corporate culture

1.

 

What is meant by the term “hidden” corporate culture?

 

a.

the values and beliefs of the corporation that shape employees’ attitudes

b.

the tendency to promote individuals to their level of incompetence

c.

an organization’s tendency to shift goals to perpetuate its existence

d.

the placement of minorities in highly visible but powerless positions

2.

 

Anthony, a retired Army officer, is a professor of sociology at a small state university. During the Vietnam War, he was awarded the Medal of Honor and he usually wears a small ribbon on the lapel of his suit coat denoting this. He also wears his West Point ring from the class of 1965. Using the terminology of dramaturgy, the lapel pin and class ring would be classified as ________.

 

a.

stages

b.

background assumptions

c.

role performances

d.

props

3.

 

How does the mass media influence gender roles in contemporary American society?

 

a.

It encourages a sexless society.

b.

It encourages women to assume male roles to be successful.

c.

It reinforces gender roles considered appropriate for one’s sex.

d.

It encourages cross-gender behavior.

4.

 

What did the Harlow experiment conclude as being the key to infant-mother bonding?

 

a.

peer socialization

b.

feeding and grooming

c.

intimate social contact

d.

intellectual development

5.

 

Jane is a 49-year-old woman of Irish-German descent. What do these characteristics have in common?

 

a.

These are examples of her ascribed statuses.

b.

These are examples of her achieved statuses.

c.

These, particularly her Irish-German descent, are part of her master status.

d.

These characteristics are examples of status inconsistency.

6.

 

Which of Williams’ U.S. values is contradicts the other values of freedom, democracy, and equality?

 

a.

science and technology

b.

material comfort

c.

group superiority

d.

religiosity

7.

 

Which groups of social theorists would focus most on macro-level analysis when examining patterns of society?

 

a.

symbolic interactionists and structural functionalists

b.

symbolic interactionists and conflict theorists

c.

conflict theorists and structural functionalists

d.

conflict theorists and symbolic interactionists

8.

 

Sociologists have identified an emerging set of five interrelated values in American society. What are these emerging values?

 

a.

self-destiny, spirituality, environmental concern, technological awareness, and physical fitness

b.

leisure, self-fulfillment, physical fitness, youthfulness, and environmental concern

c.

freedom, equality, romantic love, youthfulness, and physical fitness

d.

romantic love, individualism, mental health, self-fulfillment, and equality

9.

 

Steve and Naomi are counting the empty whiskey bottles in trashcans to measure the level of whiskey consumption in town. These researchers are using a method of research referred to as ________.

 

a.

documentation

b.

participant observation

c.

survey research

d.

unobtrusive measures

10.

 

The spread of cultural characteristics from one group to another refers to ________.

 

a.

folkways

b.

cultural diffusion

c.

values

d.

cultural universals

11.

 

A young woman is contemplating a particular behavior, in this case, dropping out of college. She is also considering an awareness of the self in relationship to others to avoid feelings of shame and embarrassment. This is referred to as her ________.

 

a.

socialized self as subject

b.

self-actualized stage

c.

social mirror

d.

reality principle

12.

 

How would an organization minimize the occurrence of groupthink?

 

a.

using a highly authoritative leader

b.

hiring the most intelligent applicants

c.

giving free rein to diverse opinions

d.

submitting to public review and scrutiny

13.

 

Why do many sociologists object to psychoanalysis as a valid explanation for human behavior?

 

a.

Sociologists reject the notion that personality develops in stages.

b.

Sociologists disagree on the influence of the super ego as a balancing force of behavior.

c.

Sociologists argue that Freud failed to study a wide range of subjects before developing his theory.

d.

Sociologists object to the view that inborn and subconscious motivations are the primary reasons for human behavior.

14.

 

Good nutrition, medical care, comfortable housing, and a nice car are included in a classification of values in American society that sociologist Robin Williams would call ________.

 

a.

achievement and success

b.

progress

c.

material comfort

d.

efficiency and practicality

15.

 

Which of the following statements is the best example of a hypothesis?

 

a.

“All men are created equal.”

b.

“A penny saved is a penny earned.”

c.

“Unemployed men are more likely to commit spousal abuse than employed men.”

d.

“More than 300 million people live in the United States.”

16.

 

The technique created by Sigmund Freud for the treatment of emotional problems through long-term, intensive exploration of the subconscious mind is referred to as ________.

