implications for
      the model and results

    o Here you are expected to explain possible violations intuitively,

    i.e., explain what your expectations are (NOTE: Almost all of the

    datasets at least have one problem, and usually more)
    o For each possible violation, you are expected to explain what

    that means for the estimators and estimates you use
    o Perform formal statistical tests, where possible/applicable, in

    the Section 4 below.
    SECTION-4 (20 pts)

    • Discussion, and, where possible, application of (potential) solutions to
      the identified problems in sections 2 and 3, if any, and discussion of
      the related results (if any)
    • Significance tests per each coefficient estimated, and the discussion of
      these tests’ results
    • Any additional hypothesis in connection with the research question,
      and their tests. And, any other statistical tests, which are relevant for
      the project question, assumptions, and/or results.
      o For any tests conducted, students are required to state the
      hypotheses that are being tested, the statistic, related
      distribution or test’s name, as well as how they reach the
      decision.
    • Discussion of proposed solutions to the identified problems in sections
      2 and 3, if any
    • Project report’s conclusion
      Points possible for Final Project Report: 80 pts (+ max. 10 pts bonus
      possible)
      Grading Notes:
  • The biggest percentage of the points will depend on thecompleteness, and the quality and clarity of explanation of theitems listed per each section above and the relatedindependent econometric analysis required/used.
  • The following will also be checked, in general, while grading thesections listed above.
    • Quality of the data and its source(s)
    • Replicability of (all of) the results in the project report using
      the code and data to be provided by the student latest by the
      stated deadline (points are going to be deducted if the
      provided code and data doesn’t replicate the results
      completely and clearly, without errors)
    • Quality, clarity, and use of research and relevant academic
      sources (i.e. academic journal articles, books).
    • Quality, clarity, and correct use of writing, tables, and figures
    • +5 pts (max) possible bonus for above and beyond work (if any)
    • +5 pts (max) possible bonus for extra data effort (if any)
      Notes:
  • Help:

    Students are welcome to ask questions about their project during the listed
    office hours (of the instructor and/or the TAs). However, prior work/effort is
    expected from the students beforehand.
    We also have a library research guide for the students who may need help
    with finding articles as well as accessing datasets.
    https://libraryguides.unh.edu/Econ726

    We also have a library research assistant for the students who may need help
    with finding articles as well as accessing datasets. Please find her contact
    details at the above link. However, please note that our library assistant
    won’t and can’t do research and/or analysis for you. Please contact her if you
    have questions about finding datasets/papers, using library resources, etc.

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    Economics Question

    PART 1– A) Please watch this video before answering the questions at the end of the video case. After you have viewed the video, please compose a well thought out answer, at least a paragraph in length, for each of the questions at the end of the attached video case PDF.

    B) Please watch this video before answering the questions at the end of the video case. After you have viewed the video, please compose a well thought out answer, at least a paragraph in length, for each of the questions at the end of the attached video case PDF.

    PART2–Please complete each of the following activities. Please compose your answers in standard APA style in a Word document for submission on this link. Proper grammar and sentence structure is expected. There is not a required length for each of these, however, I do expect all answers to thoroughly address each scenario.

    1. Imagine that you are in charge of developing a fast-growing startup’s e-commerce presence. Consider your options for building the company’s e-commerce presence in-house with existing staff, or outsourcing the entire operation. Decide which strategy you believe is in your company’s best interest and create a brief presentation outlining your position. Why choose that approach? And what are the estimated associated costs, compared with the alternative? (You’ll need to make some educated guesses here—don’t worry about being exact.)
    2. Choose two e-commerce software packages and prepare an evaluation chart that rates the packages on the key factors discussed in the section “Choosing an E-commerce Software Platform.” Which package would you choose if you were developing a website of the type described in this chapter, and why?

    PART 3—-Please complete each of the following activities. Please compose your answers in standard APA style in a Word document for submission on this link. Proper grammar and sentence structure is expected. There is not a required length for each of these, however, I do expect all answers to thoroughly address each scenario.

    1. Given the shift toward m-commerce, do a search on m-commerce (or mobile commerce) crime. Identify and discuss the security threats this type of technology creates. Prepare a write up of your vision of the new opportunities for cybercrime that m-commerce may provide.
    2. Research the challenges associated with payments across international borders and prepare a brief summary of your findings. Do most e-commerce companies conduct business internationally? How do they protect themselves from repudiation? How do exchange rates impact online purchases? What about shipping charges? Describe the differences between a U.S. customer and an international customer who each make a purchase from a U.S. e-commerce merchant.

    PART4– A) Please watch this video before answering the questions at the end of the video case. After you have viewed the video, please compose a well thought out answer, at least a paragraph in length, for each of the questions at the end of the attached video case PDF.

    B)Please complete each of the following activities. Please compose your answers in standard APA style in a Word document for submission on this link. Proper grammar and sentence structure is expected. There is not a required length for each of these, however, I do expect all answers to thoroughly address each scenario.

    1. Surf the Web and visit at least two different e-commerce sites. Make a list describing in detail all the different marketing communication tools you see being used. Which do you believe is the most effective and why?
    2. Examine the use of rich media and video in advertising. Find and describe at least two examples of advertising using streaming video, sound, or other rich media technologies. (Hint: Check the sites of online advertising agencies for case studies or examples of their work.) What are the advantages and/or disadvantages of this kind of advertising? Prepare a report on your findings.

    PreviousNext

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    Economics Question

    Assignment 1 Questions: Week 1 to Week 5: [5 Marks]

    Q1. Illustrates the market for chocolate bars has the following demand and supply

    schedules: [1.5 Marks]

    Price

    Quantity Demanded

    Quantity Supplied

    $3

    111

    26

    $4

    100

    53

    $5

    80

    80

    $6

    64

    92

    $7

    51

    111

    $8

    37

    120

    • Graph the demand and supply curves. What is the equilibrium price and quantity in this market?
    • If the actual price in this market were above the equilibrium price, what would
    • If the actual price in this market were below the equilibrium price, what would

    drive the market toward the equilibrium?

    drive the market toward the equilibrium?

