Criminalistics: An Introduction to Forensic Science about Harold Shipman Questions

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WILL EXTEND DEADLINE 6 ADDITIONAL HOURS IF NEEDED Answer each question minimum of 400 words. Must use provided material (PDF book) as well as additional sources to help support answers. Remember to use in-text citations in each new paragraph. Reference/cite in APA format. DO NOT PLAGIARIZE. Here is the reference for the PDF: Saferstein, Richard (2014) Criminalistics: An Introduction to Forensic Science, 11th edition.

1.) Use the Internet to research Harold Shipman (aka Dr. Death), the English doctor who is estimated to have killed over 236 of his patients.

2.) What was Shipman’s murder weapon of choice and how did this weapon allow him to go undetected for so many years?

3.) Based on your research, what did you determine to be Shipman’s motive for the murders?

4.) As lead prosecutor, determine what evidence or facts the police overlooked that could have ended this case sooner. Would those facts and evidence have been enough to convict Dr. Shipman?

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chapter 9 matter, light, and glass examination Learning Objectives L I D D E L L , After studying this chapter you should be able to: T t Define and distinguish the physical and chemical properties of I matter F t Define and distinguish elements and compounds F and gas t Contrast the differences among solid, liquid, A t Understand how to use the basic units of the metric system N t Define and understand the properties of density and Y refractive index t Understand and explain the dispersion of light through a prism 1 t Explain the relationship between color and the selective 5 absorption of light by molecules 6 t Understand the differences between the wave and particle 8 theories of light T S t List and explain forensic methods for comparing glass t Describe the electromagnetic spectrum ISBN: 978-1-323-16745-8 fragments t Understand how to examine glass fractures to determine the direction of impact for a projectile t Describe the proper collection of glass evidence KEY TERMS amorphous solid atom Becke line birefringence Celsius scale chemical property compound concentric fracture crystalline solid density dispersion electromagnetic spectrum element Fahrenheit scale frequency gas (vapor) intensive property laminated glass laser liquid mass matter periodic table phase photon physical property physical state radial fracture refraction refractive index solid sublimation tempered glass visible light wavelength weight X-ray Criminalistics: An Introduction to Forensic Science, Eleventh Edition, by Richard Saferstein. Published by Prentice Hall. Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc. 204 CHAPTER 9 physical property The behavior of a substance without alteration of the substance’s composition through a chemical reaction. chemical property The behavior of a substance when it reacts or combines with another substance. The forensic scientist must constantly determine the properties that impart distinguishing characteristics to matter, giving it a unique identity. The continuing search for distinctive properties ends only when the scientist has completely individualized a substance to one correct source. Properties are the identifying characteristics of substances. In this chapter we will examine properties that are most useful for characterizing glass and other physical evidence. However, before we begin, we can simplify our understanding of the nature of properties by classifying them into two broad categories: physical and chemical. Physical properties describe a substance without reference to any other substance. For example, weight, volume, color, boiling point, and melting point are typical physical properties that can be measured for a particular substance without altering the material’s composition through a chemical reaction; they are associated only with the physical existence of that substance. A chemical property describes the behavior of a substance when it reacts or combines with another substance. For example, when wood burns, it chemically combines with oxygen in the