Anatomy Question

10. What is “gating current”, how is it measured, and what has it revealed? Term Paper Guidelines

PLEASE SUBMIT AN E-COPY (BY EMAIL TO ME)

Much more important than detailed format is making sure you clearly describe the key concepts that underlie your chosen topic. But the following guidelInes may be useful.

1. Put the exact title of your topic on the first page NOT a paraphrase.

2. Use drawings, pictures, diagrams, graphs and equations to explain the key ideas.

3. All your diagrams, graphs etc must have a legend underneath written in your own words that explain everything in the diagram, graphs etc. Label key parts of the diagram and refer to the labels in the legend, or, if the diagram is already labelled, explain the existing labels. If possible locate the diagram in the body of your text, approximately where it belongs, not at the end. You should include references to all sources, including my lecture Notes, with enough information to locate the exact source. You may use any format you choose, but the easiest way is to collect all the references at the end and refer to your list (eg by number or author name/year, URL etc) at the appropriate place in the text.

4. It’s usually best to divide the paper into sections with SUITABLE HEADINGS. However I do not require any particular format.

5. Make sure you include all ideas relevant to your topic, and no irrelevant concepts or information. In some cases the topic may require you first present a general overview then that you focus on one particular aspect. Make clear which sections are general and which are particular. The length of the paper depends on the topic. Some topics (especially the more quantitative) can be covered in a few pages (eg 3) others require more extensive detailed factual information. But do not includeirrelevent information.

6. Try to read the relevant chapters in SEVERAL neuroscience texts (eg at the HSC or Melville libraries), as well as general reviews. Detailed reseach papers are usually too technical and specialised to be helpful, though often the introductory section is useful , and also the discussion. Wikipedia is acceptable (but check to see if several different artciles relate to your topic, not just one), Scholarpedia is better. But above all, try to understand the relevant concepts yourself, rather than simply quoting sections from your sources. If there are issues you suspect are important but you don’t fully understand, SAY SO, don’t try to guess or bluff. Knowing what you don’t know is even more important than knowing what you do! Please make sure you understand your own figures: if there are parts of the figures you do not understand, say so. The overall aim is to make your final revised version as good as possible, and rough ends in the first draft are ok but should be marked as such.

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Anatomy Question

Research essay:

Proposed Topic:

Investment Basics for Beginners

Tentative Thesis Statement:

Investing can be a bit confusing, but the basics are simple.

Intended Audience:

General population who is interested in start investing.

Other ideas for paper (not required)

I would like to do a research paper on investments.I know that the topic of investments is too broad, so I would like to write about how to get ahead in life as a single person on a single income.Investing can be a bit confusing, but the basics are simple.It is very important to save as much as you can and to maximize your employer’s contribution.Even though you are on a limited income, you can make smart choices.Having a financial advisor can be beneficial and can help you get started with the right choices.Having real-estate can also be a good investment.Minimizing taxed and fees are also key when you are trying to invest.Since there are so many ways to invest, it is important to see what options make sense with your lifestyle.Alternative investments, retirement accounts, brokerages accounts, stocks or bonds and real-estate are some examples of investing.

Potential Sources:

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Guides, T. S. (2019). Investing in Digital Currency–5 Factors to Consider.

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Edwards, A. (2020). Day Trading for Beginners: The Complete Guide on How to Become a Profitable Trader Using These Proven Day Trading Techniques and Strategies. Includes Stocks, Options, ETFs, Forex & Futures. Abhishek Ravichandran.

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SHARMA, M. D. THE INVESTMENT PLANNING FOR JOB BEGINNERS. In NATIONAL CONFERENCE ON “ACHIEVING BUSINESS EXCELLENCE THROUGH SUSTAINABILITY AND INNOVATION” (p. 12).

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Rushmin, A. (2020). Value Investing in Growth Companies.

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Guides, T. S. (2019). Best Growth Stock Investing Strategy.

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Youngling, E. (2020). “You are the architect of your own success”: Selling financial freedom through real estate investment after the foreclosure crisis of 2008. Economic Anthropology, 7(1), 108-119.