    Q2. Illustrates the market for pizza is characterized by a downward-sloping demand curve

    and an upward-sloping supply curve. [1.5 Marks]

    • Draw the competitive market equilibrium. Label the price, quantity, consumer
    • Suppose that the government forces each pizzeria to pay a $1 tax on each pizza sold. Illustrate the effect of this tax on the pizza market, being sure to label the consumer surplus, producer surplus, government revenue, and deadweight loss. How does each area compare to the pre-tax case?
    • If the tax were removed, pizza eaters and sellers would be better off, but the

    surplus, and producer surplus. Is there any deadweight loss? Explain.

    government would lose tax revenue. Suppose that consumers and producers voluntarily transferred some of their gains to the government. Could all parties (including the government) be better off than they were with a tax? Explain using the labeled areas in your graph

    Q3. Suppose that a market is described by the following supply and demand equations:

    [2 Marks]

    QS = 2P

    QD = 300 – P

    • Solve for the equilibrium price and the equilibrium quantity.
    • Suppose that a tax of T is placed on buyers, so the new demand equation is
    • Tax revenue is T X Q. Use your answer to part (b) to solve for tax revenue as a function of T. Graph this relationship for T between 0 and 300.
    • The deadweight loss of a tax is the area of the triangle between the supply and
    • The government now levies a tax on this good of $200 per unit. Is this a good

    QD = 300 – (P + T).

    Solve for the new equilibrium. What happens to the price received by sellers, the price paid by buyers, and the quantity sold?

    demand curves. Recalling that the area of a triangle is 1 ⁄2 x base x height, solve for deadweight loss as a function of T. Graph this relationship for T between 0 and 300. (Hint: Looking sideways, the base of the deadweight loss triangle is T, and the height is the difference between the quantity sold with the tax and the quantity sold without the tax.)

    policy? Why or why not? Can you propose a better policy?

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    Economics Question

    Section 1

    In this section, you will carry out a simulation experiment to investigate the statistical properties

    of hypothesis tests in an OLS framework. The experiment will be based on repeated sampling

    .

    Each simulated sample is to be generated as follows. First, draw n

    =

    25 observations of two i.i.d.

    random standard normal variables,

    Wi

    ∼ N(0, 1), and Vi

    ∼ N(0, 1)

    .

    Next, use Wi and Vi to generate three regressors and three errors as follows:

    X1i

    =

    Wi , U1i

    =

    Vi,

    X2i

    = 1(Wi ≥ 0) ) 0.5

    0.5

    , U2i

    = 1(Vi ≥ 0) ) 0.5

    0.5

    ,

    X3i

    = W

    2

    i

    1

    √2

    , U3i

    = V

    2

    i

    1

    √2

    ,

    where 1(

    ) is the indicator function, which equals 1 if its argument is true, and 0 otherwise. All

    these six variables have mean zero and variance one, but diffffer in the shape of their distribution

    functions. The variables indexed

    1

    are normal; the ones indexed

    2

    , are Bernoulli (binary); and

    the ones indexed

    3

    are chi

    squared with 1 degree of freedom.

    Finally, consider the nine difffferent simple linear regression models generated by all possible

    combinations of the three regressors and the three errors:

    Yqs,i

    =

    β0 + β1Xqi + Usi, q

    = 1, 2, 3; s

    = 1, 2, 3; (1)

    where β0

    =

    0 and β1

    =

    {0.5, 1} (i.e.

    , consider two possible values for β1)

    .

    The experiment is to be conducted using 1,000 repeated samples (aka replications) for each of

    the nine distinct regression models defifined by (1) and each of the two possible values of β1

    .

    Important

    Fix the random seed as rseed(2021) so that your results are replicable.

    You must append a complete copy of the R script that you have used to generate your results

    to your solutions to this assignment. Your R script does not count towards the word limit.

    The appended R script needs to replicate all your simulation results in this section. I.e.

    , if

    your appended R script is copy

    pasted into R Studio and run, all your result in this section

    need to be produced and printed without the person who replicates it needing to manually

    change anything

    .

    1. In which of the nine regression models is the OLS estimator for β1 unbiased? In which is it

    consistent? Answer by arguing theoretically (that is, argue without presenting or referencing

    any simulation evidence)

    .

    2. Set β1

    =

    0.5. Run the simulation for the nine regression models. Test H0: β1

    =

    0.5 at

    the 10% level. Report the rejection frequencies (to three decimal places) by fifilling in the

    following table:

    Page 2 of 6Table 1: Rejection frequencies for tests of H0 : β1

    =

    0.5 with nominal size α

    =

    0.10

    (β1

    =

    0.5; replications

    =

    1,000)

    Error

    U1i U2i U3i

    Regressor (normal) (Bernoulli) (χ

    2

    1)

    X1i

    (normal)

    X2i

    (Bernoulli)

    X3i

    2

    1)

    3. What does the rejection frequency represent in this case? Discuss your results.

    4. Test formally whether the rejection frequency in the test of the DGP with X1i and U3i is

    statistically signifificantly difffferent (at the 5% level) from the nominal size by obtaining an

    appropriate confifidence interval for the estimated rejection frequency

    .

    5. Set β1

    = 1. Run the simulation for the nine regression models. Test H0: β1

    =

    0.5 at the

    10% level. Report the rejection frequencies (to three decimal places) by fifilling in a table

    similar to Table 1 from Question 2.

    6. What does the rejection frequency represent in this case? Discuss your results.

    7. Explain how you expect that your results in this section would change if you used n

    = 2, 500.

    Tips for coding the simulation in R

  • The simulation is similar to the ones you have discussed in the tutorials. You can use those
  • simulations as a guide on how to set up and structure your simulation. In particular, you

    can write your simulation around two nested for() loops:

    the outer loop just needs to loop over the two values of β1;

    the inner loop needs to loop over the 1,000 repeated samples, in each of which you draw

    the n observations of all the Xqi and Usi variables, generate the corresponding Yqs,i

    variables, run the OLS regressions, perform the hypothesis test, and store the decision

    from the test (reject or not reject) in appropriate, previously created, storage matrices.

    Alternatively, you can store the test statistics or p

    values in the storage matrices and

    apply the decision (reject/not reject) to the elements of those matrices.

  • If you want to compose a compact code, you can add within the inner for() loop a further
  • innermost

    third loop which loops over the nine regressions and tests (i.e.

    , a loop over the

    nine combinations of q and s)

    . But writing down the nine regressions instead of looping over

    them will also work just fifine.

  • General coding tips:
  • Try not to write a for() loop in one go. Make sure that the code works for a single

    sample, then slowly generalise it to a for() loop

    .

    When testing for() loops, you can use a small number of replications so that the code

    runs faster. Just remember to change it back when you are sure it works!

    Leave comments on your code regularly

    .