 

a.

transactional analysis

b.

rational emotive therapy

c.

psychoanalysis

d.

reality therapy

17.

 

Jarod is conducting research on the homeless. For six weeks, he has lived among the homeless “24/7,” sleeping on the street or at a shelter, and engaging in the same activities as the population he is studying. By doing so, Jarod has been able to gather a broad understanding of the homeless, their needs, and characteristics. In view of this, Jarod is using ________ as a method of gathering data.

 

a.

representative sampling

b.

secondary analysis

c.

content analysis

d.

participant observation

18.

 

Anthropologists Edward Sapir and Benjamin Whorf concluded that ________.

 

a.

objects and events force themselves onto our consciousness

b.

language creates ways of thinking and perceiving

c.

symbols are the basis of human relationships

d.

learning a new language creates cultural diversity

19.

 

Sam is conducting interviews to assess students’ opinions on how President Bush handled the second Gulf War. Because this is a controversial topic at Sam’s conservative campus, what is the best way for him to develop a sense of rapport with the sample?

 

a.

He should pay the interviewed students a stipend for their cooperation.

b.

He should begin by asking neutral questions and holding off on sensitive issues.

c.

He should tell the students he interviews their identities will be kept secret.

d.

He should begin by telling the participants that he is a Democrat.

20.

 

Which of the following topics would most likely be approached based on a macrosociological analysis?

 

a.

a study of the social norms used by street corner men

b.

a study of the face-to-face interaction of members of a research group

c.

a study of the impact of terrorism on the travel plans of business people

d.

a study of the ways in which children in a play group develop language skills

21.

 

There are New York Yankee fans in every state in America, throughout Canada, and in nations all over the world. Sociologically, which concept best describes these fans?

 

a.

They are a group.

b.

They are a social group.

c.

They are an aggregate.

d.

They are a category.

22.

 

In which group would diffusion of responsibility be the greatest concern?

 

a.

a married couple

b.

the graduating class of a large university

c.

a football team

d.

a basketball team

23.

 

What are the three primary variables in determining one’s social class?

 

a.

race, sex, residence

b.

income, education, occupational prestige

c.

race, sex, income

d.

income, education, sex

24.

 

Pigs, spiders, elephants, and other animals that rely solely on instinct act as they do because they lack a ________.

 

a.

cerebral cortex

b.

brain

c.

central nervous system

d.

moral compass

25.

 

Most American high schools routinely schedule ceremonies to recognize the most talented student athletes and scholars. Such activities illustrate the importance that Americans place on which value, as defined by sociologist Robin Williams?

 

a.

efficiency and practicality

b.

achievement and success

c.

group superiority

d.

freedom

26.

 

Which of the following examination formats is most likely to incorporate closed-ended questions?

 

a.

an essay exam

b.

a multiple-choice exam

c.

an oral exam

d.

a fill-in-the-blank exam

27.

 

An approach to social interaction in which social life is analyzed in terms of the stage is called ________.

 

a.

ethnomethodology

b.

functional analysis

c.

dramaturgy

d.

phenomenological analysis

28.

 

Most major companies sponsor “diversity training” lectures and workshops for their employees. What is the ultimate purpose of these efforts?

 

a.

to stimulate an understanding of cultural differences

b.

to professionally develop staff

c.

to increase company profits and competitiveness

d.

to emphasize the qualities that will lead to a worker’s success

29.

 

Sociologically, what term best applies to a group of people who share no common destination taking an elevator from the first floor of a large high rise?

 

a.

a social frame

b.

a category

c.

an aggregate

d.

a clique

30.

 

Which of the following represents a correct sequence of steps in the research process?

 

a.

Select a topic, collect the data, review the literature, share the results.

b.

Review the literature, select a topic, collect the data, choose a research method.

c.

Choose a research method, select a topic, collect the data, formulate a hypothesis.

d.

Select a topic, review the literature, collect the data, share the results.

31.

 

In recent years, cultures have become more similar to each other as a result of travel and communication. Sociologists use the term “________” to describe this process.

 

a.

cultural bridging

b.

cultural adaptation

c.

cultural dissolution

d.

cultural leveling

32.

