cultural influences on perception

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If you’re wondering why we’re bringing you a new edition of Psychology: Core Concepts . . .

1 In the new seventh edition, we feature new cutting-edge research on the neuroscience of social interaction, cul- tural influences on perception, daydreaming, taste, and meditation, as well as updates on bullying, the slower rise of IQ scores (the Flynn effect) in developed coun- tries, the myth of multitasking, and much more. We also introduce readers to a groundbreaking modification of Maslow’s famous hierarchy of needs, newly framed by evolutionary psychologists.

2 Our lead author Philip Zimbardo has recently published a detailed description and analysis of his famous Stanford Prison Experiment in The Lucifer Effect: Understanding How Good People Turn Evil. We are pleased to include in Psychology: Core Concepts some of the insights he presented in Lucifer—particularly the notion of the effect of impersonal social systems, as well as social situations, on human behavior. Ours is the only introductory text in which you will find a discussion of how these social systems, such as organizations and bureaucracies, create a context that can profoundly influence the behavior of groups and individuals.

3 Dr. Zimbardo has also done important new work on the differences among people in their time perspective, re- ferring to a focus on the past, the present, or the future. This text is the only introduction to psychology to dis- cuss the powerful influence of time perspective on our decisions and actions.

4 In this edition, Read on MyPsychLab icons appear in the margins indicating that additional readings are

available for students to explore. For example, one of the Read features in Chapter 3 (Sensation and Percep- tion) deals with the classic study of backward masking. In Chapter 12 (Disorders and Therapy), you can read more about an African perspective on mental disorder.

5 One of our goals in this new edition is, again, to help you learn to “think like psychologists.” To do so, we have placed new emphasis on two kinds of psychological think- ing: (1) problem solving and (2) critical thinking. Every chapter begins with a Problem and ends with a critical analysis of an important psychological question, such as gender differences or repressed memory.

6 We have made a special effort in the seventh edition to provide clues throughout the chapter to help you un- derstand the solution to the chapter-opening Problem— which proved to be a popular feature in the last edition. The Chapter Summary now gives a brief “answer” to the problem as well.

7 We have designed the Critical Thinking applications at the end of each chapter to build upon a set of critical thinking skills introduced in Chapter One. Each of these focuses on an issue that is popularly misunderstood (e.g., the Mozart Effect) or contentious within the field (e.g., the evidence- based practice debate within clinical psychology). In this edition, we have also included the gist of the Critical Thinking section in the Chapter Summary.

8 Reflecting advances in multicultural and cross-cultural research, we have added even more coverage of culture and gender throughout the text. Our goal here is two- fold: We want you to see the relevance of psychology in your life, and we want you to understand that psychol- ogy is the science of behavior and mental processes that both generalizes and differs across cultures.

Why Do You Need This New Edition?

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Psychology

Philip G. Zimbardo Stanford University

Robert L. Johnson Umpqua Community College

Vivian McCann Portland Community College

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Seventh Edition

Core Concepts

Student Edition ISBN-10: 0-205-18346-8

ISBN-13: 978-0-205-18346-3 Instructor’s Review Copy

ISBN-10: 0-205-21513-0 ISBN-13: 978-0-205-21513-3

Books à la Carte ISBN-10: 0-205-21505-X

ISBN-13: 978-0-205-21505-8

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Credits and acknowledgments borrowed from other sources and reproduced, with permission, in this textbook appear on pages C-1–C-2.

Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.

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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

Zimbardo, Philip G.

Psychology : core concepts / Philip G. Zimbardo, Robert L. Johnson, Vivian McCann. — 7th ed.

p. cm.

Includes bibliographical references and index.

ISBN-13: 978-0-205-18346-3

ISBN-10: 0-205-18346-8

1. Psychology. I. Johnson, Robert L. (Robert Lee) II. McCann, Vivian. III. Title.

BF121.Z53 2012

150—dc23

2011027587

1 0 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

1 Mind, Behavior, and Psychological Science 2 2 Biopsychology, Neuroscience, and Human Nature 40 3 Sensation and Perception 86 4 Learning and Human Nurture 132 5 Memory 170 6 Thinking and Intelligence 212 7 Development Over the Lifespan 264 8 States of Consciousness 322 9 Motivation and Emotion 362 10 Personality: Theories of the Whole Person 412 11 Social Psychology 458 12 Psychological Disorders 514 13 Therapies for Psychological Disorders 554 14 From Stress to Health and Well-Being 596 Glossary G-1 References R-1 Answers to Discovering Psychology Program Review Questions A-1 Photo Credits C-1 Name Index I-1 Subject Index I-7