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    Economics Question

    Question 3 (20 marks)

    BaKiwi is a online retailer that sells high-end clothes for children. Recently, the director decides to expand the company’s Internet sales. She conducts a study on the effectiveness of Internet advertisement placed on social media sites.

    undefined

    With this data on Internet advertisement, she continued to examine how new Internet customers could most effectively be reached. She conducted a follow-up study to find out which social media sites might be the most effective for advertisement. She emailed a questionnaire to a sample of 1,200 current Internet customers to discover which of 30 social media sites they regularly visit. The idea is that web sites with high proportions of current customer visits would be viable sources of future customers for BaKiwi products.

    undefined

    She would like to find out which social media sites should be chosen for advertisement. She does not want to count multiple exposures. So, if a respondent visits multiple sites with Bakiwi advertisement or visits a given site multiple times, that respondent should be counted as reached but not more than once. That’s mean, a customer is considered reached if he or she has visited at least one web site with an Bakiwi advertisement.

    undefined

    So far, 53 surveys have been returned. She wants to develop model based on the current survey results. To keep the model manageable, she wants to proceed with model development using the data from the 53 returned surveys and using only the first 10 social media sites in the questionnaire. The costs of advertisement per week for the 10 web sites are given in the following table, and the budget is RM10,000 per week. For each of the 53 responses received, the 10 social media sites visited regularly are shown below. For a given customer–web site pair, a one indicates that the customer regularly visits that web site and a zero indicates that the customer does not regularly visit that site.

    undefined

    Data for Bakiwi Customer Visits to Social Media Web Sites

    undefined

    Website

    1

    2

    3

    4

    5

    6

    7

    8

    9

    10

    Cost/Wk (RM’000)

    5.0

    8.0

    3.5

    5.5

    7.0

    4.5

    6.0

    5.0

    3.0

    2.2

    Website

    Customer

    1

    2

    3

    4

    5

    6

    7

    8

    9

    10

    1

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    1

    2

    1

    0

    0

    1

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    3

    1

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    4

    0

    0

    0

    0

    1

    1

    0

    0

    0

    0

    5

    0

    0

    0

    0

    1

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    6

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    1

    7

    0

    1

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    1

    0

    8

    0

    0

    0

    0

    1

    0

    0

    1

    0

    0

    9

    1

    0

    0

    0

    1

    0

    0

    0

    0

    1

    10

    0

    0

    0

    1

    0

    1

    0

    1

    0

    1

    11

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    1

    0

    0

    0

    0

    12

    0

    0

    1

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    13

    0

    0

    0

    0

    1

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    14

    0

    1

    0

    0

    0

    1

    0

    0

    0

    0

    15

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    1

    0

    0

    16

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    1

    0

    0

    0

    0

    17

    0

    0

    0

    1

    1

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    18

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    1

    0

    0

    0

    19

    0

    0

    0

    0

    1

    1

    0

    0

    0

    0

    20

    0

    1

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    1

    0

    0

    21

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    1

    0

    1

    0

    22

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    1

    0

    0

    0

    0

    23

    0

    0

    1

    0

    0

    1

    0

    0

    0

    1

    24

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    25

    0

    0

    0

    0

    1

    0

    0

    1

    0

    0

    26

    0

    0

    1

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    1

    27

    0

    1

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    1

    0

    0

    28

    0

    0

    0

    1

    0

    0

    1

    0

    0

    0

    29

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    1

    0

    0

    0

    0

    30

    0

    0

    1

    1

    1

    0

    0

    0

    0

    1

    31

    0

    0

    0

    1

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    32

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    1

    0

    0

    33

    1

    0

    1

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    1

    34

    0

    0

    0

    1

    1

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    35

    1

    0

    0

    0

    1

    1

    0

    0

    0

    0

    36

    1

    0

    1

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    37

    0

    0

    1

    0

    1

    0

    0

    1

    0

    0

    38

    0

    0

    1

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    39

    0

    1

    0

    0

    0

    0

    1

    0

    0

    0

    40

    0

    1

    0

    0

    0

    0

    1

    0

    0

    0

    41

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    1

    0

    0

    0

    42

    0

    0

    0

    1

    1

    1

    0

    0

    0

    0

    43

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    44

    0

    0

    0

    0

    1

    0

    0

    0

    0

    1

    45

    1

    1

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    46

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    1

    0

    0

    0

    47

    1

    0

    0

    0

    1

    0

    0

    0

    0

    1

    48

    0

    0

    1

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    49

    1

    0

    1

    1

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    50

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    51

    0

    1

    0

    0

    0

    1

    0

    0

    0

    0

    52

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    53

    0

    1

    0

    0

    1

    0

    0

    1

    1

    1

    Prepare a report that include the following:

    undefined

    • Formulate a model that will allow BaKiwi to maximize the number of customers reached for a budget of RM10,000 for one week of promotion.
    • By solving the model, determine what is the maximum number of customers reached for the RM10,000 budget.
    • Perform a sensitivity analysis on the budget for values from RM5,000 to RM35,000 in increments of RM5,000.

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    Economics Question

    1. (20) One of the more complex options strategies is the so-called “iron condor” portfolio, using a combinations

    of long and short positions, call and put options, and four different strike prices. In this question we will

    consider what would motivate traders to construct such a portfolio and the structure of the payoffs that they

    receive from it. Suppose that stock in Hieroglyph Inc. is currently priced at St = 150 per share, with prices of

    various options written on this stock given below.

    Strike Call Price Put Price

    120 35 5

    140 20 10

    160 10 20

    180 5 35

    (a) (10) Suppose that you are convinced that this stock is not as volatile as the market believes it to be,

    but are unsure of the direction of future price movements. Construct a suitable portfolio to match your

    beliefs, and plot the payoff diagram (you may assume a zero risk-free rate).

    (b) (10) Now suppose that, while you still believe that extreme price movements in either direction are

    unlikely, you wish to limit your downside risk just in case. Modify your portfolio to achieve this, and plot

    the payoff diagram.

    2. (60) Consider applying the binomial method to price American options. Suppose that stock in the MAGA

    Hat Company is priced at S0 = 100 and consider options that are at the money K = 100. The options mature

    in T = 1 year, which we divide into n = 3 periods, each of length t = T

    n = 1

    3 . The risk-free rate is r = 0.08

    and MAGA stock has a volatility of = 0.45.

    (a) (10) Calculate the magnitude of upticks u and downticks d, as well as the risk-neutral probability p.

    (b) (10) Draw the stock price tree and calculate the payoffs to call and put options at each final price.

    (c) (10) Using backward induction, calculate the price of European call and put options.

    (d) (10) Verify that put-call parity holds for European options.

    (e) (10) Find the price of American call and put options. Is it ever worthwhile to exercise early?

