Behavior in Organizations Global

Behavior in Organizations Global Edition

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Jerald Greenberg

E D I T I O N 10

Behavior in Organizations

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Global Edition

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Authorised adaptation from the United States edition, entitled Behavior in Organizations, 10th Edition, ISBN 978-0-13-609019-9 by Jerald Greenberg, published by Pearson Education, publishing as Prentice Hall © 2011.

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Brief Contents

Preface 23

PART 1 Introduction to Organizational Behavior 31 Chapter 1 The Field of Organizational Behavior 31 Chapter 2 Organizational Justice, Ethics, and Corporate Social

Responsibility 65

PART 2 Basic Human Processes 101 Chapter 3 Perception and Learning: Understanding and Adapting

to the Work Environment 101 Chapter 4 Individual Differences: Personality, Skills, and Abilities 139 Chapter 5 Coping with Organizational Life: Emotions and Stress 173

PART 3 The Individual in the Organization 206 Chapter 6 Work-Related Attitudes: Prejudice, Job Satisfaction,

and Organizational Commitment 206 Chapter 7 Motivation in Organizations 242

PART 4 Group Dynamics 279 Chapter 8 Group Dynamics and Work Teams 279 Chapter 9 Communication in Organizations 320

Chapter 10 Decision Making in Organizations 362 Chapter 11 Interpersonal Behavior at Work: Conflict, Cooperation, Trust,

and Deviance 404

PART 5 Influencing Others 443 Chapter 12 Power: Its Uses and Abuses in Organizations 443 Chapter 13 Leadership in Organizations 475

PART 6 Organizational Processes 509 Chapter 14 Organizational Culture, Creativity, and Innovation 509 Chapter 15 Organizational Structure and Design 546 Chapter 16 Managing Organizational Change: Strategic Planning and

Organizational Development 582

APPENDIXES Appendix 1 Learning About Behavior in Organizations:

Theory and Research 618 Appendix 2 Understanding and Managing Your Career 629

Endnotes 643 Glossary 685 Company Index 704 Name Index 707 Subject Index 710

7

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Contents

Preface 23

PART 1 Introduction to Organizational Behavior 31

Chapter 1 The Field of Organizational Behavior 31 � PREVIEW CASE The Talented Chief of Taleo 32

Organizational Behavior: Its Basic Nature 33 What Is the Field of Organizational Behavior All About? 33 Why Is It Important to Know About OB? 36

What Are the Field’s Fundamental Assumptions? 37 OB Recognizes the Dynamic Nature of Organizations 37 OB Assumes There Is No “One Best” Approach 38

OB Then and Now: A Capsule History 39 The Early Days: Scientific Management and the Hawthorne Studies 39 Classical Organizational Theory 40 Late Twentieth Century: Organizational Behavior as a Social Science 41 OB in Today’s Infotech Age 42

OB Responds to the Rise of Globalization and Diversity 43 International Business and the Global Economy 43 The Shifting Demographics of the Workforce: Trends Toward Diversity 46

OB Responds to Advances in Technology 49 Leaner Organizations: Downsizing and Outsourcing 50 The Virtual Organization 51 Telecommuting: Going to Work Without Leaving Home 51

OB Is Responsive to People’s Changing Expectations 53 Employees and Employers Desire Engagement 53 In Search of Flexibility: Responding to Needs of Employees 54

Summary and Review of Learning Objectives 60 • Points to Ponder 61 • Experiencing OB 61 • Practicing OB 64

� CASE IN POINT Floyd’s Barbershop: A Cut Above the Rest 64

Special Sections � TODAY’S DIVERSE AND GLOBAL ORGANIZATIONS What’s in a Name?

It Depends Where You Live 46 � OB IN PRACTICE Telecommuting as a Business Continuity

Strategy 53 � THE ETHICS ANGLE Are I-Deals Unfair? 59

Chapter 2 Organizational Justice, Ethics, and Corporate Social Responsibility 65

� PREVIEW CASE A Huge Day’s Pay for a Seriously Bad Day’s Work 66 Organizational Justice: Fairness Matters 67 Two Important Points to Keep in Mind 67 Forms of Organizational Justice and Their Effects 68 A Neurological Basis for Responses to Injustice 71

Strategies for Promoting Organizational Justice 72 Pay Workers What They Deserve 72 Offer Workers a Voice 73 Explain Decisions Thoroughly and in a Manner Demonstrating Dignity and Respect 74 Train Workers to Be Fair 74

9

Ethical Behavior in Organizations: Its Fundamental Nature 77 What Do We Mean by Ethics? 78 Ethics and the Law 80

Why Do Some People Behave Unethically, at Least Sometimes—and What Can Be Done About It? 81

Individual Differences in Cognitive Moral Development 82 Situational Determinants of Unethical Behavior 83

Using Corporate Ethics Programs to Promote Ethical Behavior 86 Components of Corporate Ethics Programs 86 The Effectiveness of Corporate Ethics Programs 88

Ethics in the International Arena 88 Ethical Relativism and Ethical Imperialism: Two Extreme Positions 88 Three Guiding Principles of Global Ethics 89