 

Several years ago, the gay community applied for a permit to march in the St. Patrick Day’s Parade in Boston. When denied, the gay community filed suit and won. Rather than permitting the gay community to march in the parade, the parade trustees cancelled the event. Sociologists would suggest this conflict in values between the trustees of the parade and the gay community would eventually lead to ________.

 

a.

consensus that gays are evil because they caused a traditional event to be cancelled

b.

social change that brings attention to gay rights and eventual acceptance

c.

social integration of the gay and straight communities resulting in a bisexual society

d.

armed conflict, or “cultural war, ” between the gay and straight communities

33.

 

________ are the social ties that radiate outward from the self and link people together.

 

a.

Cyber socializations

b.

Secondary societies

c.

Social networks

d.

Electronic communities

34.

 

Kody is a member of the L.A. Crips. The other gangs in his territory are the Bloods and Satan’s Slaves. Kody feels very antagonistic towards the Bloods and the Slaves. For Kody, these two rival gangs would be considered ________.

 

a.

reference groups

b.

social networks

c.

secondary groups

d.

out-groups

35.

 

To show ourselves as expert role players and to gain positive recognition from others, we often have additional people work with us to ensure that our role communicates to others the ideas that we want them to form about us. This is referred to as ________.

 

a.

face-saving

b.

teamwork

c.

cooperation

d.

social manipulation

36.

 

Nancy and Don took their children to the zoo while on vacation. It was a busy day. Those that were at the zoo that day were all members of an…

 

a.

aggregate.

b.

category.

c.

secondary group.

d.

reference group.

37.

 

By a narrow margin, Dr. Moreau was elected chair of the largest academic department at Faber College. She appointed faculty members who support her views to the most influential and important committees in the department. This group of loyal colleagues, on which Dr. Moreau is relying to advance her policies, is an example of a(n) ________.

 

a.

consortium

b.

inner circle

c.

primary group

d.

out-group

38.

 

According to Georg Simmel, which of the following groups is the most unstable?

 

a.

triad

b.

secondary group

c.

dyad

d.

primary group

39.

 

Karl Marx suggested that the force that drives human history and is at the core of human society is ________.

 

a.

class conflict

b.

religion

c.

family

d.

education

40.

 

Clarisse and Cindy are honor students who conduct themselves in a mature manner at the Christian college they attend in Philadelphia. This year for spring break, they decided to go to Cancun, where they auditioned for the “Girls Gone Wild” video. Which statement best describes the probable reason behind the behavior of Clarisse and Cindy?

 

a.

Clarisse and Cindy unintentionally broke a taboo due to the stress, authoritarianism, and strict regime involved in Christian education.

b.

Clarisse and Cindy considered themselves on a moral holiday, which permitted them to “let their hair down.”

c.

Clarisse and Cindy were evil spirited at heart and their true behavior surfaced in Cancun.

d.

Clarisse pushed Cindy, or Cindy pushed Clarisse, into violating their Christian norms and deciding to “go wild.”

41.

 

Basic needs that a society must meet in order to survive, which include replacement of members, preserving order, and socializing new members, are referred to as ________.

 

a.

functional requisites

b.

cultural goals

c.

societal mandates

d.

symbolic needs

42.

 

The concept of natural selection, which proposed that genes of a species are not distributed evenly among the offspring, thus enabling certain members of the species to survive while others die out, was developed by ________.

 

a.

Charles Darwin

b.

Herbert Spencer

c.

William Ogburn

d.

Edmund Wilson

43.

 

The notion that only the fittest members of society deserve to survive and that social programs to help the poor will ultimately weaken the social order is a doctrine known as ________.

 

a.

social Darwinism

b.

positivism

c.

post-modernism

d.

social welfare

44.

 

Without language, human culture would ________.

 

a.

live in the past and have no concept of the future

b.

focus more on plans and actions instead of talk

c.

be little more advanced than lower primates

d.

have to become totally dependent upon memory

45.

 

In which group would there be the greatest number of relationships?

 

a.

a traditional marriage

b.

a panel of three

c.

the starting five on a basketball team

d.

the starting nine on a baseball team

46.

 

Tory is 5 years of age. He loves to dress up like Batman and pretend to save Gotham City from the Penguin. According to Mead’s theory, he is in the ________ stage.

 

a.

imitation

b.

game

c.

play

d.

generalized

47.

 

Based on Durkheim’s classification of society, the Old Order Amish would fall into which category?

