CE301 Southern Illinois University Kolkata Water Crisis Presentation

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I have a presentation tomorrow. I need u to do the conclusion. everything has been done except the conclusion.

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The Kolkata Water Crisis —- Morgan Rich Xin Li Yimin Wang Jinghan Li Omar Alkhathami Evaluation of Kolkata’s Unsustainable Water Practices —-Morgan Rich Problem • Kolkata has the water resources available to sustain the entire population of the city. • The Hooghly River runs through the center of Kolkata with enough water to provide for the city. • Due to unsustainable water use practices the Hooghly River has become toxic and virtually unusable. • The supply of water throughout the city is unmonitored by the government. There is water waste throughout Kolkata that cannot be detected. Data • The Kolkata Municipal Corporation estimates by studying the data collected by water meters, the areas of Kolkata where water waste is at 35% could be brought down to 14% water waste • The West Bengal Pollution Control Board measured that pesticides, industrial metals, and solid waste contribute to 15% of the pollution the other 85% of pollution is from sewage being dumped in the river. • West Bengal Pollution Control Board stated that the measured amount of fecal coliform in the Hooghly river is 160,000 per 100 milliliters. Seven billion liters of raw sewage is dispersed into the river every day. Solution • Add water meters to water inlets to measure Kolkata’s water use • The National Green Tribunal created a directive that stated waste such as garbage and plastics could not be dumped within half a kilometer of the Hooghly river. Enforce these environmental regulations. • Improve public restroom facilities in the poorer regions of Kolkata. Groundwater in Kolkata —–Yimin Wang Groundwater Scenario of Kolkata Region • Heavy withdrawal of groundwater for domestic and industrial use has led to a fall of 9.75 meter of piezometric level during a span of 25 years . • Several saline or brackish water zones are present around the area, the mixing of this saline water with freshwater poses threat to the environment. • Arsenic content is more in south Kolkata than in other part of the city, thus, high risk of cancer. Sub-surface deposition of aquifers in Kolkata Municipal Corporation (KMC) area Steps Taken by The Government The only way of artificial recharge in Kolkata being gravity hand recharge tube well using roof top rainwater because of the concrete surface direct recharge is not possible. A lot of awareness program was undertaken to make the commoners aware of the problem. Area of artificial recharge in KMC area (KMC, 2007) Impacts of Land Use Land Cover on Urban Water Security —-Xin Li Land Use Land Cover Three major land uses Urban settlements Vegetation patches Wetlands • Kolkata Municipal Corporation area (KMC), located at the eastern bank of the river Hooghly Distribution of urban settlements (brown patches) within Kolkata Municipal Corporation area (KMC) Distribution of vegetation patches (green patches) within Kolkata Municipal Corporation area (KMC) Distribution of wetlands (blue patches) within Kolkata Municipal Corporation area (KMC) Water Security Water Supply • From 1997 to 2014, the average daily water supply for KMC’s population decreased from 4 h to 3.3 h. Water Accessibility • In KMC area, the households access groundwater through private pumps or wells. Which caused sharp decline in the groundwater level. Water Related Disasters • Cut down trees increased surface runoff. As surface runoff increases and due to poor medical conditions, dissolved and solid matter pollute surface water. which can cause typhoid fever, hepatitis, and flooding. Water pollution and the gap between rich and poor —-Jinghan Li Water pollution and the gap between rich and poor • Kolkata is a water rich city. However, the lack of drinking water and the impact of natural disasters have widened the gap between the rich and the poor throughout Kolkata. • Water inequity phenomena: 1. Poorer neighborhoods get a few hours of water on public taps and rely on water tankers that charge heavily for providing additional water. 2. Most poor neighborhoods are situated in flood prone areas in the city. Morgan Rich Xin Li Yimin Wang Jinghan Li Omar Alkhathami The Kolkata Water Crisis The city of Kolkata though next to the large Hooghly River has experienced ever declining water quality and availability. The metropolitan area of Kolkata is estimated to have a population of around fifteen million residents ranging from the wealthy and impoverished communities. While there is more than enough of a water supply to satisfy the needs of the ever-growing population the unsustainable water practices in place have left much of the community without a reliable source of water. While the middle and upper class residents do not generally suffer from unpredictable water conditions the lower class does not have the same security. From the millions of travelers that pass through Kolkata every day and the city’s ever growing population there is not enough water to support everyone due to inefficient water usage. The governments regulations on water usage has greatly contributed to the degrading water conditions in Kolkata. The Kolkata government does not charge for water usage and subsequently does not effectively monitor the amount of water used throughout the city. Many of the poorer areas throughout Kolkata do not have direct access to clean drinking water and are required to buy clean drinking water from private businesses. There are many areas of Kolkata where the available water is contaminated and not fit to drink so they must rely on private companies to supply them water daily. The sale of clean water has become a growing industry that does not have any government does not have to comply to government standards. As an alternative to the toxic water in many areas of Kolkata residents are forced to buy uninspected water from these companies. The government at this time does not have any way to monitor the volume of water sold by