Choose any topic
Find a topic ,have an abstract ,Introduction,Background,ProblemStatement, High Morbidity, Biological and Health OutcomesChoose any topic
Find a topic
Biological and Health Outcomes
Consequences of Teenage Pregnancy
ABSTRACT. This paper examines the negative consequences of teenage pregnancy. It consists of a review of the evidence of a nonrandom sample of the literature addressing this issue. The research evidence reviewed indicates that teenage pregnancy results in significant negative consequences, including biological, psychological, health, economic and social ones.
Because of its high prevalence (CDC, 2011), teenage pregnancy is recognized as a public-health issue and as a social problem worldwide. According to World Health Organization (2012), around 16 million teenagers give birth every year. In the United States, according to the Guttmacher Institute’s statistics, about 448,000 women aged 15–19 became pregnant in 2013, for a national rate of 43 per 1,000 15-19 aged women. This rate, however, is not the same for various ethnic groups. The pregnancy rate among African American women aged 15–19 was the highest (76 per 1,000 women), followed by the rate of Hispanic women of the same age group (61 per 1,000), and then the rate among the 15-19 non-Hispanic white women (30 per 1,000). According to recent data of the Centers for Disease Control (2017), about 194,377 babies were born to women aged 15–19 years in 2017, with a birth rate of 18.8 per 1,000 women in this age group. https://www.cdc.gov/teenpregnancy/about/index.htm
Teenage pregnancy is not free from significant problems for the teen involved, her baby and family and society at large. This paper examines the various major consequences of teenage pregnancy, particularly the negative ones involving serious implications. The paper consists of a brief review of a small nonrandom sample of the relevant literature focusing on this issue.
Consequences of Teenage Pregnancy
According to the evidence of the research findings reviewed, teenage pregnancy could result in negative outcomes impacting the teen involved, her baby and family, and society at large. The consequences includes high morbidity and various adverse biological and health, psychological, and social and economic outcomes.
Teenage pregnancy is associated with significant morbidity (Chen, Wen, Fleming, Demissie, and Rhoads, 2007). Adolescent mothers are reported to have a higher overall mortality rate later in life even after controlling for socioeconomic status (Olausson, Haglund, Weitoft, and Cnattingius, 2004). Other researchers reported that the proportion of stillbirths and newborn deaths are much higher for teenage mothers, as compared to that of women aged 20-29 years; it’s 50% higher among infants of young mothers in this age group. These authors also reported that infants of adolescent mothers are more likely to have low birth-weight babies, as compared to older women (Chotigeat and Sawasdiworn, 2011).
Biological and Health Outcomes
Johnson(2018) reported that without other irregular challenges, adolescence is a very complex transitional stage associated with occurring biological, psychological, and sociological changes. Pregnancyadds another challenge or complication to the physical and mental development of the adolescent. Problems, such as pre-term births, stillbirth, and neonatal death, are common in pregnant adolescents. Babies born to teenage mothers have a higher likelihood for adverse infant outcomes, including low birth weight (Kurth et al. 2010) premature birth (Gilbert, Jandial, Field, Bigelow, Danielsen, 2004), and infant death (Markovitz, Cook, Flick, and Leet, 2005).
According to the data reported on the American Pregnancy Association website, the following risks are associated with teenage pregnancy: low birth weight/premature birth, anemia (low iron levels), high blood pressure or pregnancy induced hypertension, a higher rate of infant mortality (death), and greater risk of cephalopelvic disproportion(the baby’s head is wider than the pelvic opening. https://americanpregnancy.org/unplanned-pregnancy/teen-pregnancy-issues-challenges/(retrieved on 6/10/2019)
In comparing the data obtained from a nonrandom group of 128 teenagemothers with the findings reported by other relevant maternity-services studies, Goldberg and Craig (1983) found that that in the teenagegroup hypertension, premature labor and anemia were significant complications, as compared with the statistics of older women.
Teenage pregnancy is a stressful event that could increase the risk of mental and emotional problems or disorders (Freitas, Cais, Stefanelto, Botega, 2008; Mitsuhiro et al., 2009). Published research has documented that Major Depressive Disorder is common among pregnant teenagers but it’s often under-detected (Chalem et al., 2011). Its prevalence rates in the teenager in this population ranges from 13 percent to 30 percent, depending on the sample characteristics and the instrument used to assess depressive symptoms, as well as the threshold for case identification (Ferri et al., 2007; Freitas, Cais, Stefanelto, Botega, 2008; and Pereira, Lovisi, Lima, and Legay, 2010).