 

a.

mechanical solidarity

b.

organic solidarity

c.

Gemeinschaft

d.

Gesellschaft

48.

 

The organized, usual, or standard ways by which society meets its basic needs are referred to as ________.

 

a.

social institutions

b.

social imperatives

c.

social aggregates

d.

social solidarity

49.

 

What is another term used to describe the research method called participant observation?

 

a.

content analysis

b.

fieldwork

c.

survey research

d.

unobtrusive measures

50.

 

What are the three qualities on which research ethics is based?

 

a.

rapport; generalizability; validity

b.

honesty; truth; openness

c.

random sample; observation; fieldwork

d.

consistency; accuracy; clarity

51.

 

Three of the following terms are interchangeable. Which one does NOT belong with the other three?

 

a.

sociobiology

b.

neo-Darwinism

c.

social learning

d.

evolutionary psychology

52.

 

The social institution that is most recognized for allocating power, determining authority, and preventing chaos is ________.

 

a.

the military

b.

politics

c.

law

d.

education

53.

 

Sue is an expert in interpreting gestures, silence, the use of space, and expressions people make in their daily interactions. In view of this, how would Sue’s expertise be defined?

 

a.

Sue is a social linguist.

b.

Sue is an expert in multiculturalism.

c.

Sue recognizes the importance of globalization.

d.

Sue is an expert in nonverbal interaction.

54.

 

What two sociological perspectives are most linked to macrosociology?

 

a.

symbolic interactionism and functionalism

b.

functionalism and the conflict perspective

c.

the conflict perspective and symbolic interactionism

d.

symbolic interactionism and feminism

55.

 

The research in the early 1960s using rhesus monkeys to demonstrate the importance of intimate physical contact in the rearing of animals was conducted by ________.

 

a.

Sheldon and Eleanor Glueck

b.

William and Helen Thomas

c.

Harry and Margaret Harlow

d.

William and Virginia Masters

56.

 

Cindy is interested in how the movement of Maytag production plants and other industries from the Midwest to Mexico has changed the lives of thousands of unemployed workers and their communities. Cindy is conducting a ________ analysis.

 

a.

macro-level

b.

pure

c.

micro-level

d.

symbolic

57.

 

Sociologists are now developing what they call _________, which emphasizes the influence of genes on human behavior.

 

a.

technological sociology

b.

scientific sociology

c.

gene sociology

d.

genetics-informed sociology

58.

 

George Herbert Mead theorized that learning to take the role of the other entails three stages – the ________ stage, ________stage, and ________ stage.

 

a.

primary; secondary; tertiary

b.

id; ego; superego

c.

sensorimotor; preoperational; operational

d.

imitation; play; team games

59.

 

Expectations that guide our behavior are called ________.

 

a.

values

b.

norms

c.

statuses

d.

roles

60.

 

Which phrase became synonymous with the research Stanley Milgram conducted on “the small world phenomenon”?

 

a.

the world is a stage

b.

six degrees of separation

c.

society as the sum of its parts

d.

situations defined as real are real in their consequences

61.

 

Expectations that define appropriate or inappropriate behavior for the occupant of a status are called ________.

 

a.

folkways

b.

roles

c.

mores

d.

simple norms

62.

 

In developing his theory on moral development, when did Kohlberg claim most people reach the postconventional stage?

 

a.

Most people reach this stage shortly after birth.

b.

Most people reach this stage after passing through puberty.

c.

Most people reach this stage during the “midlife crisis.”

d.

Most people do not reach this stage.

63.

 

The term “________” refers to the extent to which different studies come up with similar results.

 

a.

validity

b.

replication

c.

reliability

d.

duplication

64.

 

Matthew is completing his master’s thesis, which addresses the culture of outlaw motorcycle gangs. For the past six months, he has been riding with a gang, observing and describing behaviors in an attempt to present a view of these groups from a gang member’s perspective. Like Mario Brajuha, he is determined to keep the identities of his subjects confidential. Which research method is Matthew employing?

 

a.

case study

b.

documentary

c.

participant observation

d.

unobtrusive measures

65.

 

Mechanical solidarity is to Gemeinschaft as ________ solidarity is to Gesellschaft.

 

a.

organic

b.

tribal

c.

folk

d.

natural

66.

 

Which of the following would not be considered unobtrusive measures?

 

a.

