Brown Mackie College A Day in the Life of a Web Page Request Paper

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read Chapter-6, Section 6.7 Retrospective: A Day in the Life of a Web Page Request. Submit a brief summary of the 4 subsections

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Hello all, I am giving an additional small assignment for extra points on the exams. You can earn up to an extra 6 points by submitting this assignment. Please read Chapter-6, Section 6.7 Retrospective: A Day in the Life of a Web Page Request. Submit a brief summary of the 4 subsections (6.7.1-4). After reading this, you can understand what are the processes that happen after joining a network through the web page request. I have covered almost all the topics related to those operations (if you find something not covered, those you can understand after reading those sections).Please read carefully and try to understand every operation and you will thank me later for this assignment. Chapter 6 Wireless and Mobile Networks Computer Networking: A Top Down Approach 6th edition Jim Kurose, Keith Ross Addison-Wesley March 2012 All material copyright 1996-2012 J.F Kurose and K.W. Ross, All Rights Reserved Wireless, Mobile Networks 6-1 Ch. 6: Wireless and Mobile Networks Background: v v # wireless (mobile) phone subscribers now exceeds # wired phone subscribers (5-to-1)! # wireless Internet-connected devices exceeds # wireline Internet-connected devices § laptops, Internet-enabled phones promise anytime untethered Internet access v two important (but different) challenges § wireless: communication over wireless link § mobility: handling the mobile user who changes point of attachment to network Wireless, Mobile Networks 6-2 Chapter 6 outline 6.1 Introduction Mobility Wireless 6.5 Principles: addressing and routing to mobile users 6.6 Mobile IP 6.7 Handling mobility in cellular networks 6.8 Mobility and higher-layer protocols 6.2 Wireless links, characteristics § CDMA 6.3 IEEE 802.11 wireless LANs (“Wi-Fi”) 6.4 Cellular Internet Access § architecture § standards (e.g., GSM) 6.9 Summary Wireless, Mobile Networks 6-3 Elements of a wireless network network infrastructure Wireless, Mobile Networks 6-4 Elements of a wireless network wireless hosts v v v network infrastructure laptop, smartphone run applications may be stationary (nonmobile) or mobile § wireless does not always mean mobility Wireless, Mobile Networks 6-5 Elements of a wireless network base station v v network infrastructure typically connected to wired network relay – responsible for sending packets between wired network and wireless host(s) in its “area” § e.g., cell towers, 802.11 access points Wireless, Mobile Networks 6-6 Elements of a wireless network wireless link v v network infrastructure v v typically used to connect mobile(s) to base station also used as backbone link multiple access protocol coordinates link access various data rates, transmission distance Wireless, Mobile Networks 6-7 Characteristics of selected wireless links Data rate (Mbps) 200 54 5-11 802.11n 802.11a,g 802.11b 4 1 802.11a,g point-to-point 4G: LTWE WIMAX 3G: UMTS/WCDMA-HSPDA, CDMA2000-1xEVDO 802.15 .384 2.5G: UMTS/WCDMA, CDMA2000 .056 2G: IS-95, CDMA, GSM Indoor Outdoor 10-30m 50-200m Mid-range outdoor Long-range outdoor 200m – 4 Km 5Km – 20 Km Wireless, Mobile Networks 6-8 Wireless, Mobile Networks 6-9 Elements of a wireless network infrastructure mode v v network infrastructure base station connects mobiles into wired network handoff: mobile changes base station providing connection into wired network Wireless, Mobile Networks 6-10 Elements of a wireless network ad hoc mode v no base stations v nodes can only transmit to other nodes within link coverage v nodes organize themselves into a network: route among themselves Wireless, Mobile Networks 6-11 Wireless network taxonomy single hop infrastructure (e.g., APs) no infrastructure host connects to base station (WiFi, WiMAX, cellular) which connects to larger Internet no base station, no connection to larger Internet (Bluetooth, ad hoc nets) multiple hops host may have to relay through several wireless nodes to connect to larger Internet: mesh net no base station, no connection to larger Internet. May have to relay to reach other a given wireless node MANET,VANET Wireless, Mobile Networks 6-12 Chapter 6 outline 6.1 Introduction Mobility Wireless 6.5 Principles: addressing and routing to mobile users 6.6 Mobile IP 6.7 Handling mobility in cellular networks 6.8 Mobility and higher-layer protocols 6.2 Wireless links, characteristics § CDMA 6.3 IEEE 802.11 wireless LANs (“Wi-Fi”) 6.4 Cellular Internet Access § architecture § standards (e.g., GSM) 6.9 Summary Wireless, Mobile Networks 6-13 Wireless Link Characteristics (1) important differences from wired link …. § decreased signal strength: radio