Some research has shown that the risk factors for depression during teenage pregnancy are associated with certain socio-demographic characteristics, such as lower education (Ferri et al., 2007); lower socioeconomic status (Leigh and Milgrom, 2008); and the absence of a supportive partner (Figueiredo and Pacheco, 2007). Other researchers have documented the impact of psychosocial conditions, such as previous depressive episodes (Lancaster et al., 2010); stressful life events (Leigh and Milgrom, 2008); and intimate violence (Lindhorst and Oxford, 2008; Valentine and Rodriguez, 2011).
Further, research has also documented that the adverse consequences of pregnant-adolescent depression include threats to the teenage mothers’ welfare and even life, such as suicidal behavior (Freitas, Cais, Stefanelto, Botega, 2008); harmful outcomes to the baby, such as low birth weight (Ferri et al., 2007); preterm birth (Grote et al., 2010); and detrimental impact on the mother-child functional interactions (Panzarine, Slater, and Sharps, 1995). Therefore, addressing the possible risk factors associated with depression during a teenager’s pregnancy could be necessary for preventing the negative outcomes of depression (Panzarine, Slater, and Sharps, 2009).
Social and EconomicConsequences
Teenage pregnancy and associated childbearing result in substantial educational, social and economic problems and costs, including immediate and long-term impacts on teen parents, their children, their families, and society at large. Based on the evidence of published research, teenage pregnancy is correlated with academic failure, unemployment, and socioeconomic deprivation (Allen and Philliber, 1997).
According to Perper, Peterson, and Manlove (2010), teenage pregnancy and resulting births contribute significantly to high school dropout rates among high school teens. Further, another indirect consequence is that only about 50% of teen mothers receive a high school diploma by age 22. In addition, approximately about 90 percent of teenagers who do not give birth during their adolescent years graduate from high school. This percentage is much lower for teenagers who become pregnant and give birth.
Similarly, Hoffman (2008) reported that the children of teenage mothers are more likely:
To have lower school achievement;
To drop out of high school;
To have more health problems;
To be incarcerated at some time during adolescence;
To give birth as a teenager; and
To face unemployment as a young adult.
Assini-Meytin, Luciana, and Green (2015) reportedthat at age 32, as compared to non-teen mothers, teenagemothers were more likely to be unemployed, live in poverty, depend on welfare, and have earned a GED or completed high school compared to finishing college. At age 42, the effect of teen motherhood remained statistically significant for education and income. In a similar vein, at the age of 32, teen fathers were more likely to be without a job than non-teen fathers.
Discussion and Conclusion
The evidence reviewed indicate clearly that teenage pregnancy results in detrimental, psychological, health, economic and social consequences for the pregnant teen, her family, and the entire society. Besides the health and mental problems, teenagechildbearing results in reducing the educational attainment of the mother and her future income and thus exacerbating the problem of poverty and dependency on welfare, and increasing family instability and the likelihood of struggling with mental-illness challenges.
Addressing teenage pregnancy is a very complex task and requires another study by itself. It’s sufficient here to say that for such a task to be effective, it must be comprehensive and consist of individual and societal approaches. At the individual level, there are roles for the teen family members, friends and school counselors. At the societal level, several institutions could play significant roles as well and fulfill necessary social functions. These institutions include the church, school systems, social organizations, and political administrations.
- ALLEN, JOSEPH P.; PHILLIBER, SUSAN. (1997). PREVENTING TEEN PREGNANCYAND ACADEMICFAILURE: EXPERIMENTAL EVALUATION OF A DEVELOPMENTALLY… CHILD DEVELOPMENT. AUG1997, VOL. 68 ISSUE 4, P729.
- Assini-Meytin, Luciana C.and Green, Kerry M.(2-15) Long-TermConsequencesof Adolescent Parenthood Among African-American Urban Youth: A Propensity Score Matching Approach. Journal of Adolescent Health,May 2015 56(5):529-535.
- Bradley T, Cupples ME, Irvine H. A case control study of a deprivation triagle: teenage motherhood, poor educational achievement and unemployment. Int J Adolesc Med Health.
- Bunevicius R, Kusminskas L, Bunevicius A, Nadisauskiene RJ, Jureniene K, Pop VJ. Psychosocial risk factors for depression during pregnancy. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand.
Center for Diseases Control and Prevention (CDC). Vital signs: teen pregnancy – United States, 1991-2009. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2011;60(13):414-20.
Chalem E, Mitsuhiro SS, Manzolli P, Barros MC, Guinsburg R, Sass N, et al. Underdetection of psychiatric disorders during prenatal care: a survey of adolescents in Sao Paulo, Brazil.
J Adolesc Health. 2011;50(1):93-6.