    (f) (10) Does put-call parity hold for American options?

    3. (20) Pick any stock and look up the current option prices. Pay particular attention to the implied volatility,

    the volatility which, if plugged into the Black-Scholes pricing formula along with the other known parameters,

    would yield the price of the option.

    (a) (10) Choose an expiry date, and plot the implied volatility of call options against the strike price, ignoring

    any implied volatilities of 0. What do you see, and what might explain this?

    (b) (10) Now select at least three more expiry dates, and repeat the same plot for each. What happens to

    implied volatility as time to maturity increases?

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    Economics Question

    Course Learning Outcomes: 2 & 4Topic/s of Primary Focus: Macroeconomic Fundamentals(May also include content from previous topics.)For this assignment, you will refer to the latest Australian National Accounts dataavailable from the AustralianBureau of Statistics at the below link.https://www.abs.gov.au/statistics/economy/nationalaccounts/australiannationalaccountsnationalincomeexpenditureandproduct/jun2021Task:For this assignment,you are asked toprovide your own analysis of the GDP figures for the June 2021 quarter.This must be in your own words.As part of this analysis, ensure that you include and focus on the following:What the headline change in GDP (+0.7%) means.Identify from thedata,recent changesin components of expenditure C, I, G and NX.Through your explanation, ensurethat you show evidence of your understandingof each component.Makesure to use key terminology and course concepts where appropriate.Format:The format of your response should bean essaystyle response.You do not need to spend as much attention on formal essay structure as you might for a persuasive or researchbased essay. Instead you should focus on communicating your ideas in a clear and concise manner and making sure there is a logical flow of ideas and explanation.Word Limit:800 words (excluding diagrams and references)Diagrams:For this assignment task, you are not required to draw diagrams of an economic model.(The ASAD model and topic is not required.)You may wish to include diagramsor tables directlyfrom the ABS data, in which case it is important that you provide appropriate references.

    2Referencing:This is not a research assignment. So you do not necessarily need to find other references. You should answer the question based on what you have learnt in the course and the linked ABS page.However, it is important that if you do take content directly from other sourcesincluding course materials, both quoting andparaphrasing, that you appropriately reference to show what is your own original thoughts and what ideasyou have borrowedfrom others.Please refer to the Academic Integrity Module within the course for further guidance and links regarding referencing, plagiarism, and academic integrity.Where referencing is used, itcan be in any standard style, so long as it is consistent. The Harvard referencing style is preferred, as it is the standard in Economics and is also common in Business disciplines.https://www.adelaide.edu.au/writingcentre/resource…guidesAll submissions will be analysed with the assistance of Turnitin, checking for plagiarism against other students in the class and external sources

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    Economics Question

    Course Learning Outcomes: 2 & 4

    Topic/s of Primary Focus: Macroeconomic Fundamentals

    (May also include content from previous topics.)

    For this assignment, you will refer to the latest Australian National Accounts data available from the Australian Bureau of Statistics at the below link.

    https://www.abs.gov.au/statistics/economy/national-accounts/australian-national- accounts-national-income-expenditure-and-product/jun-2021

    Task:

    For this assignment, you are asked to provide your own analysis of the GDP figures for the June 2021 quarter. This must be in your own words.

    As part of this analysis, ensure that you include and focus on the following:

    • What the headline change in GDP (+0.7%) means.
    • Identify from the data, recent changes in components of expenditure C, I, G andNX. Through your explanation, ensure that you show evidence of your understanding of each component.Make sure to use key terminology and course concepts where appropriate.Format:The format of your response should be an essay-style response.
      You do not need to spend as much attention on formal essay structure as you might for a persuasive or research-based essay. Instead you should focus on communicating your ideas in a clear and concise manner and making sure there is a logical flow of ideas and explanation.Word Limit:800 words (excluding diagrams and references)Diagrams:For this assignment task, you are not required to draw diagrams of an economic model. (The AS-AD model and topic is not required.) You may wish to include diagrams or tables directly from the ABS data, in which case it is important that you provide appropriate references.

    page1image15024896 page1image15026048

    1

    Referencing:

    This is not a research assignment. So you do not necessarily need to find other references. You should answer the question based on what you have learnt in the course and the linked ABS page.

    However, it is important that if you do take content directly from other sources including course materials, both quoting and paraphrasing, that you appropriately reference to show what is your own original thoughts and what ideas you have borrowed from others. Please refer to the Academic Integrity Module within the course for further guidance and links regarding referencing, plagiarism, and academic integrity.

    Where referencing is used, it can be in any standard style, so long as it is consistent. The Harvard referencing style is preferred, as it is the standard in Economics and is also common in Business disciplines.https://www.adelaide.edu.au/writingcentre/resource…

    All submissions will be analysed with the assistance of Turnitin, checking for plagiarism against other students in the class and external sources.

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    Economics Question

    Assignment 4

    ECON1012 Principles of Economics Semester 2 2021

    Course Learning Outcomes: 2 & 4
    Topic/s of Primary Focus: Macroeconomic Fundamentals

    (May also include content from previous topics.)

    For this assignment, you will refer to the latest Australian National Accounts data available from the Australian Bureau of Statistics at the below link.

    https://www.abs.gov.au/statistics/economy/national-accounts/australian-national- accounts-national-income-expenditure-and-product/jun-2021

    Task:

    For this assignment, you are asked to provide your own analysis of the GDP figures for the June 2021 quarter. This must be in your own words.

    As part of this analysis, ensure that you include and focus on the following:

    • What the headline change in GDP (+0.7%) means.
    • Identify from the data, recent changes in components of expenditure C, I, G andNX. Through your explanation, ensure that you show evidence of your understanding of each component.Make sure to use key terminology and course concepts where appropriate.Format:The format of your response should be an essay-style response.
      You do not need to spend as much attention on formal essay structure as you might for a persuasive or research-based essay. Instead you should focus on communicating your ideas in a clear and concise manner and making sure there is a logical flow of ideas and explanation.Word Limit:800 words (excluding diagrams and references)Diagrams:For this assignment task, you are not required to draw diagrams of an economic model. (The AS-AD model and topic is not required.) You may wish to include diagrams or tables directly from the ABS data, in which case it is important that you provide appropriate references.

    page1image30812672 page1image30807872

    1

    Referencing:

    This is not a research assignment. So you do not necessarily need to find other references. You should answer the question based on what you have learnt in the course and the linked ABS page.