air to form new L substances; this transformation describes a chemical property of wood. In the crime laboratory, a routine procedure for determining the presence of heroin in a suspect specimen is to react itI with a chemical reagent known as the Marquis reagent, which turns purple in the presence of heroin. D This color transformation becomes a chemical property of heroin and provides a convenient test for its identification. D E The Nature of LMatter Before we can apply physical properties, as well as chemical properties, to the identification and L comparison of evidence, we need to gain an insight into the composition of matter. Beginning , building block of all substances—the element—we will exwith knowledge of the fundamental tend our discussion to compounds. T Elements and Compounds matter All things of substance; matter is composed of atoms or molecules. element A fundamental particle of matter; an element cannot be broken down into simpler substances by chemical means. periodic table A chart of elements arranged in a systematic fashion; vertical rows are called groups or families, and horizontal rows are called series; elements in a given row have similar properties. A pure substance composed of two or more elements. Criminalistics: An Introduction to Forensic Science, Eleventh Edition, by Richard Saferstein. Published by Prentice Hall. Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc. ISBN: 978-1-323-16745-8 compound Matter is anything that has mass I and occupies space. As we examine the world that surrounds us and consider the countless variety of materials that we encounter, we must consider one of humankind’s most remarkable F accomplishments: the discovery of the concept of the atom to explain the composition of all matter. F This search had its earliest contribution from the ancient Greek philosophers, who suggested air, water, fire, and earth as matter’s fundamental building blocks. It culminated with the A development of the atomic theory and the discovery of matter’s simplest identity, the element. N An element is the simplest substance known and provides the building block from which Y all matter is composed. At present, 118 elements have been identified (see Table 9–1); of these, 89 occur naturally on the earth, and the remainder have been created in the laboratory. In Figure 9–1, all of the elements are listed by name and symbol in a form that has become known 1 as the periodic table. This table is most useful to chemists because it systematically arranges elements with similar chemical5properties in the same vertical row or group. For convenience, chemists have chosen letter symbols to represent the elements. Many of 6 these symbols come from the first letter of the element’s English name—for example, carbon (C), hydrogen (H), and oxygen (O).8Others are two-letter abbreviations of the English name—for example, calcium (Ca) and zinc (Zn). Some symbols are derived from the first letters of Latin or T Greek names. Thus, the symbol for silver, Ag, comes from the Latin name argentum; copper, Cu, S He, from the Greek name helios. from the Latin cuprum; and helium, The smallest particle of an element that can exist and still retain its identity as that element is the atom. When we write the symbol C we mean one atom of carbon; the chemical symbol for carbon dioxide, CO2, signifies one atom of carbon combined with two atoms of oxygen. When two or more elements are combined to form a substance, as with carbon dioxide, a new substance is created, different in its physical and chemical properties from its elemental components. This new material is called a compound. Compounds contain at least two elements. Considering that there are 89 natural elements, it is easy to imagine the large number of possible elemental combinations that may form compounds. Not surprisingly, more than 16 million known compounds have already been identified. MATTER, LIGHT, AND GLASS EXAMINATION 205 TABLE 9–1 List of Elements with Their Symbols and Atomic Masses ISBN: 978-1-323-16745-8 Element Actinum Aluminum Americium Antimony Argon Arsenic Astatine Barium Berkelium Beryllium Bismuth Bohrium Boron Bromine Cadmium Calcium