signal attenuates as it propagates through matter (path loss) § interference from other sources: standardized wireless frequencies (e.g., 2.4 GHz) shared by other devices (e.g., phone); devices (motors) interfere as well § multipath propagation: radio signal reflects off objects/ ground, reaching destination at slightly different times …. make communication across (even a point to point) wireless link much more “difficult” Wireless, Mobile Networks 6-14 Wireless Link Characteristics (2) v SNR: signal-to-noise ratio 10-1 § larger SNR – easier to extract signal from noise (a “good thing”) SNR versus BER tradeoffs § given physical layer: increase power à increase SNR à decrease bit-error-rate (BER) § given SNR: choose physical layer that meets BER requirement, giving highest thruput • SNR may change with mobility: dynamically adapt physical layer (modulation technique, rate) 10-3 BER v 10-2 10-4 10-5 10-6 10-7 10 20 30 40 SNR(dB) QAM256 (8 Mbps) QAM16 (4 Mbps) BPSK (1 Mbps) Wireless, Mobile Networks 6-15 Wireless network characteristics Multiple wireless senders and receivers create additional problems (beyond multiple access): B A C C A B Hidden terminal problem v v v B, A hear each other B, C hear each other A, C can not hear each other means A, C unaware of their interference at B C’s signal strength A’s signal strength space Signal attenuation: v v v B, A hear each other B, C hear each other A, C can not hear each other interfering at B Wireless, Mobile Networks 6-16 Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) v unique “code” assigned to each user; i.e., code set partitioning § all users share same frequency, but each user has own “chipping” sequence (i.e., code) to encode data § allows multiple users to “coexist” and transmit simultaneously with minimal interference (if codes are “orthogonal”) encoded signal = (original data) X (chipping sequence) v decoding: inner-product of encoded signal and chipping sequence v Wireless, Mobile Networks 6-17 CDMA encode/decode sender data bits code Zi,m= di.cm d0 = 1 -1 -1 -1 1 -1 1 1 1 -1 -1 -1 slot 1 -1 slot 1 channel output 1 -1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 d1 = -1 1 1 1 channel output Zi,m -1 -1 -1 slot 0 1 -1 -1 -1 -1 slot 0 channel output M Di = Σ Zi,m.cm m=1 received input code receiver 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 -1 -1 -1 -1 1 1 1 1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 1 1 1 -1 -1 -1 slot 1 M 1 1 -1 -1 -1 -1 slot 0 d0 = 1 d1 = -1 slot 1 channel output slot 0 channel output Wireless, Mobile Networks 6-18 CDMA: two-sender interference Sender 1 channel sums together transmissions by sender 1 and 2 Sender 2 using same code as sender 1, receiver recovers sender 1’s original data from summed channel data! Wireless, Mobile Networks 6-19 Chapter 6 outline 6.1 Introduction Mobility Wireless 6.5 Principles: addressing and routing to mobile users 6.6 Mobile IP 6.7 Handling mobility in cellular networks 6.8 Mobility and higher-layer protocols 6.2 Wireless links, characteristics § CDMA 6.3 IEEE 802.11 wireless LANs (“Wi-Fi”) 6.4 Cellular Internet Access § architecture § standards (e.g., GSM) 6.9 Summary Wireless, Mobile Networks 6-20 IEEE 802.11 Wireless LAN 802.11a 802.11b § 5-6 GHz range v 2.4-5 GHz unlicensed spectrum § up to 54 Mbps v up to 11 Mbps 802.11g v direct sequence spread spectrum § 2.4-5 GHz range (DSSS) in physical layer § up to 54 Mbps 802.11n: multiple antennae § 2.4-5 GHz range § up to 200 Mbps v v all use CSMA/CA for multiple access all have base-station and ad-hoc network versions Wireless, Mobile Networks 6-21 802.11 LAN architecture v Internet wireless host communicates with base station § base station = access point (AP) hub, switch or router v Basic Service Set (BSS) (aka “cell”) in infrastructure mode contains: § wireless hosts § access point (AP): base station § ad hoc mode: hosts only BSS 1 BSS 2 Wireless, Mobile Networks 6-22 802.11: Channels, association v 802.11b: 2.4GHz-2.485GHz spectrum divided into 11 channels at different frequencies § AP admin chooses frequency for AP § interference possible: channel can be same as that chosen by neighboring AP! v host: must associate with an AP § scans channels, listening for beacon frames containing AP’s name (SSID) and MAC address § selects AP to associate with § may perform authentication [Chapter 8] § will typically run DHCP to get IP address in AP subnet Wireless, Mobile Networks 6-23 802.11: passive/active scanning BBS 1 AP 1 BBS 1 BBS 2 1 1 2 BBS 2 1 AP 2 AP 1 2 3 (1) beacon frames sent from APs (2) association Request frame sent: H1 to selected AP (3) association Response frame sent from selected AP to H1 AP 2 4 H1 H1 passive scanning: 2 3 active scanning: (1) Probe Request frame broadcast from H1 (2) Probe Response frames sent from APs (3) Association Request frame sent: H1 to selected AP (4) Association Response frame sent from selected AP to H1 Wireless, Mobile Networks 6-24 IEEE 802.11: multiple access v v avoid collisions: 2+ nodes transmitting at same time 802.11: CSMA – sense before transmitting § don’t collide with ongoing transmission by other node v 802.11: no collision detection! § difficult to receive (sense collisions) when transmitting due to weak received signals (fading) § can’t sense all collisions in any case: hidden terminal, fading § goal: avoid collisions: CSMA/C(ollision)A(voidance) C A B A B C C’s signal strength A’s signal strength space Wireless, Mobile Networks 6-25 IEEE 802.11 MAC Protocol: CSMA/CA 802.11 sender 1 if sense channel idle for DIFS then sender transmit entire frame (no CD) 2 if sense channel busy then DIFS start random backoff time timer counts down while channel idle transmit when timer expires if no ACK, increase random backoff interval, repeat 2 802.11 receiver – if frame received OK receiver data SIFS ACK return ACK after SIFS (ACK needed due to hidden terminal problem) Wireless, Mobile Networks 6-26 Avoiding collisions (more) idea: allow sender to “reserve” channel rather than random access of data frames: avoid collisions of long data frames v sender first transmits small request-to-send (RTS) packets to BS using CSMA § RTSs may still collide with each other (but they’re short) v v BS broadcasts clear-to-send CTS in response to RTS CTS heard by all nodes § sender transmits data frame § other stations defer transmissions avoid data frame collisions completely using small reservation packets! Wireless, Mobile Networks 6-27 Collision Avoidance: RTS-CTS exchange A B AP RTS(B) RTS(A) reservation collision RTS(A) CTS(A) CTS(A) DATA (A) defer time ACK(A) ACK(A) Wireless, Mobile Networks 6-28 802.11 frame: addressing 2 2 6 6 6 frame address address address duration control 1 2 3 Address 1: MAC address of wireless host or AP to receive this frame Address 2: MAC address of wireless host or AP transmitting this frame 2 6 seq address 4 control 0 – 2312 4 payload CRC Address 4: used only in ad hoc mode Address 3: MAC address of router interface to which AP is attached Wireless, Mobile Networks 6-29 802.11 frame: addressing R1 router H1 Internet R1 MAC addr H1 MAC addr dest. address source address 802.3 frame AP MAC addr H1 MAC addr R1 MAC addr address 1 address 2 address 3 802.11 frame Wireless, Mobile Networks 6-30 802.11 frame: more frame seq # (for RDT) duration of reserved transmission time (RTS/CTS) 2 2 6 6 6 frame address address address duration control 1 2 3 2 Protocol version 6 2 seq address 4 control 2 4 1 1 1 1 Type Subtype To AP From AP More frag Retry 1 0 – 2312 4 payload CRC 1 Power More mgt data 1 1 WEP Rsvd frame type (RTS, CTS, ACK, data) Wireless, Mobile Networks 6-31 802.11: mobility within same subnet H1 remains in same IP subnet: IP address can remain same v switch: which AP is associated with H1? v § self-learning (Ch. 5): switch will see frame from H1 and “remember” which switch port can be used to reach H1 BBS 1 H1 BBS 2 Wireless, Mobile Networks 6-32 802.11: advanced capabilities Rate adaptation base station, mobile dynamically change transmission rate (physical layer modulation technique) as mobile moves, SNR varies QAM256 (8 Mbps) QAM16 (4 Mbps) BPSK (1 Mbps) operating point 10-2 10-3 BER v 10-1 10-4 10-5 10-6 10-7 10 20 30 SNR(dB) 40 1. SNR decreases, BER increase as node moves away from base station 2. When BER becomes too high, switch to lower transmission rate but with lower BER Wireless, Mobile Networks 6-33 802.11: advanced capabilities power management v node-to-AP: “I am going to sleep until next beacon frame” § AP knows not to transmit frames to this node § node wakes up before next beacon frame v beacon frame: contains list of mobiles with APto-mobile frames waiting to be sent § node will stay awake if AP-to-mobile frames to be sent; otherwise sleep again until next beacon frame Wireless, Mobile Networks 6-34 802.15: personal area network v v v v less than 10 m diameter replacement for cables (mouse, keyboard, headphones) ad hoc: no infrastructure master/slaves: § slaves request permission to send (to master) § master grants requests v 802.15: evolved from Bluetooth specification § 2.4-2.5 GHz radio band § up to 721 kbps P S P radius of coverage M S P S P M Master device S Slave device P Parked device (inactive) Wireless, Mobile Networks 6-35 Chapter 6 outline 6.1 Introduction Wireless 6.2 Wireless links, characteristics § CDMA 6.3 IEEE 802.11 wireless LANs (“Wi-Fi”) 6.4 Cellular Internet access § architecture § standards (e.g., GSM) Mobility 6.5 Principles: addressing and routing to mobile users 6.6 Mobile IP 6.7 Handling mobility in cellular networks 6.8 Mobility and higher-layer protocols 6.9 Summary Wireless, Mobile Networks 6-36 Components of cellular network architecture MSC connects cells to