    However, it is important that if you do take content directly from other sources including course materials, both quoting and paraphrasing, that you appropriately reference to show what is your own original thoughts and what ideas you have borrowed from others. Please refer to the Academic Integrity Module within the course for further guidance and links regarding referencing, plagiarism, and academic integrity.

    Where referencing is used, it can be in any standard style, so long as it is consistent. The Harvard referencing style is preferred, as it is the standard in Economics and is also common in Business disciplines.https://www.adelaide.edu.au/writingcentre/resource…

    All submissions will be analysed with the assistance of Turnitin, checking for plagiarism against other students in the class and external sources.

    Submission and Feedback

    Students must submit the assignment by the due date via the electronic submission portal on MyUni (the same page you downloaded this pdf!). https://community.canvaslms.com/t5/Student-Guide/How-do-I-upload-a-file-as-an- assignment-submission-in-Canvas/ta-p/274

    It is students’ responsibility to ensure that it is correctly submitted by the due date. Make sure that you see and check that is says ‘Submitted’.

    Late submissions will generally *not* be accepted at all. Not even one minute late. This might seem more strict than some of your other classes, but do keep in mind that we also have a ‘best 4 of 5’ policy on the Assignments.
    If you have a medical or other circumstance that you believe may allow an extension, please email the course coordinator as soon as practical, and generally this must be before the due date has passed.

    Assignments will be graded, with grades and feedback provided within MyUni approximately one week after the submission due date.

    page2image30931392page2image30931008 page2image30932736page2image30932352

    2

    Grading

    The assignment will be graded against the Assessment Criteria in the Rubric attached to the MyUni Assignment and detailed below.
    Grades will be allocated in-line with the University’s grade descriptors.
    For example, a grade between 75-84 is a Distinction, which should indicate ‘A very high standard of work which demonstrates originality and insight’.

    Your grade is not matter of where you ‘lost marks’, but rather the evaluation of what you have presented against the standards and the criteria.

    page3image30863360 page3image30863744 page3image30863936

    Assessment Criteria
    A coherent and well-structured explanation is presented of the change in GDP, and the relationship with various components Evidence is shown of understanding of the concept of GDP and how it is presented in data
    Evidence is shown of understanding of each of the components of expenditure (C, I, G, NX)
    Accurate identification from the data is made of relevant changes in components of expenditure
    Appropriate writing style, word count and referencing (where relevant)

    Marks (100) 30

    20 20 20 10

    page3image30864128 page3image30864320page3image30864512 page3image30864704page3image30864896 page3image30865088page3image30863552 page3image30865664page3image30865472 page3image30865856page3image30866432 page3image30866240

    3

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    Economics Question

    Course Learning Outcomes: 2 & 4

    Topic/s of Primary Focus: Macroeconomic Fundamentals

    (May also include content from previous topics.)

    For this assignment, you will refer to the latest Australian National Accounts data available from the Australian Bureau of Statistics at the below link.

    https://www.abs.gov.au/statistics/economy/national-accounts/australian-national- accounts-national-income-expenditure-and-product/jun-2021

    Task:

    For this assignment, you are asked to provide your own analysis of the GDP figures for the June 2021 quarter. This must be in your own words.

    As part of this analysis, ensure that you include and focus on the following:

    • What the headline change in GDP (+0.7%) means.
    • Identify from the data, recent changes in components of expenditure C, I, G andNX. Through your explanation, ensure that you show evidence of your understanding of each component.Make sure to use key terminology and course concepts where appropriate.Format:The format of your response should be an essay-style response.
      You do not need to spend as much attention on formal essay structure as you might for a persuasive or research-based essay. Instead you should focus on communicating your ideas in a clear and concise manner and making sure there is a logical flow of ideas and explanation.Word Limit:800 words (excluding diagrams and references)Diagrams:For this assignment task, you are not required to draw diagrams of an economic model. (The AS-AD model and topic is not required.) You may wish to include diagrams or tables directly from the ABS data, in which case it is important that you provide appropriate references.

    page1image15024896 page1image15026048

    1

    Referencing:

    This is not a research assignment. So you do not necessarily need to find other references. You should answer the question based on what you have learnt in the course and the linked ABS page.

    However, it is important that if you do take content directly from other sources including course materials, both quoting and paraphrasing, that you appropriately reference to show what is your own original thoughts and what ideas you have borrowed from others. Please refer to the Academic Integrity Module within the course for further guidance and links regarding referencing, plagiarism, and academic integrity.

    Where referencing is used, it can be in any standard style, so long as it is consistent. The Harvard referencing style is preferred, as it is the standard in Economics and is also common in Business disciplines.https://www.adelaide.edu.au/writingcentre/resource…

    All submissions will be analysed with the assistance of Turnitin, checking for plagiarism against other students in the class and external sources.

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    Economics Question

    Essay 11: The Great Depression was a severe worldwide economic depression that took place mostly during the 1930s. It started in 1929 and lasted until the late 1930s. It was the longest and deepest, and most widespread depression of the 20th century. What were the causes of the Great Depression? What were the reasons a Great Depression could or could not happen again? http://www.tiberiumwars.com/blahdocs/uploads/01360… (pages 88-100)

    Essay 12: Please write three pages on the role of the government in economic growth from WWII until the 1970s. What were the causes of economic growth? (will email pictures)

    Cover Page

    · Top Center-title, your name

    · Bottom center – course name, teacher’s name, date

    Introduction

    · Thesis statement (what is the main idea you will be discussing?)

    · Offer introduction to five main points you will be discussing in relation to your thesis statement

    Point 1

    · Restate the first of your five main points

    · Offer an example as to why this point supports your thesis statement

    · Give proof of this example (a quotation from a reliable source)

    · Discuss in more detail (you can include opinion)

    Point 2

    · Restate the Second of your five main points

    · Offer an example as to why this point supports your interest statement

    · Give proof of this example (a quotation from a reliable source)

    · Discuss in more detail (you can include opinion)

    Point 3

    · Restate the third of your five main points

    · Offer an example as to why this point supports your interest statement

    · Give proof of this example (a quotation from a reliable source)

    · Discuss in more detail (you can include opinion)

    Point 4

    Point 5

    Conclusion: Remind the reader about the amazing ideas you just presented in your essay by:

    · Restating your thesis statement

    · Summarizing your main points

    Bibliography: (Sometimes called work cited, resources or references)

    · You must list all of the resources (Books, articles, newspapers, Internet sites, etc….) that you used to find information for your essay

    · Alphabetical order by author’s last name

    · MLA format

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    Economics Question

    Essay 9: Please write three pages on the rising of the public sector prior to, during, and after the Great Depression? over the course of history, how does the public sector use stabilization policies to achieve full employment? How did economic and social regulations correct for market failure? http://www.tiberiumwars.com/blahdocs/uploads/01360… chapter 7

    Essay 10: Please write three pages on the rise of the steel industry during and after the 1800s? What role did it play in today’s economy? http://www.tiberiumwars.com/blahdocs/uploads/01360… (page 82-85)

    Your essay should be a minimum of 3 to 4 pages not including the cover page and the work cited page. It should be in MLA format with sources cited from the textbook and at least two outside sources.