Malls tracking patrons through their Smartphones so stores can send them targeted ads.

b.

Face-recognition cameras at kiosks that classify people by age and sex and post targeted ads.

c.

Bionic mannequins that greet customers’ and ask them targeted questions about their purchasing habits.

d.

Cameras that follow you through the store recording your every move.

67.

 

According to Piaget, the stage of development that is dominated by touching, listening, looking, and the inability to recognize cause and effect is the ________ stage.

 

a.

formal operational

b.

preoperational

c.

sensorimotor

d.

concrete operational

68.

 

Groups in which members take personal responsibility and work at a steady pace, even without supervision, are most likely headed by which classification of leader?

 

a.

laissez-faire leader

b.

authoritative leader

c.

dictatorial leader

d.

democratic leader

69.

 

According to Max Weber, the Protestant ethic was a central factor in the birth of ________.

 

a.

capitalism

b.

democracy

c.

socialism

d.

bureaucracy

70.

 

Which research method involves collecting data by having people answer a series of questions?

 

a.

unobtrusive measures

b.

secondary analysis

c.

experimentation

d.

survey

71.

 

If a secondary group does not satisfy one’s need for intimate association, which of the following is most likely to occur?

 

a.

The individual will cease to exist.

b.

The secondary group will break down into primary groups.

c.

The secondary group will develop into an out-group.

d.

The secondary group will develop into a reference group.

72.

 

Which statement regarding status is most accurate?

 

a.

All master statuses are achieved.

b.

Ascribed statuses are voluntary and achieved statuses are involuntary.

c.

Status provides the guidelines for how we are to act and feel.

d.

Status symbols are always positive, serving as positive reinforcements for following norms.

73.

 

In Freud’s theory, what part of the personality represents the pleasure-seeking aspect, demanding immediate fulfillment of basic needs such as attention, food, safety, and sex?

 

a.

the id

b.

the ego

c.

the superego

d.

the libido

74.

 

According to Mead’s theory of development, individuals who have a profound influence on the lives of another person, such as parents or siblings, are referred to as ________.

 

a.

significant others

b.

the person’s reference group

c.

the person’s in-group

d.

generalized others

75.

 

Courtney raises champion sheep, Joe is a cab driver in New York, and Rufus is a member of the RAW family of professional wrestling. What do Courtney, Joe, and Rufus have in common?

 

a.

They are all members of countercultures.

b.

They are all engaged in ethnocentrism.

c.

They are all practicing cultural relativism.

d.

They are all members of subcultures.

76.

 

The titles Karl Marx used to describe the two classes in society were the ________ and the ________.

 

a.

nobles; peasants

b.

bourgeoisie; proletariat

c.

upper class; lower class

d.

civilized; barbarians

77.

 

Officer Friel has just pulled over a motorist exceeding the speed limit by 40 miles per hour. When he approached the vehicle, he recognizes the driver as his best friend’s daughter. Officer Friel is aware that the young lady has had some money problems and the last thing she can afford is a $200 speeding ticket that will also raise her insurance rates. At this point, which of the following terms best describes the position facing Officer Friel?

 

a.

Officer Friel is experiencing role strain.

b.

Officer Friel is experiencing role conflict.

c.

Officer Friel is now engaged in role reversal.

d.

Officer Friel is faced with status inconsistency.

78.

 

Although formal education is intended to transmit knowledge and skills, it unintentionally teaches students that the same rules apply to everyone. This universality reflects what sociologists describe as ________.

 

a.

a signaling system

b.

a pattern variable

c.

a latent function

d.

a manifest function

79.

 

People all over the world, including college students, are breaking down national boundaries because of advances in communication, trade, and travel. This is referred to as ________.

 

a.

multiculturalism

b.

colonialism

c.

neo-colonialism

d.

globalization

80.

 

If a researcher is reading diaries to collect information about the attitudes of rape victims, he or she is using ________ to collect the data.

 

a.

ethnography

b.

dramaturgical analysis

c.

documents

d.

unstructured interviews

81.

 

The domination of organizations by a small, self-perpetuating elite is called ________.

 

a.

the Thomas theorem

b.

the Protestant ethic

c.

the iron law of oligarchy

d.

the spirit of capitalism

82.

 

In what three states do 75 percent of the Old Order Amish live?

 

a.

Pennsylvania, Ohio, Indiana

b.

