Arizona State University Chap

I’m working on a law discussion question and need support to help me understand better.

Please respond to these student discussion boards, each response should be 150+ words followed by 2 references.

1- After reading chapter 13 in the textbook, I have learnt that there are many different factors that goes or play a role into an individual’s resistance to change such as security, habit, fear of the unknown (adjustment), loss of power/ status, and the possibility of having to compromise their own values/ ideals. In my opinion, the fear of the unknown (adjustment) is the most important factor when it comes to why people are resistant to change. Resistance to change is a natural human instinct this is because most people like to have some kind of balance within their lives rather it’s at work or personal. Change means having to adjust to the unknown but being willing to cope with the new situation. According to Michel et al. (2013), the level of resistance towards a specific change event will be influenced by other factors, noticeably the organizational context and the way the change is managed. Organizations understand that change is necessary for the business to be successful in a world that is always changing. One can not stay stuck in one method with no well to explore other options and believe that their organization will continue to thrive. However, it does take certain elements from upper management in order to make the change a smooth transition. Everyone will not be happy but most people will adjust if the change is presented in a positive way.

It is rare that people take change easily. However, a successful organizational leader can overcome some of the individual resistance towards change by positive communication, being open-minded, and be supportive. Positive communication is key for a leader trying to implement change because people want to be heard. Giving people a chance to voice their opinions can help minimize some of the frustration they feel over the change. Which, can make them more comfortable with the change; allowing them to feel more at ease with following the new change instruction. According to Hon et al. (2011), the negative relationship between resistance to change and creativity, and the pattern of results indicates that managing human resources practices may mitigate the detrimental effects of resistance to change on creativity. When a person is comfortable within a job; they are more likely to go the extra mile to make sure they perform to the top standards for the organization. Having positive management is a major plus in the effectiveness of change towards positive resistance.


Hon, A. H. Y., Bloom, M., & Crant, J. M. (2014). Overcoming Resistance to Change and Enhancing Creative Performance. Journal of Management, 40(3), 919–941.

Michel, A., Todnem By, R., & Burns, B. (2013). The limitations of dispositional resistance in relation to organizational change. Management Decision, 51(4), 761-780.

2- Change is always difficult to deal with and many members may show resistance to it. Police officers resist change when they fear that its costs outweigh its benefits to them. This resistance takes many forms and ranges from simply ignoring some-thing to open rebellion. Managers should not simply assume that individual resistance to change is the result of stupidity, sloth, arrogance, or ignorance but some ideas can be bad, and members may be too invested into programs. Some of the factors are habit, security, fear of the unknown, loss of status and power, and threats to values and ideals. These are factors of individual resistance because the change that may be implemented may affect these factors and members will resist that change to not have their habits or status messed up. According to Golden-Biddle (2020), government officials or leaders may become too personally invested in the new programs or initiatives to rationally judge their potential for success.

As goals, relationships, and people change, the need for modification of organizational structure and function increases. According to Kern & Zapf (2021), managing change through shared responsibilities is a comprehensive approach that combines the best aspects of both top-down and bottom-up processes. A leader can overcome some of these factors of individual resistance by having a constant line of communication. Leaders will have to present relevant information and valid reasons for why change is necessary. Leaders that install good work ethic and trust will have an easier time reducing resistance because both parties are focused on the greater good for the department. A leader should always provide support systems through this change to help overcome resistance. Creating a family type of atmosphere as a leader helps overcome resistance as the members of a department will believe you have the best intentions at heart. Good managers reduce resistance to change by incorporating subordinates into the problem-solving process whenever it is feasible.


Golden-Biddle, K. (2020). Discovery as an Abductive Mechanism for Reorienting Habits within Organizational Change. Academy of Management Journal, 63(6), 1951–1975.

Kern, M., & Zapf, D. (2021). Ready for change? A longitudinal examination of challenge stressors in the context of organizational change. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 26(3), 204–223.…

3-The factors of individual resistance to change occur, because the members of the organization feel that the cost of the change outweighs the benefit. They identify various factors that affect the resistance to change.

· Misunderstanding and lack of confidence n the changes. This is when the individual does not have trust or confidence in the individual introducing or making the change in the organization. This is the most overlooked cause of failure with the implementation of change.

· Emotional responses to the change. This is hard in most organizational change and individual resistance. Most individuals will have emotion reaction the implemented change, by leadership. Individuals will respond emotionally to any change to their routine. This has to be addressed or it will lead to more resistance.

· Fear of possible failure. This is when individuals will not support the change, because of their fear of failure in completing the task at hand.

· Lack of logical conversation. This is when the leadership is talking at the individual, in reference to future change, rather than talking with the individual and allowing them to give input.

· No definite or true timeline. This is when the management has not given time for a slow and smooth transition to the change. It will not be successful if the change is forced on the individual or members of the organization.

The most effective way to overcome the individual is to lead with new innovative ideas and not with old ways. It is best they have the individuals or employees give and have input in the implementation of the changes. It is best to show that the changes are to the benefit of the organization and the team.

Because of the current economic, social and political environment change is required in most organizations, and there will be signs of group and individual resistance to the changes (Student, 1978).


Student, (1978). Managing change a psychologists perspective. Business Horizons, 21(6), p. 28-33.

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