Anxiety disorders and symptoms

Anxiety disorders and symptoms can often be effectively treated with benzodiazepine medications. It is known that animals exposed to stress exhibit a decrease in benzodiazepine receptor binding in the frontal cortex. The paper “Decreased Benzodiazepine Receptor Binding in Prefrontal Cortex in Combat-Related Posttraumatic Stress Disorder” (Amer. J. of Psychiatry, 2000: 1120–1126) described the first study of benzodiazepine receptor binding in individuals suffering from PTSD. The accompanying data on a receptor binding measure (adjusted distribution volume) was read from a graph in the paper. PTSD:   10, 20, 25, 28, 31, 35, 37, 38, 38, 39, 39, 42, 46 Healthy: 23, 39, 40, 41, 43, 47, 51, 58, 63, 66, 67, 69, 72

a. Is it plausible that the population distributions from which these samples were selected are normal?

b. Calculate an interval for which you can be 95% confident that at least 95% of all healthy individuals in the population have adjusted distribution volumes lying between the limits of the interval.

c. Predict the adjusted distribution volume of a single healthy individual by calculating a 95% prediction interval. How does this interval’s width compare to the width of the interval calculated in part (b)?

d. Estimate the difference between the true average measures in a way that conveys information about reliability and precision.

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Anxiety disorders and symptoms

Anxiety disorders and symptoms can often be effectively treated with benzodiazepine medications. It is known that animals exposed to stress exhibit a decrease in benzodiazepine receptor binding in the frontal cortex. The paper “Decreased Benzodiazepine Receptor Binding in Prefrontal Cortex in Combat-Related Posttraumatic Stress Disorder” (American J. of Psychiatry, 2000: 1120–1126) described the first study of benzodiazepine receptor binding in individuals suffering from PTSD. The accompanying data on a receptor binding measure (adjusted distribution volume) was read from a graph in the paper:

a. Calculate and interpret the values of the mean, median, and standard deviation for each of the two samples.

b. Calculate a trimmed mean for each sample by deleting the smallest and largest observations. What is the trimming percentage? What effect does trimming have?

c. Determine the value of the interquartile range for each sample. Does either sample contain any outliers? Any extreme outliers?

d. Construct a comparative boxplot, and comment on interesting features.

e. Would you recommend estimating the difference between the true average binding measure of PTSD individuals and the true average measure for healthy individuals using a method based on assuming that each sample was selected from a normal population distribution? Explain your reasoning.

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