artificial intelligence capabilities

Milestone Two Research Question, Hypothesis, and Annotated Bibliography

Research Question: I would like to propose for milestone two assignment, my main focus on police brutality. My research question does race play a role in police brutality? Who is most likely to experience police brutality male or female, whites or blacks? Is the confidence in minorities high or low when it comes to recent deaths of black men by police or the judicial court system?

Research Hypothesis: #1 Whites will be more supportive of excessive use of force than black’s minorities. #2 confidence in law enforcement will be low in minority communities due to the acquittal of police shooting of black/ minority men.

#1 Abstract: A cluster of recent police killings of African American men has sparked an unprecedented amount of public debate regarding policing in the United States. Critics and protesters have made sweeping allegations about the police; a presidential commission has been formed to study police misconduct; and reforms are being debated. These events provide a backdrop for this article’s review of recent poll data and discussion of research regarding police relations with African Americans, Latinos, and whites.

Weitzer, R. (2015). American Policing Under Fire: Misconduct and Reform. Society, 52(5), 475-480

Annotated Bibliography:

In this article Weitzer discuss police killings in American, the attitudes of local police officers and their community after encounters. The article examined data based off polls taking from their community after experience with the police station. This article also examined media reporting and face to face encounters in their poll search. This article would benefit my research, because it provides support necessary to confirm my theory stated my hypothesis.

#2 Abstract: Public confidence in law enforcement remains high but showed some signs of slight decline from the late 1990s to the middle of this decade. Confidence in law enforcement fluctuated some in apparent response to the terrorist attacks of September 11 and has not been particularly strong when viewed through a racial lens. In keeping with falling crime rates through the first part of this decade followed by a recent rise, the percentage of the public that believed anticrime spending to be too little declined slightly from the late 1990s to 2005 but rebounded in 2006.

Greg M., S., & Kathryn E., B. (2009). Trends: Confidence in Law Enforcement. The Public Opinion Quarterly, (1), 199.

Annotated Bibliography:

This article discusses public confidence in law enforcement by asking questions to local communities on the perception/ confidence in local law enforcement. This article supports my hypothesis by providing poll data on confidence in police enforcement, trust and respect of police, police brutality, and racial relations between local police and the area of patrol communities.

#3 Abstract: Black women and girls continue to battle the intersecting oppressions of race, gender, and justice while living in a society that routinely derogates them and while being victimized by a criminal justice system that was never designed to protect them. This is most evident in their experiences as victims of police violence, including being beaten, raped, or shot to death. This state-sanctioned violence continues decades after the legal end of slavery, and it characterizes the sustained impact race and gender have on black women’s experiences with the criminal justice system. This article examines the violence black women have historically endured as subjects of terror or objects for white men, and how this violence is perpetuated in the same way today through interactions with police. I argue that the contemporary state-sanctioned violence black women and girls experience is a manifestation of their continued victimization, dehumanization, and social exclusion, and is a function of the systemic racism that permeates the American criminal injustice system.

Willingham, B. C. (2018). Black Women and State-Sanctioned Violence: A History of Victimization and Exclusion. Canadian Review of American Studies, 48(1), 77.

Annotated Bibliography:

Willingham discuss black woman and police brutality. This article supports my hypothesis by providing the support necessary to confirm my theory on who is subject to police brutality male or female. The authors examined the violence on African American woman committed by police officers in their community. The research includes studies of a wide range of woman who have reported abuse.

#4 Abstract: Public concern surrounding excessive use of force by police officers and the over militarization of the police continues to grow. The use of police robots, both with and without artificial intelligence capabilities, is already transforming the practice of policing. Police use of robots gained national attention on July 7, 2016, when Dallas police used a robot to disarm and kill an active shooter who killed five and injured several others in a hostage situation. The qualified immunity doctrine was designed to protect police officers, but under the Supreme Court’s current qualified immunity framework, police robots may pose a challenge to accomplishing that goal. This Note suggests a two- pronged approach to the problem: (1) lessening the burden of proof for plaintiffs to defeat qualified immunity claims in excessive force cases where robots use force, and (2) carving out an exigent circumstances exception to the heightened standard.

Sankar, V. (2018). What Happens When Police Robots Violate the Constitution? Revisiting the Qualified Immunity Standard for Excessive Force Litigation Under § 1983 Regarding Violations Perpetrated by Robots. Vanderbilt Journal of Entertainment & Technology Law, 20(3), 947-973.

Annotated bibliography:

This article discusses a program designed to train robot police officer. A shooting involving a person in Dallas by a robot. This article provides law that can help with my hypothesis, it examines difference in the use of police excessive force.

#5 Abstract: Recent high-profile cases of police violence that have ended with non- indictments of the involved officers have increased public scrutiny of criminal justice systems’ approach to police-suspects. This Comment focuses on the assertion made by many that local prosecutors cannot fairly prosecute their law enforcement counterparts because of unfair bias. This Comment puts to the side the issue of whether such bias actually exists and instead focuses on the perception that these biases exist, arguing that systemic changes are needed to address the appearance of injustice they cause. The perception of bias degrades the appearance of justice to the public and police alike, endangering the legitimacy of the legal system; for that reason, we ought to presumptively disqualify local prosecutors from handling cases involving police-suspects. Instead, an independent special prosecutor, an outsider appointed by the state attorney general, or a civilian review board should handle such cases.

ROBERTSON, C. J. (2018). RESTORING PUBLIC CONFIDENCE IN THE CRIMINAL JUSTICE SYSTEM: POLICING PROSECUTIONS WHEN PROSECUTORS PROSECUTE POLICE. Emory Law Journal, 67(4), 853-887

Annotated bibliography:

This article discusses the function of the grandy jury. The article examines the impact on failure to satisfy the appearance of the jury. The article is useful for my paper because it provides detail on a specific framework when police cases are prosecuted.

#6 Abstract: There is anecdotal evidence showing that African-Americans are more likely to be subjected to excessive use of force by police than are people of other races. The counterargument is that these issues are not related to race and there are other factors at work. There have been several high-profile cases, such as those in Ferguson, Cleveland, and Baton Rouge. In this study, we estimate the effect of race on excessive use of force incidents using a new dataset comprising citizen complaints against the Chicago Police Department. Our findings show that not only does race play a role in excessive use of force complaints, but also that race plays a role in which complaints are sustained. Our study also highlights the importance of having data on which to perform rigorous empirical analysis in order to inform policymakers

Ajilore, O., & Shirey, S. (2017). Do #AllLivesMatter? An Evaluation of Race and Excessive Use of Force by Police. Atlantic Economic Journal, 45(2), 201.

Annotated bibliography:

This article discuss evidence on African American and how they are subject to excessive use force by police. This article provides evidence protest over the lack of police department and video after the shooting of African American men and woman. This article supports my hypothesis because it provides opinion of minorities affected by the police shootings.