    Cover Page

    · Top Center-title, your name

    · Bottom center – course name, teacher’s name, date

    Introduction

    · Thesis statement (what is the main idea you will be discussing?)

    · Offer introduction to five main points you will be discussing in relation to your thesis statement

    Point 1

    · Restate the first of your five main points

    · Offer an example as to why this point supports your thesis statement

    · Give proof of this example (a quotation from a reliable source)

    · Discuss in more detail (you can include opinion)

    Point 2

    · Restate the Second of your five main points

    · Offer an example as to why this point supports your interest statement

    · Give proof of this example (a quotation from a reliable source)

    · Discuss in more detail (you can include opinion)

    Point 3

    · Restate the third of your five main points

    · Offer an example as to why this point supports your interest statement

    · Give proof of this example (a quotation from a reliable source)

    · Discuss in more detail (you can include opinion)

    Point 4

    Point 5

    Conclusion: Remind the reader about the amazing ideas you just presented in your essay by:

    · Restating your thesis statement

    · Summarizing your main points

    Bibliography: (Sometimes called work cited, resources or references)

    · You must list all of the resources (Books, articles, newspapers, Internet sites, etc….) that you used to find information for your essay

    · Alphabetical order by author’s last name

    · MLA format

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    Economics Question

    Choose any 4 of 6 (@6 points each=24 points)

    1. Why are the prices of nontradable goods generally lower in Developing Countries than in developed ones? Is the Purchasing Power Parity exchange rate for a Developing Country typically weaker or stronger against the U.S. dollar than the market exchange rate?

    2. Why did economists once expect countries to converge in living standards? What has been happening in reality over the years?

    3. What two factors determine the growth of output in the Harrod-Domar model? Why does it not have a steady state?

    4. In what sense is the Lewis model in perpetual motion (i.e., why does it not have a steady state)? Provide an example of why its assumptions may not be realistic in a Developing Country.

    5. What factors determine the steady state in the Solow model? What happens to the steady state output per worker if a natural disaster strikes causing depreciation to rise radically?

    6. For a household to be poor according to the Multidimensional Poverty Index, what two things have to be true? Provide an example of an MPI indicator that may not be representative of true deprivation.

    Required 2 (@5 points each=10 points)

    7. Why does Amartya Sen in Development as Freedom say that a country that is democratic and enjoys a free press will never experience famine? Why do famines seem to occur under regimes that are alienated from the affected populations?

    8. According to the late Hans Rosling (in the video), why is the “divided world” that existed in 1970 disappearing? According to him, is it better to become healthy first or wealthy first? How does he demonstrate his point?

    Choose any 3 (@17=51 points):

    1. Explain why countries rank differently on the Human Development Index (HDI) and Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI) than on Gross National Income Per Capita (GNIPC). What factors tend to make Developing Countries score higher on the HDI or MPI than on GNIPC? Evaluate the following statement: donor countries and multilateral development agencies should ignore income statistics entirely when deciding where to spend their loan and grant funds.

    2. Describe the nature and content of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). How do the MDGs and SDGs differ from one another? Is setting such goals, even though they may be widely missed in many important Developing Countries, a valuable exercise? Why or not? Is there anything that the SDGs miss that they should include in your view?

    3. Is the economic growth process in Developing Countries better captured by the well-known growth theories covered in class or by theories focusing on international dependence? If you were a policy-maker in a Developing Country who strove to stimulate economic growth — without setting off macroeconomic instability — and make society more equitable, which, if any, of the growth models would you find the most useful? Explain your answer.

    4. Assuming that you are a well intentioned rich-country observer of conditions in the poorer parts of the planet, are you more concerned about absolute poverty or inequality? Would the same policies serve to address both issues? Would you prefer indirect, economic-policy related approaches to assisting the poor or direct income or consumption support? What are the advantages and disadvantages of each?

    5. How does Amartya Sen in Development as Freedom deploy his concepts of capabilities and functionings to analyze the situation of women in Developing Countries? How does the situation of women in such lands illustrate the insufficiency of focusing on measurable money income at the household level? Which social indicators are most closely related to fertility and child mortality? Sen singles out the environment and agriculture as areas in Developing Countries that benefit from women playing prominent roles. In what ways do those sectors benefit? Are there lessons from those sectors that other segments of the economy and society should emulate?

    Arithmetic Calculations (choose any 3 of 4@5 points each)

    Download and make your calculations on the attached Excel worksheet.

    1, Human Development Index: calculate cell B12 — the contribution of Life Expectancy to the HDI. For extra credit, fill in cells B13:B15 as well.

    2. Lorenz Curve and Kuznets ratio: fill in C2:E12, draw the Lorenz Curve (but not the 45 degree line) and calculate the Kuznets Ratio (A32).

    3. Ahluwalia Chenery Welfare Index: fill in D3:D13, A16, A18, and A20

    4. Foster-Greer-Thorbecke Index: fill in C3:C8, D3:D8, B20, and B21

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    Economics Question

    M01 International Trade Discussions

    121121 unread replies.121121 replies.

    This discussion is designed to see if you can apply economics to real life situations. Please use your own personal experiences to answer the following discussion questions. If you do not have personal experiences, you can share examples of your family and/or friends. This will show that you are able to make connections between what you learn in this class and what you encounter in the real world.

    Now it is time to reflect on what you’ve learned in Module 01 and apply them in your daily lives.

    Your participation in this Discussion demonstrates the following learning objectives:

    • Ensure participants know how to use the technology required for this course
      • Use the Rich Content Editor to compose a discussion post and embed an image
      • Navigate the Discussion forum and reply to peers
    • Discuss the application of international trade policy

    What to do:

    After reading the international trade chapter, share with us about the international trade policy that took effect on July 1, 2020 in the United States and its two neighboring countries.