wired tel. net. v manages call setup (more later!) v handles mobility (more later!) v cell covers geographical region v base station (BS) analogous to 802.11 AP v mobile users attach to network through BS v air-interface: physical and link layer protocol between mobile and BS v Mobile Switching Center Public telephone network Mobile Switching Center wired network Wireless, Mobile Networks 6-37 Cellular networks: the first hop Two techniques for sharing mobile-to-BS radio spectrum v combined FDMA/TDMA: divide spectrum in frequency channels, divide each channel into time slots v CDMA: code division multiple frequency access time slots bands Wireless, Mobile Networks 6-38 2G (voice) network architecture Base station system (BSS) BTS MSC G BSC Public telephone network Gateway MSC Legend Base transceiver station (BTS) Base station controller (BSC) Mobile Switching Center (MSC) Mobile subscribers Wireless, Mobile Networks 6-39 3G (voice+data) network architecture MSC G radio network controller Public telephone network Gateway MSC G SGSN Key insight: new cellular data network operates in parallel (except at edge) with existing cellular voice network v voice network unchanged in core v data network operates in parallel Public Internet GGSN Serving GPRS Support Node (SGSN) Gateway GPRS Support Node (GGSN) Wireless, Mobile Networks 6-40 3G (voice+data) network architecture MSC G radio network controller Public telephone network Gateway MSC G SGSN Public Internet GGSN radio interface (WCDMA, HSPA) radio access network Universal Terrestrial Radio Access Network (UTRAN) core network General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) Core Network public Internet Wireless, Mobile Networks 6-41 Chapter 6 outline 6.1 Introduction Wireless 6.2 Wireless links, characteristics § CDMA 6.3 IEEE 802.11 wireless LANs (“Wi-Fi”) 6.4 Cellular Internet Access § architecture § standards (e.g., GSM) Mobility 6.5 Principles: addressing and routing to mobile users 6.6 Mobile IP 6.7 Handling mobility in cellular networks 6.8 Mobility and higher-layer protocols 6.9 Summary Wireless, Mobile Networks 6-42 What is mobility? v spectrum of mobility, from the network perspective: no mobility mobile wireless user, using same access point high mobility mobile user, connecting/ disconnecting from network using DHCP. mobile user, passing through multiple access point while maintaining ongoing connections (like cell phone) Wireless, Mobile Networks 6-43 Mobility: vocabulary home network: permanent “home” of mobile (e.g., 128.119.40/24) home agent: entity that will perform mobility functions on behalf of mobile, when mobile is remote wide area network permanent address: address in home network, can always be used to reach mobile e.g., 128.119.40.186 Wireless, Mobile Networks 6-44 Mobility: more vocabulary permanent address: remains constant (e.g., 128.119.40.186) visited network: network in which mobile currently resides (e.g., 79.129.13/24) care-of-address: address in visited network. (e.g., 79,129.13.2) wide area network correspondent: wants to communicate with mobile foreign agent: entity in visited network that performs mobility functions on behalf of mobile. Wireless, Mobile Networks 6-45 How do you contact a mobile friend: Consider friend frequently changing addresses, how do you find her? v v v I wonder where Alice moved to? search all phone books? call her parents? expect her to let you know where he/she is? Wireless, Mobile Networks 6-46 Mobility: approaches v v let routing handle it: routers advertise permanent address of mobile-nodes-in-residence via usual routing table exchange. § routing tables indicate where each mobile located § no changes to end-systems let end-systems handle it: § indirect routing: communication from correspondent to mobile goes through home agent, then forwarded to remote § direct routing: correspondent gets foreign address of mobile, sends directly to mobile Wireless, Mobile Networks 6-47 Mobility: approaches v v let routing handle it: routers advertise permanent address of not via usual routing table exchange. mobile-nodes-in-residence scalable § routing tables indicate where each mobile located to millions of § no changes to end-systems mobiles let end-systems handle it: § indirect routing: communication from correspondent to mobile goes through home agent, then forwarded to remote § direct routing: correspondent gets foreign address of mobile, sends directly to mobile Wireless, Mobile Networks 6-48 Mobility: registration visited network home network 2 area wide network foreign agent contacts home agent home: “this mobile is resident in my network” 1 mobile contacts foreign agent on entering visited network end result: v foreign agent knows about mobile v home agent knows location of mobile Wireless, Mobile Networks 6- …
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