Chen XK, Wen SW, Fleming N, Demissie K, Rhoads GG, Walker M. Teenage pregnancy and adverse birth outcomes: a large population based retrospective cohort study. Int J Epidemiol.
Chotigeat U, Sawasdiworn S. (2011). Comparison outcomes of sick babies born to teenage mothers with those born to adult mothers. J Med Assoc Thai. 2011 Aug: 94 Suppl 3; 27-34.PMID 22043751
Ferri CP, Mitsuhiro SS, Barros MCM, Chalem E,2 Guinsburg R,3 Patel V, et al. The impact of maternal experience of violence and common mental disorders on neonatal outcomes: a survey
of adolescent mothers in Sao Paulo, Brazil. BMC Public Health. 2007;7:209.
Figueiredo B, Pacheco A, Costa R. Depression during pregnancy and the postpartum period in adolescent and adult Portuguese mothers. Arch Womens Ment Health. 2007;10(13):103-9.
Forman DN, Videbech P, Hedegaard M, Salvig JD, Sécher NJ. Postpartum depression: identification of women at risk. BJOG. 2000;107(10):1210-7.
Freitas GVS, Cais CFS, Stefanelto S, Botega NJ. Psychosocial conditions and suicidal behavior in pregnant teenagers: a case-control study in Brazil. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2008:17:336-42.
Gilbert W, Jandial D, Field N, Bigelow P, Danielsen B. Birth outcomes in teenage pregnancies. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2004; 16:265-70.
Goldberg, G.L. & Craig, C.J.T. (1983). Obstetric complications in adolescent pregnancies. South African Medical Journal, 64, 863-864.
Grote NK, Bridge JA, Gavin AR, Melville JL, lyengar S, Katon WJ. A meta-analysis of depression during pregnancy and the risk of preterm birth, low birth weight, and intrauterine growth restriction. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2010;67(10):1012-24.
Harden A, Brunton G, Fletcher A, Oakley A. Teenage pregnancy and social disadvantage: systematic review integrating controlled trials and qualitative studies. BMJ. 2009;339:b4254.
Hodgkinson SC, Colantuoni E, Roberts D, Berg-Cross L, Belcher HM. Depressive symptoms and birth outcomes among pregnant teenagers. J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol. 2010;23(1):16-22.
Hoffman, S. D. (2008). Kids Having Kids: Economic Costs and Social Consequences of Teen Pregnancy. Washington, DC: The Urban Institute Press; 2008.
Johnson, Brelinda(2018). “Adverse Outcomes in Adolescent Pregnancy.” International Journal of Childbirth Education. Oct2018, Vol. 33 Issue 4, p36-38. 3p.
Kurth F, Bélard S, Mombo-Ngoma G, Schuster K, Adegnika AA, Bouyou-Akotet MK, et al. Adolescence as risk factor for adversepregnancy outcome in Central Africa – a cross-sectional study. PLoS One. 2010;5(12):e14367.
Lancaster CA, Gold KJ, Flynn HA, Yoo H, Marcus SM, Davis MM. Risk factors for depressive symptoms during pregnancy: a systematic review. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2010;202(1):5-14.
Leigh B, Milgrom J. Risk factors for antenatal depression, postnatal depression and parenting stress. BMC Psychiatry. 2008;8:24.
Lindhorst T, Oxford M. The long term effects of intimate partner violence on adolescent mothers’ depressive symptoms. Sco Sei Med. 2008;66(6): 1322-33.
Markovitz BP, Cook R, Flick LH, Leet TL. Socioeconomic factors and adolescent pregnancy outcomes: distinctions between neonatal and post-neonatal deaths? BMC Public Health.
Mitsuhiro SS, Chalem E, Barros MM, Guinsburg R, Laranjeira R. Teenage pregnancy: use of drugs in the third trimester and prevalence of psychiatric disorders. Rev Bras Psiquiatr.
Mitsuhiro SS, Chalem E, Moraes Barros MC, Guinsburg R, Laranjeira R. Prevalence of psychiatric disorders in pregnant teenagers. J Adolesc. 2009; 32(3):747-52.
Olausson PO, Haglund B, Weitoft GR, Cnattingius S. Premature death among teenage mothers. BJOG. 2004;111:793-9.
Olausson PO, Haglund B, Weitoft GR, Cnattingius S. Teenage childbearing and long-term socio-economic consequences: a case study in Sweden. Fam Plann Perspect. 2001;33:70-4.
Panzarine S, Slater E, Sharps P. Coping, social support, and depressive symptoms in adolescent mothers. J Adolesc Health. 1995;17:113-9.
Pereira PK, Lovisi GM, Lima LA, Legay LF. Obstetric complications, stressful life events, violence and depression during pregnancy in adolescents at primary care setting. Rev Psiq Clin.