    Please use specific examples in your discussion post, such as trade restrictions, tariffs, and labor wage, etc. to answer the following questions:

    1. When the United States and its two neighboring countries reached international trade agreement for the new NAFTA, i.e., USMCA, they made many changes to the old NAFTA. Please discuss two specific changes in the new NAFTA* or USMCA**.
    2. Select one change that brings advantage to you, your family, and/or friends? Please provide specific examples from your own experiences.
    3. Select one change that brings disadvantage to you, your family, and/or friends? Please provide specific examples from your own experiences.

    *NAFTA stands for North American Free Trade Agreement.

    **USMCA stands for United States-Mexico-Canada Agreement.

    Discussion Directions:

    Your original post must be no less than 120 words and your replies must be no less than 50 words. For full points, your original posts and replies to your peers should be insightful and add value to the discussion. Questions from the discussion assignment cannot be counted as part of the 120 words.

    Students’ names and greetings cannot be counted as part of the 50 words in your reply and the 120 words in your discussion post. Plagiarism will result in a zero grade.

    After you type your initial post by Wednesday evening at 11:59 pm Pacific Time, then read through the other entries and reply directly to at least one classmate by Sunday evening at 11:59 pm Pacific Time. Note, you must post your answers before you can see any other replies.

    When you reply, ALWAYS type the name of the classmate you are responding to, and your name at the bottom of the message.

    Make sure to use proper grammar and punctuation in this college level course in all correspondence. Please avoid “text” or “twitter speak” when corresponding.

    For detailed information about discussion policies, please see Online Class Discussions in Course Syllabus Module.

    Due Dates:

    Post by Wednesday evening, September 15, 2021, at 11:59 pm Pacific Time
    Respond to at least one classmate by Sunday evening, September 19, 2021, at 11:59 pm Pacific Time

    Grading & Feedback:

    Your discussion will be graded using the rubric associated with this discussion forum (click the three dots on the top right of the window to “Show Rubric”). I will provide feedback using the Rubric, which you can view from the Grades link on the left side of your Canvas course.

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    Economics Question

    Read the following ABC News article ‘Avocados are dropping in price great news for some, lousy for others’ (15 Jun 2021) https://www.abc.net.au/news/rural/2021-06-15/huge-avocado-supply-means-better- prices-for-consumers/100208446

    page1image9275072 page1image9274112

    A recent drop in avocado prices may help relieve some of the guilt you feel about splurging on smashed avo on toast at a Sunday brunch when you ought to be saving money.

    Peak industry body Avocados Australia’s online retail pricing report has listed the price of an avocado at about $1 each in major supermarket chains across the country.

    Chief executive John Tyas said there had been a significant increase in avocado production and supply, pushing prices down.

    “Compared with last year, we’re going to [see] … 65 per cent more Australian avocados harvested this year,” he said.

    While that was great news for consumers, it could mean problems for growers. Tim Keogh, owner of MMM Mangoes and Avocado’s near Rockhampton in Central Queensland, said the increase in supply would hurt growers.

    “It’s pretty tough at the moment in terms of price, just because of a huge supply that’s come into the market,” he said.

    “This season we’ve probably had the biggest crop we’ve ever had within our trees and I’m sure that’s right across the board.

    “Everyone’s having a big season.”

    Mr Tyas said demand for avocados had not quite matched up with the sheer volume of product available this year.

    There were, he said, a few factors at play leading to reduced levels of demand:

    • The pandemic had led to cafes and restaurants within the major cities periodically going into lockdown
    • More people were choosing to eat at home
    • There was generally a natural dip in the numbers of avocados consumed duringcooler months

    “Supply is definitely exceeding demand at the moment,” Mr Tyas said.

    “A lot of growers are doing it pretty tough at the moment — the prices have come back, they’re very marginal.”

    But, he said, it was not all bad news for growers.

    “There’s definitely a lot of pain for individual businesses but, as an industry as a whole, there are some benefits from the current situation as well,” he said.

    “With the prices where they are at the moment, it makes us very competitive on a price basis in export markets.

    “So, we’re seeing a real increase in volumes that are going offshore.”

    Mr Keogh said growers would need the support of Australian consumers as more and more trees came online.

    “It’s probably time for the consumer to get on board and multi-buy while they’re cheap and make the most of it,” he said.

    “I think it’s going to be challenging in years to come with the larger supply coming through and that’s going to increase as the years go on.”

    Despite the issues with demand, he said, it was clear consumers were still passionate about avocados.

    “Our consumption, I believe, is still going up and I think consumption still around the world is increasing,” Mr Keogh said.

    “I think there are plenty of mouths to put them in.”

    Task:

    Utilise the model of demand and supply to analyse the market for avocados in Australia at the time of the article. Clearly explain the impacts on demand and on supply, as well as the resulting impacts on the outcomes of price and quantity at the time of the article. Also provide a prediction and explanation of how the outcomes may change in the long run.

    Ensure that you use diagrams where relevant to support your answer, and make sure to use key terminology and course concepts where appropriate.

    Format:

    The format of your response should be an essay-style response.
    You do not need subheadings or subsections.
    You do not need to spend as much attention on formal essay structure as you might for a persuasive or research-based essay. Instead you should focus on communicating your ideas in a clear and concise manner and making sure there is a logical flow of ideas and explanation.

    Word Limit:

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    Economics Question

    Paper Guideline

    The page limit for reflection papers are 2 pages maximum. You may use the first page to write on your key learnings on the main session topic such as a guest speaker talk, or a certain pre – reading material assigned (plz see the description below). The second page should be used to discuss how your key learnings relate to emerging markets, to the international monetary system, or to central banking in genera.

    Please write a reflection on Preseidant Martín Redrado speech “I can’t share his speech but I can give you some outline below that will help you in the writing”

    Martin Redrado gave a speech, and he served as President of the Central Bank of Argentina between 2004 and 2010, he was talking about presidency of Central Bank of Argentina, and how the government did removed him because they want the central bank’s fund to pay the government debt.

    More to understand the story you will find it in Wikipedia (the link below) but please do not copy it and do not source it just understand the story.

    Martín Redrado – Wikipedia

    The main subject is the independency of central bank and how the government should not touch the Central Bank’s assets and that what Martin fought for.

    Then in the second part, you may talk about emerging countries Central banks independence, and talk about Saudi Central Bank and you may refer to this link (you may source it)

    King’s Approval for the Saudi Central Bank Law and Change of name of the Saudi Arabian Monetary Authority (sama.gov.sa)

    And talk about how did that gave a clear statement that The Saudi Central Bank will continue to enjoy financial and administrative independence.