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Crosthwaite, P., Knight, P., & Marsh, N. (2019). The Economic Humanities and the History of Financial Advice. American Literary History, 31(4), 661-686.

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Anatomy Question

Unit 10 Verify Activity 1. You take part in the annual Coney Island Polar Bear Plunge and jump into frigid ocean water. The blood vessels in your skin vasoconstrict and systemic vascular resistance increases. As a result, your MAP increases from 93 mmHg to 120 mmHg.

Describe in a few sentences the two types of autoregulatory mechanisms that will maintain your GFR at normal levels (180 L/day)


Unit 10 Verify Activity 2.

a) The renal clearance of glucose is normally zero. Write a sentence or two and explain why glucose is present in the urine of an unmanaged type 1 diabetic (type 1 diabetics can’t produce endogenous insulin).

c) Propose a mechanism for a drug to treat type 2 diabetes (elevated blood glucose levels).

Zombie Apocalypse Bonus Activity

Manhattan is ground zero for an invasion of the living dead. The origin of the first case remains unknown, but the number of flesh-eating zombies is growing exponentially*. Food abounds in the densely-populated Gotham City, and it is now common to see people being eaten alive on the street.

The only known method for killing the zombies permanently is a gunshot wound to the head, or some other method that destroys their brains. This approach is proving ineffectual. Their numbers are growing unchecked and panic has gripped the City. Even trained military sharpshooters are unable to eliminate the ghouls fast enough to outpace their emergence.

You make a key observation when you see a group of zombies crowded around a leaky fire hydrant, eagerly lapping up water. You surmise that their high-protein diet generates a lot of nitrogenous waste products. In addition to a nervous system for controlling locomotion, you realize that the living dead must have a way to eliminate nitrogenous wastes.

Anecdotal reports have surfaced that zombies have kidney-like structures, but you know that shooting their kidneys with bullets will be even more ineffectual than shooting their brains; another approach is necessary. Your objective is to develop a method for permanently killing zombies that targets their ability to eliminate nitrogenous wastes. You must also address the potential impact your method will have on the normal human population.

This activity is worth 25 bonus points and is due April 30 at 11:59pm.

  • Do NOT propose shooting the zombies with any sort of conventional projectile (such as a bullet).
  • Do NOT propose restricting the zombie’s access to water.
  • You MUST address how your approach will impact the human population and how you will limit collateral damage.

*The condition of being a ’zombie’ (also known as ‘the living dead’ or ‘walking dead’ or ‘undead’) is recognized by the medical community as Ataxic Neurodegenerative Satiety Deficiency Syndrome (ANSDS). The syndrome is thought to be caused by an airborne prion; the prion can also be passed to victims through a bite that breaks the skin. Symptoms include progressive loss of brain tissue, uncoordinated (ataxic) gait, and an insatiable hunger for human flesh.

This activity was inspired by:

https://www.cdc.gov/cpr/zombie/index.htm

The Zombie Autopsies: Secret Notebooks from the Apocalypse, by Steven C. Schlozman, MD

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Anatomy Question


Answer 25 out of the 29 following questions in the box provided. For each question you choose, include the number and the complete question before your answer.

1. What is epigenetics? How are epigenetic mechanisms linked to DNA methylation, chromatin remodeling, and RNA interference? How is epigenetic transgenerational inheritance linked to the effects of DES in woman who took the drug during pregnancy?

2. What are the consequences of genetic imprinting? How does it occur?

3. What is evidence-based practice? How can evidence-based practice guidelines be applied to clinical practice?

4. One study is attempting to link injuries to causative exposure while another is attempting to link infectious disease to causative exposure. Which study may be easier to conduct? Why?

5. Describe in detail the sympathetic arousal mechanisms activated by stress. How might that stress response affect the immune system? Give at least one specific example.

6. What parts of the brain work together to interpret false threats as real threats? Explain the mechanisms behind this interaction.

7. Discuss regulation of food uptake by adipose tissue and GI hormones.

8. How do substances associated with substance use disorder affect the brain? What neural systems show activation? Decreased activity? How do these mechanisms related to symptoms?