B R I E F C O N T E N T S

v

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vii

C O N T E N T S

CHAPTER 1 Mind, Behavior, and Psychological Science 2

PROBLEM: How would psychologists test the claim that sugar makes children hyperactive? 3

1.1 What Is Psychology—And What Is It Not? 4 Psychology: It’s More Than You Think 4 Psychology Is Not Psychiatry 6 Thinking Critically about Psychology

and Pseudo-Psychology 7

PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Using Psychology to Learn Psychology 10

1.2 What Are Psychology’s Six Main Perspectives? 11 Separation of Mind and Body and the Modern Biological

Perspective 12 The Founding of Scientific Psychology and the Modern

Cognitive Perspective 13 The Behavioral Perspective: Focusing on Observable

Behavior 16

The Whole-Person Perspectives: Psychodynamic, Humanistic, and Trait and Temperament Psychology 17

The Developmental Perspective: Changes Arising from Nature and Nurture 19

The Sociocultural Perspective: The Individual in Context 19 The Changing Face of Psychology 20

PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Psychology as a Major 22

1.3 How Do Psychologists Develop New Knowledge? 23 Four Steps in the Scientific Method 24 Five Types of Psychological Research 27 Controlling Biases in Psychological Research 31 Ethical Issues in Psychological Research 32

PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: The Perils of Pseudo-Psychology 33

CRITICAL THINKING APPLIED: Facilitated Communication 35

Chapter Summary 36 Discovering Psychology Viewing Guide 38

PROBLEM: What does Jill Bolte Taylor’s experience teach us about how our brain is organized and about its amazing ability to adapt? 42

2.1 How Are Genes and Behavior Linked? 43 Evolution and Natural Selection 43 Genetics and Inheritance 45

PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Choosing Your Children’s Genes 48

2.2 How Does the Body Communicate Internally? 49 The Neuron: Building Block of the Nervous System 50 The Nervous System 56 The Endocrine System 58

PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: How Psychoactive Drugs Affect the Nervous System 60

2.3 How Does the Brain Produce Behavior and Mental Processes? 62 Windows on the Brain 63 Three Layers of the Brain 65 Lobes of the Cerebral Cortex 69 Cerebral Dominance 73

PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Using Psychology to Learn Psychology 79

CRITICAL THINKING APPLIED: Left Brain versus Right Brain 80

Chapter Summary 81 Discovering Psychology Viewing Guide 84

CHAPTER 2 Biopsychology, Neuroscience, and Human Nature 40

CHAPTER 3 Sensation and Perception 86

PROBLEM: Is there any way to tell whether the world we “see” in our minds is the same as the external world—and whether we see things as most others do? 88

3.1 How Does Stimulation Become Sensation? 89 Transduction: Changing Stimulation to Sensation 90 Thresholds: The Boundaries of Sensation 91 Signal Detection Theory 93

PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Sensory Adaptation 93

3.2 How Are the Senses Alike? How Are They Different? 94 Vision: How the Nervous System Processes Light 94 Hearing: If a Tree Falls in the Forest . . . 100 How the Other Senses Are Like Vision and Hearing 104 Synesthesia: Sensations across the Senses 108

PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: The Sense and Experience of Pain 109

3.3 What Is the Relationship between Sensation and Perception? 112 Perceptual Processing: Finding Meaning in Sensation 112 Perceptual Ambiguity and Distortion 114 Theoretical Explanations for Perception 117 Seeing and Believing 124

PSYCHOLOGY MATTERS: Using Psychology to Learn Psychology 125

CRITICAL THINKING APPLIED: Subliminal Perception and Subliminal Persuasion 126

Chapter Summary 128 Discovering Psychology Viewing Guide 130 vii

viii C O N T E N T S

CHAPTER 4 Learning and Human Nurture 132

PROBLEM: Assuming Sabra’s fear of flying was a response she had learned, could it also be treated by learning? If so, how? 134

4.1 What Sort of Learning Does Classical Conditioning Explain? 136 The

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