Beyond Ethics: Corporate Social Responsibility 90 What Is Corporate Social Responsibility? 91 Forms of Socially Responsible Behavior 92 Profitability and Social Responsibility: The Virtuous Circle 93

Summary and Review of Learning Objectives 95 • Points to Ponder 96 • Experiencing OB 97 • Practicing OB 99

� CASE IN POINT HP = Hidden Pretexting? What Did in Dunn? 99

Special Sections � THE ETHICS ANGLE Making A Business Case for Ethical Behavior 79 � OB IN PRACTICE Using Ethics Audits to Monitor the Triple Bottom Line 87 � TODAY’S DIVERSE AND GLOBAL ORGANIZATIONS Nike Turns the Tables on

Critics of Employee Conditions 94 � VIDEO CASES Global Business at KPMG 100

Social Responsibility at Terra Cycle 100 Work/Life Balance 100

PART 2 Basic Human Processes 101

Chapter 3 Perception and Learning: Understanding and Adapting to the Work Environment 101

� PREVIEW CASE In Tune for Success 102

Social Perception and Social Identity: Understanding Others and Ourselves 103

Social Perception: What Are Others Like? 103 Social Identity: Who Am I? 103

The Attribution Process: Judging the Causes of Others’ Behavior 105 Making Correspondent Inferences: Using Acts to Judge Dispositions 106 Causal Attribution of Responsibility: Answering the Question “Why?” 107

Perceptual Biases: Systematic Errors in Perceiving Others 108 The Fundamental Attribution Error 109 The Halo Effect: Keeping Perceptions Consistent 109 The Similar-to-Me Effect: “If You’re Like Me, You Must Be Pretty Good” 110 Selective Perception: Focusing on Some Things While Ignoring Others 111 First-Impression Error: Confirming One’s Expectations 111 Self-Fulfilling Prophecies: The Pygmalion Effect and the Golem Effect 111

Stereotyping: Fitting People into Categories 114 Why Do We Rely on Stereotypes? 114 The Dangers of Using Stereotypes in Organizations 114

Perceiving Others: Organizational Applications 116 Employment Interviews: Managing Impressions to Prospective Employers 116 Performance Appraisal: Formal Judgments About Job Performance 119

10 CONTENTS

Learning: Adapting to the World Around Us 120 Operant Conditioning: Learning Through Rewards and Punishments 121 Observational Learning: Learning by Imitating Others 123

Training: Learning and Developing Job Skills 124 Varieties of Training Methods 124 Principles of Learning: Keys to Effective Training 127

Organizational Practices Using Reward and Punishment 130 Organizational Behavior Management 130 Discipline: Eliminating Undesirable Organizational Behaviors 131

Summary and Review of Learning Objectives 133 • Points to Ponder 135 • Experiencing OB 135 • Practicing OB 137

� CASE IN POINT Smiling Might Not Be Such a Safe Way to Treat Safeway Customers 138

Special Sections � OB IN PRACTICE A Creative Approach to Avoiding Stereotyping 117 � TODAY’S DIVERSE AND GLOBAL ORGANIZATIONS Performance Evaluations

in the United States and Japan 120 � THE ETHICS ANGLE Principles for Using Discipline Fairly—and

Effectively, Too 132

Chapter 4 Individual Differences: Personality, Skills, and Abilities 139 � PREVIEW CASE Kenneth Chenault: An American Success

at American Express 140

Personality: Its Basic Nature 141 What Is Personality? 141 Personality and Situations: The Interactionist Approach 142 How Is Personality Measured? 144 Do Organizations Have Personalities Too? 147

Major Work-Related Aspects of Personality: The “Big Five,” Positive Versus Negative Affectivity, and Core Self-Evaluations 148

The Big Five Dimensions of Personality: Our Most Fundamental Traits 148 Positive and Negative Affectivity: Tendencies Toward Feeling Good or Bad 151 Core Self-Evaluations: How Do We Think of Ourselves? 152

Additional Work-Related Aspects of Personality 154 Machiavellianism: Using Others to Get Ahead 154 Achievement Motivation: The Quest for Excellence 155 Morning Persons and Evening Persons 158

Abilities and Skills: Having What It Takes to Succeed 160 Intelligence: Three Major Types 160 Physical Abilities: Capacity to Do the Job 164 Social Skills: Interacting Effectively with Others 165

Summary and Review of Learning Objectives 167 • Points to Ponder 168 • Experiencing OB 168 • Practicing OB 171

� CASE IN POINT Howard Schultz: The Personality Behind Starbucks 171

Special Sections � OB IN PRACTICE Boosting Employees’ Self-Efficacy 153 � TODAY’S DIVERSE AND GLOBAL ORGANIZATIONS Achievement Motivation

and Economic Growth Around the World 159 � THE ETHICS ANGLE Are IQ Tests Inherently Unethical? 152

Chapter 5 Coping with Organizational Life: Emotions and Stress 173 � PREVIEW CASE How to Beat Call-Center Stress 174

Understanding Emotions and Mood 175 Properties of Emotions 175 Types of Emotions 175 The Basic Nature of Mood 177