Kentucky, Tennessee, West Virginia

c.

Illinois, Michigan, Wisconsin

d.

Virginia, North Carolina, Georgia

83.

 

The concept of the “iron law” of oligarchy was developed by sociologist ________.

 

a.

Michael Burawoy

b.

Irving Janis

c.

Robert Michels

d.

Ryan Graham

84.

 

A common thread that runs through all voluntary associations is ________.

 

a.

the size of the group

b.

the purpose of the association

c.

mutual interest among members

d.

an effort to maintain social order

85.

 

In Kohlberg’s theory of moral development, the stage in which the child has no sense of right or wrong and only personal needs to be satisfied is the ________ stage.

 

a.

amoral

b.

preconventional

c.

conventional

d.

postconventional

86.

 

What did Solomon Asch’s experiment on group conformity demonstrate?

 

a.

Because of group pressure, most people are willing to say things they know are not true.

b.

Americans are highly individualistic and reluctant to conform to group pressure.

c.

Women are more susceptible to group pressure than men.

d.

Younger people are more susceptible to group pressure than older adults.

87.

 

Bumper stickers such as “Proud Parent of an Honor Student” and “Warning: This Driver Convicted of DUI” are best described as being ________.

 

a.

status symbols

b.

master statuses

c.

negative sanctions

d.

positive sanctions

88.

 

When Harry returned from a business meeting in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, his wife asked him what he thought of the Vietnamese people. Harry replied, “They’re primitive people who eat animals from the streets, drive wildly around town on motor scooters, and talk very fast.” Harry’s reply best qualifies as an example of ________.

 

a.

ethnocentrism

b.

cultural diffusion

c.

the self-fulfilling prophecy

d.

the relativist fallacy

89.

 

All of the following represent one of the five functional requisites that every society must fulfill to survive EXCEPT for which one?

 

a.

replacing members

b.

socializing new members

c.

maintaining traditional gender relations

d.

providing a sense of purpose

90.

 

In ethnomethodology, the ideas we take for granted that underlie our behavior and that we violate at our risk are called ________.

 

a.

background assumptions

b.

social facts

c.

social traits

d.

symbols

91.

 

Morris is 3 years old and is just beginning to talk. He can count to 10 but is not altogether sure what numbers actually mean. According to Piaget, Morris is in the ________ stage.

 

a.

sensorimotor

b.

concrete operational

c.

preoperational

d.

formal operational

92.

 

Which two research methods did Laud Humphreys utilize in his classic “tearoom” study?

 

a.

participant observation and surveys

b.

experiments and documents

c.

secondary analysis and surveys

d.

unobtrusive measures and secondary analysis

93.

 

How groups influence individuals and how individuals affect groups is referred to as ________.

 

a.

the Hawthorne Effect

b.

social solidarity

c.

group dynamics

d.

small group phenomenon

94.

 

In Professor Jones’ social problems course, the students interact freely with one another, think of themselves as “Dr. J’s class,” and feel they are significant because of their mutual interest in social reform. Which concept best describes Dr. Jones’ class?

 

a.

aggregate

b.

category

c.

social frame

d.

group

95.

 

What is the proposed source of the six specific emotions that Paul Ekman identified as being present in all cultures?

 

a.

They are based on the social environment.

b.

They are a product of our genes.

c.

They are based on common cultural values held worldwide.

d.

They are based on intellectual capability.

96.

 

People and groups that influence our orientation to life – our self-concept, emotions, attitudes, and behaviors – are called ________.

 

a.

total institutions

b.

generalized others

c.

agents of socialization

d.

out-groups

97.

 

Believing that all football players are academically challenged, that all African Americans are great athletes, and that all women can cook well are examples of ________.

 

a.

culture shock

b.

the relativist fallacy

c.

stereotyping

d.

cultural relativism

98.

 

Frankie and Johnnie are both above-average students, but they feel that they learn much more about life, success, and relationships with others from other students outside of the classroom. In this sense, Frankie and Johnnie are relying on the ________ for their education.

 

a.

hidden curriculum

b.

corridor curriculum

c.

manifest function

d.

latent function

99.

 

The presentation of self in everyday life, also called dramaturgy, was developed by ________.

 

a.

Talcott Parsons

b.

Edwin Sutherland

c.

Erving Goffman

d.

Travis Hirschi

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