    Below some reference will help you in the writing (recommended to use them):

    • Changing patterns of capital flows, BIS
    • Foreign Exchange Intervention Rules for Central Banks: A Risk-based Framework, IMF
    • No Reserve: The Limit Of Absolute Power by Martín Redrado
    • Institutional framework and economic growth, speech by Martín Redrado
    • A convincing strategy, article by Martín Redrado
    • Dynamism and soundness in the face of the crisis, article by Martín Redrado
    • An economy in transition, article Martín Redrado
    • Emerging market central banks and quantitative easing: high-risk advice
    • Annual Economic June 2021 Report, BIS
    • Central Bank Independence, speech by Stanley Fisher https://www.federalreserve.gov/newsevents/speech/fischer20151104a.htm
    • Central bank digital currencies (CBDCs), an opportunity for the monetary system

    https://www.bis.org/publ/cgfs66.pdf

    https://www.imf.org/en/Publications/WP/Issues/2021/02/12/Foreign-Exchange-Intervention-Rules-for-Central-Banks-A-Risk-based-Framework-50081

    https://www.amazon.com/Mart%C3%ADn-Redrado/dp/193559723X

    https://www.bis.org/review/r091028c.pdf

    https://www.bis.org/review/r080526c.pdf

    https://www.bis.org/review/r090513a.pdf

    https://www.bis.org/review/r070702e.pdf

    https://www.bruegel.org/2020/08/emerging-market-central-banks-and-quantitative-easing-high-risk-advice/

    https://www.bis.org/publ/arpdf/ar2021e.pdf

    https://www.bis.org/publ/arpdf/ar2021e3.pdf

    Remember:

    All assignments held to the highest standards of academic integrity. As such, you must cite any sources used in your reflection papers – both within the body of your assignment and in a bibliography of sources you used at the end of your document (appendix). You are allowed to use any established citation style.

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    Economics Question

    Paper should be about 3-4 pages, double-spaced.

    Prompt

    Please pick the below article (attached URL) and cover all the course concepts mentioned below for the product (Sanitizer). (https://www.cnbc.com/2021/03/10/purell-parent-ceo-sanitizer-demand-to-stay-exponentially-higher-than-2019.html) Please help writing a review of the above article and integrate the below mentioned course concepts into your review. Please make sure you both summarize the article and discuss how it relates to the course.

    Course Concepts:

    1. Assess which factors influence supply and demand for a product.

    2. Evaluate how changes in supply and demand affect the equilibrium price of a product.

    3. Predict potential changes in supply or demand of a product and list factors driving the changes.

    4. Specific supply conditions that have affected the price of sanitizers

    5. Reasons why prices rise ahead of the change in supply

    6. Price elasticity of demand

    7. Determinants of price elasticity of demand

    Note: Please make sure to Cite all the Sources being used. Please find the instruction below:

    When to Cite:

    Please make sure to place a citation in any sentence in which you use words, thoughts, facts, or opinions that you use from a source. This is true whether you use the exact words of the source or put the information into your own words.

    If you’ve used a lot of research in your paper, this may mean that every sentence will contain a citation. That’s a good thing: it shows that you did extensive research and can back up your points. To keep the citations from becoming repetitious, you can very them: sometimes putting the citation directly into the sentence (“According to…”) other times using parenthetical citations. (See the articles on how APA and MLA work).

    Citing Sources: How Often to Cite

    Whenever you use a source, you should let readers know that as early as possible and tell them what the source is.

    Because citations are designed to show readers which material came from a source and which from you, it isn’t sufficient to cite once at the end of a paragraph. You need to include a citation for every piece of borrowed information. But you don’t always have to do it in parenthesis. If you have a long passage of information paraphrased from a single source, you can introduce it with a signal phrase (such as “According to…”) and place a parenthetical citation at the end.

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    Economics Question

    Please read Lecture Slides Weeks 5, 6, 7 and 8 before completing this assignment.

    Please read the entirety of this posting before beginning.

    Recommended submission: May 29th 11:59pm PDT

    DUE Date: May 29th 11:59pm PDT

    ================================================

    Please complete the following:

    For this discussion post, please answer each of the following questions. In responding, please present your answers thoroughly (one word, or extremely short answers will not suffice; each answer should generally be one paragraph in length).

    1. Of all the topics covered in this course, which did you find the most interesting? What about this topic made it the most interesting for you? In your answer, please describe any economics terms you use, in language that is simple enough that someone who hasn’t taken economics can understand. (For example, if you said you enjoyed GDP, then in your answer you would need to describe what the GDP is.)
    2. Of all the topics covered in this course, which did you enjoy the least? What was it about this topic that caused it to be your least favorite (presentation, topic in general, etc)? In your answer, please describe any economics terms you use, in language that is simple enough that someone who hasn’t taken economics can understand.
    3. In what way(s) has this course changed any of your perceptions about the field of economics (and/or specifically macroeconomics)? What additional questions do you have that were not fully addressed this semester? Since beginning this course, what are some of the ways you’ve seen economics in everyday life? (This may include the news, books, video game mechanics, etc).

    In answering the above, you will not be graded on your opinion (in other words, you are free to say you liked/did not like anything – there’s no right or wrong answer). Rather, your answers will be graded for proper spelling, grammar, and care of thought put into fully answering the questions. For extra credit for reading these instructions thoroughly, write the word “purple” at the start of your answer to question three above. Do not reference why you are doing so. Generally, each answer above should be about a paragraph in length (approximately 3 – 5 sentences). Feel free to also post comments on your classmates’ postings as well (you will get to see them after posting your own)!

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    Economics Question

    In many instances, government spending results in the economy moving to the long run steady state at the expense of higher inflation levels.  All too often, the best policy is simply to do nothing, leaving the market to adjust in order get the economy back to the long run steady state level (full employment) at the lowest price level.  The problem with government doing nothing is two fold.  First they do not want to be seen as not acting, especially during a recession.  Secondly, the economic benefits of the government doing nothing (such as during a recessionary period) takes a long time to materialize (given prices in the economy take time to adjust), which is not popular with governments especially if there is an election.  There seems to therefore be a tension between the Bank of Canada who wants to achieve price stability first and output stability second, versus the Department of Finance who is more concerned with output stability and employment creation.  Class, please outline the costs and benefits of achieving price stability relative to output stability (In your answer be sure to discuss the fact that there is no trade-off between inflation and unemployment in the long run).  Be sure to discuss the costs of inflation, the costs and benefits of reducing it and how this compares to reducing unemployment if at all possible.  Can a case be made for targeting zero inflation as the primary objective, especially in the long run?  If so, what things can governments do to tackle unemployment, especially structural?  

     

    Need 2 pages double spaced in essay format

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