CONTENTS 11

The Role of Emotions and Mood in Organizations 179 Are Happier People More Successful on Their Jobs? 179 Why Are Happier Workers More Successful? 179 Affective Events Theory 181

Managing Emotions in Organizations 183 Emotional Dissonance 183 Controlling Anger (Before It Controls You) 184

The Basic Nature of Stress 185 Stressors in Organizations 186 The Cognitive Appraisal Process 187 Bodily Responses to Stressors 188

Major Causes of Stress in the Workplace 190 Occupational Demands 190 Conflict Between Work and Nonwork 190 Sexual Harassment: A Pervasive Problem in Work Settings 191 Role Ambiguity: Stress from Uncertainty 192 Overload and Underload 193 Responsibility for Others: A Heavy Burden 193 Lack of Social Support: The Costs of Isolation 193

Adverse Effects of Organizational Stress 194 Lowered Task Performance—But Only Sometimes 194 Desk Rage 195 Stress and Health: The Silent Killer 195

Reducing Stress: What Can Be Done? 197 Employee Assistance Programs and Stress Management Programs 197 Wellness Programs 197 Managing Your Own Stress 198

Summary and Review of Learning Objectives 200 • Points to Ponder 201 • Experiencing OB 202 • Practicing OB 203

� CASE IN POINT A Basketball Court Judge Faces a Federal Court Judge 203

Special Sections � OB IN PRACTICE Managing Anger in the Workplace 185 � TODAY’S DIVERSE AND GLOBAL ORGANIZATIONS Do Women and

Men Respond Differently to Stress? 196 � THE ETHICS ANGLE Companies and Employee Health: An Invitation

for Big Brother? 199 � VIDEO CASES Training and Development 204

Managing Stress 204

PART 3 The Individual in the Organization 206

Chapter 6 Work-Related Attitudes: Prejudice, Job Satisfaction, and Organizational Commitment 206

� PREVIEW CASE A Second Chance 207

Attitudes: What are They? 207 Basic Definitions 208 Three Essential Components of Attitudes 208

Prejudice and Discrimination: Negative Attitudes and Behavior Toward Others 209

The Challenges of Organizational Demography 209 Anatomy of Prejudice: Some Basic Distinctions 210 Everyone Can Be a Victim of Prejudice and Discrimination! 211

12 CONTENTS

Strategies for Overcoming Workplace Prejudice: Managing a Diverse Workforce 215

Affirmative Action 215 Diversity Management: Orientation and Rationale 216 Diversity Management: What are Companies Doing? 217

Job Satisfaction: Its Nature and Major Theories 220 The Nature of Job Satisfaction: Fundamental Issues 220 The Dispositional Model of Job Satisfaction 222 Value Theory of Job Satisfaction 223 Social Information Processing Model 223

Consequences of Job Dissatisfaction—and Ways to Reduce Them 224 Employee Withdrawal: Voluntary Turnover and Absenteeism 224 Job Performance: Are Dissatisfied Employees Poor Performers? 228 Job Satisfaction and Injuries: Are Happy Workers Safe Workers? 229 Job Satisfaction and Life Satisfaction 230

Organizational Commitment: Attitudes Toward Companies 231 Varieties of Organizational Commitment 232 Why Strive for an Affectively Committed Workforce? 233 How to Promote Affective Commitment 236

Summary and Review of Learning Objectives 237 • Points to Ponder 238 • Experiencing OB 238 • Practicing OB 240

� CASE IN POINT Domino’s Pizza Takes a Bite Out of Turnover 240

Special Sections � OB IN PRACTICE How the “Good Hands People” Use Diversity

as a Competitive Weapon 220 � THE ETHICS ANGLE Promoting Job Satisfaction by Treating People

Ethically 231 � TODAY’S DIVERSE AND GLOBAL ORGANIZATIONS Does Absenteeism Mean

the Same Thing in Canada and China? 235

Chapter 7 Motivation in Organizations 242 � PREVIEW CASE PAC Engineering: Employee Motivation, Different Priorities

for Different Territories 243

Motivation in Organizations: Its Basic Nature 244 Components of Motivation 244 Three Key Points About Motivation 245

Motivating by Enhancing Fit with an Organization 246 Motivational Traits and Skills 247 Organizational Factors: Enhancing Motivational Fit 247

Motivating by Setting Goals 248 Goal-Setting Theory 248 Guidelines for Setting Effective Performance Goals 250

Motivating by Being Equitable 254 Equity Theory: Balancing Outcomes and Inputs 254 Managerial Implications of Equity Theory 258

Motivating by Altering Expectations 260 Basic Elements of Expectancy Theory 260 Putting Expectancy Theory to Work: Key Managerial Implications 263

Motivating by Structuring Jobs to Make Them Interesting 266 Job Enlargement and Job Enrichment 266 The Job Characteristics Model 268 Designing Jobs That Motivate: Managerial Guidelines 270

Summary and Review of Learning Objectives 273 • Points to Ponder 274 • Experiencing OB 274 • Practicing OB 276

� CASE IN POINT Google: Searching for a Better Way to Work 276

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