these companies. Without effective monitoring measures the government is unable to determine the amount of water wasted by the residents. By measuring the amount of water wasted research can be done to reduce the amount wasted. Installation of water meters provides the government with an avenue to accurately record and assess the cities water use. Through the use of water meters, the city could be opened up into a grid structure to determine the usage of water in each part of the city. According to the Kolkata Municipal Corporation there are areas in Kolkata that water wastage is as high as thirty-five percent. Water meters allow the government to monitor the volume of water that is used by each portion of the city and institute countermeasures where there is projected water waste. Installing water meters at the inlets of the water pipes opens up opportunities to reduce water loss. Through the use of water meters, the Kolkata Municipal Corporation projects that it could pinpoint where causes of water waste are. It would allow them to defects and leaks in the pipelines while determining the amount of water used by each household. Water meters allow the authorities to focus in on which specific areas are using the most water. By focusing on these areas, they can further investigate why water is being wasted in these specific areas and institute appropriate countermeasures to reduce the water waste in the area. The Kolkata Municipal Corporation estimates by studying the data collected by the water meters the areas of Kolkata where water waste is at thirty-five percent could be brought down to fourteen percent water waste. Water meters in themselves do not present a solution to the waste of water in Kolkata. Water meters provide a way for water management authorities to thoroughly measure water usage throughout the city and highlight specific areas where water waste is the most prevalent. Through these studies the water management offices have the capability to implement changes to the areas that need to reduce water waste. While water meters are not solutions to the water crisis in Kolkata, they provide a way to research the waste throughout the city. Kolkata is positioned beside the large Hooghly river yet it continually struggles to provide adequate clean water to a large portion of the residents. While the Hooghly river is a substantial source of water it does not contain viable drinking water. There are many sources of contamination that contribute to the high-level pollution in the river. Pollution does not only enter the river from Kolkata but also upriver from the city. This is a problem the government recognizes and has already attempted to remedy to no avail. The Hooghly river is heavily polluted and, in an effort to reduce the pollutants entering the river the National Green Tribunal created a directive that waste such as garbage and plastics could not be dumped within half a kilometer of the Hooghly river. This is an order that was implemented but neither the officials or law enforcement enforce. Large amounts of untreated sewage and garbage are dumped into the Hooghly river, eventually reaching the city of Kolkata. The main source of pollution in the river is the sewage that is continually running into the river. Many of the residents in the slums of Kolkata do not have access to adequate sewage systems so many residents defecate in or on the shore of the Hooghly river. The National Green Tribune identified the sewage entering the river has cause the river to have “high concentrations of coliform and low levels of oxygen saturation”. These high levels of toxic bacteria have caused the water from the river to be very difficult to filter and much of it unusable. The HC panel in an effort to reduce pollution proposed an one hundred meter no plastic zone around the Hooghly river but it was denied. The authorities have attempted to implement measures to reduce pollution in the Hooghly river but have either not enforced their rules or have been denied. In order to reduce the pollution in the river laws need to be put in place as well as public works projects to increase the availability of clean sewage facilities throughout the city of Kolkata. Many of the residents throughout the slums of Kolkata do not have the resources available to them to cleanly dispose of their sewage. The city of Kolkata does not have the resources set aside in its budget to remedy the degradation of the slums. The majority of the houses and living arrangements in the slum areas of Kolkata do not have adequate water supply as well as sewage systems. Throughout the slums there is a lack of private sewage arrangements as well as public restroom facilities. If the government could institute an initiative to the building of public restrooms throughout the slums of Kolkata there would be a decrease in the public defecation that has contributed to the high toxicity of the Hooghly river. The reason residents defecate along the river is because they do not have proper sewage systems in their homes or their community which forces them to use the river shore. The World Health Organization has declared that the safe amount of faecal coliform that can be present is water is one thousand per one hundred milliliters of water. The Indian Times stated that the measured amount of faecal coliform in the Hooghly river is one hundred and sixty thousand per one hundred milliliters. The high presence in faecal coliform is an indicator of high amount of human excrement present in the river. If the city of Kolkata instituted the funds to build more public waste facilities the residents would not be forced to defecate along the shore of the Hooghly river and the toxic faecal coliform levels would be leveled off and eventually decline. Besides the extreme amount of sewage entering the Hooghly river the West Bengal Pollution Control Board other factors contributing to the lake are pesticides, industrial metals, and dead matter. There have been regulations suggested and passed to reduce the pollution in the river but these regulations have not been enforced

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