Californium Carbon Cerium Cesium Chlorine Chromium Cobalt Copernicium Copper Curium Darmstadtium Dubnium Dysprosium Einsteinium Erbium Europium Fermium Flerovium Fluorine Francium Gadolinium Gallium Germanium Gold Hafnium Hassium Helium Holmium Hydrogen Indium Iodine Iridium Iron Krypton Lanthanum Lawrencium Symbol Ac Al Am Sb Ar As At Ba Bk Be Bi Bh B Br Cd Ca Cf C Ce Cs Cl Cr Co Cn Cu Cm Ds Db Dy Es Er Eu Fm FL F Fr Gd Ga Ge Au Hf Hs He Ho H In I Ir Fe Kr La Lr Atomic Massa (amu) (227) 26.9815 (243) 121.75 39.948 74.9216 (210) 137.34 (247) 9.01218 208.9806 (270) 10.81 79.904 112.40 40.08 (251) 12.011 140.12 132.9055 35.453 51.996 58.9332 (285) 63.546 (247) (81) (268) 162.50 (254) 167.26 151.96 (253) (289) 18.998 (223) 157.25 69.72 72.59 196.9665 178.49 (277) 4.00260 164.9303 1.0080 114.82 126.9045 192.22 55.847 83.80 138.9055 (262) Element L I D D E L L , T I F F A N Y 1 5 6 8 T S Lead Lithium Livermorium Lutetium Magnesium Manganese Meitnerium Mendelevium Mercury Molybdenum Neodymium Neon Neptunium Nickel Niobium Nitrogen Nobelium Osmium Oxygen Palladium Phosphorus Platinum Plutonium Polonium Potassium Praseodymium Promethium Protactinium Radium Radon Rhenium Rhodium Roentgenium Rubidium Ruthenium Rutherfordium Samarium Scandium Seaborgium Selenium Silicon Silver Sodium Strontium Sulfur Tantalum Technetium Tellurium Terbium Thallium Thorium Thulium Symbol Pb Li Lv Lu Mg Mn Mt Md Hg Mo Nd Ne Np Ni Nb N No Os O Pd P Pt Pu Po K Pr Pm Pa Ra Rn Re Rh Rg Rb Ru Rf Sm Sc Sg Se Si Ag Na Sr S Ta Tc Te Tb Tl Th Tm Atomic Massa (amu) 207.2 6.941 (293) 174.97 24.305 54.9380 (278) (256) 200.59 95.94 144.24 20.179 237.0482 58.71 92.9064 14.0067 (254) 190.2 15.9994 106.4 30.9738 195.09 (244) (209) 39.102 140.9077 (145) 231.0359 226.0254 (222) 186.2 102.9055 (280) 85.4678 101.07 (265) 105.4 44.9559 (271) 78.96 28.086 107.868 22.9898 87.62 32.06 180.9479 98.9062 127.60 158.9254 204.37 232.0381 168.9342 (continued) Criminalistics: An Introduction to Forensic Science, Eleventh Edition, by Richard Saferstein. Published by Prentice Hall. Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc. 206 CHAPTER 9 TABLE 9–1 List of Elements with Their Symbols and Atomic Masses (continued) Element Tin Titanium Tungsten Ununoctium Ununpentium Ununseptium Ununtrium Atomic Massa (amu) Symbol Sn Ti W Uuo Uup Uus Uut 118.69 47.90 183.85 (294) (288) (?) (284) Element Symbol Uranium Vanadium Xenon Ytterbium Yttrium Zinc Zirconium U V Xe Yb Y Zn Zr Atomic Massa (amu) 238.029 50.9414 131.3 173.04 88.9059 65.57 91.22 Based on the assigned relative atomic mass of C 5 exactly 12; parentheses denote the mass number of the isotope with the longest half-life. a Group Period IA IIA IIIB IVB VB L I D VIB VIIB D E L L , VIII IB IIB IIIA IVA VA VIA VIIA O 2 He 1 1 H 2 3 Li 4 Be 3 11 Na 12 Mg 4 19 K 20 Ca 21 Sc 22 Ti 23 V 24 25 CrT Mn 26 Fe 27 Co 28 Ni 29 Cu 5 37 Rb 38 Sr 39 Y 40 Zr 41 Nb 42I Mo 43 Tc 44 Ru 45 Rh 46 Pd 6 55 Cs 56 Ba 57 72 La a Hf 73 Ta 74 75 F W Re 76 Os 77 Ir 78 Pt 7 87 Fr 88 Ra 89 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 Ac b Rf Db SgN Bh Hs Mt Ds Rg Cn Uut Fl Uup Lv Uus Uuo F 5 B 6 C 7 N 8 O 9 F 10 Ne 13 Al 14 Si 15 P 16 S 17 Cl 18 Ar 30 Zn 31 Ga 32 Ge 33 As 34 Se 35 Br 36 Kr 47 Ag 48 Cd 49 In 50 Sn 51 Sb 52 Te 53 I 54 Xe 79 Au 80 Hg 81 Tl 82 Pb 83 Bi 84 Po 85 At 86 Rn A Y aLanthanide series bActinide series 69 Tm 70 Yb 71 Lu 58 Ce 59 Pr 60 Nd 61 Pm 62 Sm 63 Eu 64 Gd 65 Tb 66 Dy 67 Ho 68 Er 90 Th 91 Pa 921 93 U5 Np 94 Pu 95 Am 96 Cm 97 Bk 98 Cf 99 Es 100 101 102 103 Fm Md No Lr 6 8 T Just as the atom is the basic S particle of an element, the molecule is the smallest unit of a FIGURE 9–1 The periodic table. compound. Thus, a molecule of carbon dioxide is represented by the symbol CO2, and a molecule of table salt is symbolized by NaCl, representing the combination of one atom of the element sodium (Na) with one atom of the element chlorine (Cl). As we look around us and view the materials that make up the earth, it becomes an awesome task even to attempt to estimate the number of different kinds of matter that exist. A much more logical approach is to classify matter according to the physical form it takes. These forms are called Criminalistics: An Introduction to Forensic Science, Eleventh Edition, by Richard Saferstein. Published by Prentice Hall. Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc. ISBN: 978-1-323-16745-8 States of Matter MATTER, LIGHT, AND GLASS EXAMINATION 207 physical states. There are three such states: solid, liquid, and gas (vapor). A solid is rigid and therefore has a definite shape and volume. A liquid also occupies a specific volume, but its fluidity causes it to take the shape of the container in which it is residing. A gas has neither a definite shape nor volume, and it will completely fill any container into which it is placed. physical state CHANGES OF STATE Substances can change from one state to another. For example, as water A state of matter in which the molecules are held closely together in a rigid state. is heated, it is converted from a liquid form into a vapor. At a high enough temperature (100°C), water boils and rapidly changes into steam. Similarly, at 0°C, water solidifies or freezes into ice. Under certain conditions, some solids can be converted directly into a gaseous state. For instance, a piece of dry ice (solid carbon dioxide) left standing at room temperature quickly forms carbon dioxide vapor and disappears. This change of state from a solid to a gas is called sublimation. In each of these examples, no new chemical species are formed; matter is simply being changed from one physical state to another. Water, whether in the form of liquid, ice, or steam, remains chemically H2O. Simply, what has been altered are the attractive forces between the water molecules. In a solid, these forces are very strong, and theLmolecules are held closely together in a rigid state. In a liquid, the attractive forces are not as Istrong, and the molecules have more mobility. Finally, in the vapor state, appreciable attractive forces no longer exist among the D molecules; thus, they may move in any direction at will. D the solid, liquid, or gaseous states, hoping to create new and E useful products. Our everyday observations should make it apparent that not all attempts at mixing matter can be productive. For instance, oil spills demonstrate that oil and water do not mix.LWhenever substances can be distinguished by a visible boundary, different phases are saidLto exist. Thus, oil floating on water is an example of a two-phase system. The oil and water each constitute a separate liquid phase, clearly distinct from each other. Similarly, when sugar is ,first added to water, it does not PHASES Chemists are forever combining different substances, no matter whether they are in dissolve, and two distinctly different phases exist: the solid sugar and the liquid water. However, after stirring, all the sugar dissolves, leaving just one liquid phase. T Physical Properties of Matter I All materials possess a range of physical properties whose measurement is critical to the work of F the forensic scientist. Several of the most important of these for the forensic characterization of F glass is density and refractive index. Which physical and chemical properties the forensic scientist ultimately chooses to observe A and measure depends on the type of material that is being examined. Logic requires, however, N to a standard system of meathat if the property can be assigned a numerical value, it must relate surement accepted throughout the scientific community. Y A condition or stage in the form of matter; a solid, liquid, or gas. solid liquid A state of matter in which molecules are in contact with one another but are not rigidly held in place. gas (vapor) A state of matter in which the attractive forces between molecules are small enough to permit them to move with complete freedom. sublimation A physical change from the solid state directly into the gaseous state. phase A uniform body of matter; different phases are separated by definite visible boundaries. Basic Units of Measurement ISBN: 978-1-323-16745-8 The metric system has basic units of measurement for length, mass, 1 and volume: the meter, gram, and liter, respectively. These three basic units can be converted into subunits that are decimal multiples of the basic unit by simply attaching a prefix to the unit5name. The following are common prefixes and their equivalent decimal value: 6 8 T S Prefix Equivalent Value decicentimillimicronanokilomega- 1/10 or 0.1 1/100 or 0.01 1/1000 or 0.001 1/1,000,000 or 0.000001 1/1,000,000,000 or 0.000000001 1,000 1,000,000 Hence, 1/10 or 0.1 gram (g) is the same as a decigram (dg), 1/100 or 0.01 meter is equal to a centimeter (cm), and 1/1,000 liter is a milliliter (mL). A metric conversion is carried out simply Criminalistics: An Introduction to Forensic Science, Eleventh Edition, by Richard Saferstein. Published by Prentice Hall. Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc. 208 CHAPTER 9 inside the science The Metric System Although scientists, including forensic scientists, throughout the world have been using the metric system of measurement for more than a century, the United States still uses the cumbersome “English system” to express length in inches, feet, or yards; weight in ounces or pounds; and volume in pints or quarts. The inherent difficulty of this system is that no simple numerical relationship exists between the various units of measurement. For example, to convert inches to feet one must know that 1 foot equals 12 inches; conversion of ounces to pounds requires the knowledge that 16 ounces equals 1 pound. In 1791, the French Academy of Science devised the simple system of measurement known as the metric system. This system uses a simple decimal relationship so that a unit of length, volume, or mass can be converted into a subunit by simply multiplying or dividing Lby a multiple of 10—for example, 10, 100, or 1,000. Even though the United States has not yet adI opted the metric system, its system of currency is Ddecimal and, hence, is analogous to the metric system. The basic unit of currency is the dollar. A dollar Dis divided into 10 equal units called dimes, and each Edime is further divided into 10 equal units of cents. L L , T I 10 cm F F A 10 cm N 1,000 cm3 1 liter (1 L) = Y 1,000 mL 10 cm 1 cm 1 cm 1 cm 1 cm3 = 1mL Volume equivalencies in the metric system. 1 5 6 8 T measurement; 2.54 centimeters 5 1 inch. Comparison of the metric and English systems of length S Criminalistics: An Introduction to Forensic Science, Eleventh Edition, by Richard Saferstein. Published by Prentice Hall. Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc. ISBN: 978-1-323-16745-8 by moving the decimal point to the right or left and inserting the proper prefix to show the direction and number of places that the decimal point has been moved. For example, if the weight of a powder is 0.0165 gram, it may be more convenient to multiply this value by 100 and express it as 1.65 centigrams or by 1,000 to show it as its equivalent value of 16.5 milligrams. Similarly, an object that weighs 264,450 grams may be expressed as 264.45 kilograms simply by dividing it by 1,000. It is important to remember that in any of these conversions, the value of the measurement MATTER, LIGHT, AND GLASS EXAMINATION 209 has not changed; 0.0165 gram is still equivalent to 1.65 centigrams, just as one dollar is still equal to 100 cents. We have simply adjusted the position of the decimal and shown the extent of the adjustment with a prefix. One interesting aspect of the metric system is that volume can be defined in terms of length. A liter by definition is the volume of a cube with sides of length 10 centimeters. One liter is therefore equivalent to a volume of 10 cm 3 10 cm 3 10 cm, or 1,000 cubic centimeters (cc). Thus, 1/1,000 liter or 1 milliliter (mL) is equal to 1 cubic centimeter (cc). Scientists commonly use the subunits mL and cc interchangeably to express volume. Metric Conversion At times, it may be necessary to convert units from the metric system into the English system, or vice versa. To accomplish this, we must consult references that list English units and their metric equivalents. Some of the more useful equivalents follow: L I D D The general mathematical procedures for converting from one E system to another can be illustrated by converting 12 inches into centimeters. To change inches into centimeters …
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