Perper K, Peterson K, Manlove J. (2010). Diploma Attainment Among Teen Mothers. Child Trends, Fact Sheet Publication #2010-01: Washington, DC: Child Trends; 2010.
Valentine JM, Rodriguez MA. Recent intimate partner violence as a prenatal predictor of maternal depression in the first year postpartum among Latinas. Arch Womens Ment Health.
World Health Organization. (2012). Preventing early pregnancy and poor reproductive outcomes among adolescents in developing countries: A call to action. Retrieved from: http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/70814/1/W…
All tutors provide: high quality help, quick responsive communication, original explanations and answers with any outside resources cited.
op 10 Trending Research Topics to Write About
Writing a research paper is a common requirement for any student in high school, college, and university.
This can come as a challenge to students who need to present different ideas in a manner that is concise, well written and succinct.
The writing process can be daunting and intimidating for a lot of students, and choosing research paper topics can be even more frustrating.
There is a range of topics in each field of learning to write about, whether their value is academic, social, or practical for the reader.
Here, we have selected some hot topics to write about in different fields.
Sometimes, it might be a challenge to get your project off the ground, so you might want to find an experienced research paper writer to assist you.
Online writing services can help you with papers and also with dissertation, thesis, essays and all other writing work.
Top 10 trending research topics to write about when you are finding it difficult to find a topic to research and write about.
1. Energy Sources
In this paper, you would explore the history of alternative energy supplies and you can explore alternative energy sources for new developments.
The core question could center around sufficient energy options to manage the needs of the world’s population. An energy source is a debate that is ongoing, particularly in developing nations which could make for interesting case studies.
Ad by Valueimpression
2. Waste Disposal
Given overpopulation issues with the world exceeding 6 billion people, waste disposal is becoming a major concern. There is also the question of global warming, and how the improper disposal of waste may contribute to the hole in the ozone layer.
There are many avenues to explore in a topic of this nature, e.g., innovative disposal methods, the disposal methods of computers and cellphones, disposal technologies, etc.
3. Imposed Democracy
Democracy is an ideal held high by many nations and the United States is behind pioneering the concept after World II.
In fact, the US is mainly behind influencing other countries in the world to adopt democracy. You could work on a paper interrogating the role the US has played in other nations and how it has imposed democracy in other nations.
4. Political Environment in the Middle East
The Middle East has had a long history of conflict and is at the center of many debates as world leaders look for solutions.
Your paper might come up with much-needed innovation to bring peace to the area. For instance, you could examine the history of nations in the region and their interaction, noting possible avenues for peace.
5. Religion and Globalization
Religion is always a tricky topic, but if approached right – it can spark an interesting debate because the world is interconnected. Technology creates a smaller world and has had a major influence on the practice and spread of religion.
Whether it be television evangelists or live-streaming the pilgrimage to Mecca, technology has changed religious practice in many ways.
It could be anything – from Lava Beds National Monument to the pyramids in Giza. The idea is to evoke interest in the readers and keep them hooked till the end.
6. UN Policies on the Environment and their Impact
This topic could analyze how policies impact on the health of the environment in constructive and nonconstructive ways. In this paper, the idea would be to take a close look at these policies and addressing how they impact human behavior.
In addition, you could speak on the positive impact of these policies and how they address global environmental issues.
7. The Influence of Marketing and Media on Teens
The media is a tool that heavily influences thoughts and behavior patterns, and it influences a lot of our choices. People make certain choices based on what is being sold to them through media.
In this paper, you could investigate ho marketing increases media consumption among young people and how it is constructed.
8. Bar Code Implants
This may sound like a sci-fi movie, and it seems impossible, but these have been implemented in a few people and sparked debate.
This is a controversial topic and you can take on both sides of the issue and you can describe how the technology involved affects people.
9. Cancer Drug Studies
In the pharmacological environment, cancer drug studies are just one type of topic that can go in many ways. Researchers can study the role and impact of various drugs on cancer cells.
Some topics can explore treatments and therapies available. The topic is also interesting in learning how patients deal with cancer and manage the effects.
10. Drug Delivery
Another topic for pharmacy research, you could explore the design of drug delivery systems, including liposomes and liquid crystals.
Research studies indicate that the immediate environment of the lung may be at risk of certain treatments. This research paper could analyze the epithelial cell culture for the study by studying humans as well as animals.
Writing your paper also entails making sure that the formatting is correct depending on the citation style (MLA, APA, or Chicago). It is also important to follow instructions set out by your teacher or professor, accordingly.
Avoid plagiarism by ensuring that you acknowledge using other people’s ideas through the use of quotations, paraphrasing, and summaries.