9. Explain in detail the link between obstructive sleep apnea and blood gas abnormalities. How are these abnormalities linked then to blood pressure and to the most effective treatment?

10. An increase in plasma osmolality can cause fluid to shift from the ICF to the ECF. What are some possible causes of this increase? What is the underlying mechanism causing this shift? What might be seen clinically?

11. A patient is prescribed a loop diuretic. What electrolytes might be affected? What are the possible effects on cardiac function? Explain the underlying mechanisms.

12. Aspirin (salicylate) overdose has been associated with respiratory alkalosis. Explain the mechanism underlying this process. Would you expect this to be exacerbated in someone with kidney disease? Why or why not?

13. Tetany can be a symptom of severe alkalosis. Explain the underlying mechanisms behind this observation.

14. A patient with Type 1 diabetes and COPD is most likely to present with which type of mixed acid-base imbalance? Explain the mechanisms underlying this.

15. Cystic fibrosis is a channelopathy. What does that mean? How does this link contribute mechanistically to the signs and symptoms of CF?

16. How does oxidative stress contribute to development of respiratory distress syndrome in premature babies?

17. Is gangrene an apoptotic or necrotic process? How are wet and dry gangrene alike? Different? What are the mechanisms underlying any differences?

18. Is the inflammatory response a good thing or a bad thing? Explain your answer and cite specific examples in your explanation.

19. Compare and contrast acute inflammation with chronic inflammation. Include specific examples.

20. Compare “driver mutations” with “passenger mutations.” Explain the role of proto-oncogenes and mutator genes in the process of tumor development.

21. Explain the three mechanisms used by contemporary biologic treatments to enhance the immune system’s response to cancer.

22. How might superantigens lead to toxic shock syndrome? How are cytokines involved?

23. What is herd immunity? Explain the immune mechanisms underlying herd immunity.

24. Are “allergy shots” a type of immunization? Explain your answer by including immune mechanisms and specific examples.

25. Explain in detail why we don’t normally develop autoantibodies to our own tissues and cells.

26. Why is an HIV-infected person highly contagious in the 2-4 week period following infection? Can this be detected by Western blot? Explain your answers.

27. Discuss the mechanisms underlying development of opportunistic infections and cancers in AIDS patients.

28. Distinguish between acute leukemia and chronic leukemia, and between lymphoid and myeloid leukemias.

29. A patient complains of “swollen glands.” How might you distinguish between lymphadenopathy caused by inflammation from that caused by non-Hodgkin lymphoma?

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Anatomy Question

Section 1

Purpose

The medical experience assignment provides you with an opportunity to correlate your learning in this course with a real-life situation or clinical applications. You will discuss with your classmates to examine disorders or diseases that are related to the human body systems taught in this course.

There are three reasons why there is a collaborative learning experience in the form of an experience sharing assignment required in this class:

  1. Current learning theory suggests that adult learners are motivated if the subject has immediate relevance to their job or personal life.
  2. It is also known that higher levels of learning occur when new information is applied to what you already know or have experienced.
  3. As you know, this course is mainly about normal anatomy and physiology. Sometimes it is easier to comprehend normal body functioning by understanding what happens during a disease process.

College-level research and writing are required for the medical experience discussion as well as in any other content-related interest you may develop as you study the material of this course. Please familiarize yourself with the library resources that are available for you.


Directions

Please read the directions for Medical Experience Assignment [PDF] (Links to an external site.). For your reference, here are two sample papers.

LIBRARY RESOURCES

In this unit, you are required to watch a video from a librarian to understand how to access and utilize library resources to complete the assignments for this course.

The research guide introduces useful resources for BIO 141/142 and the information on citation. You can also request help at any time for help with research for the medical experience assignment by contacting a librarian via email or live chat.

Find the information in Library Research Help – Anatomy & Physiology.

SUBMISSION

Follow the directions in the instruction attached above to post your medical problem topic in the forum by clicking the Reply button below. Make sure to include all of the required components in your post.


Grading

The medical experience assignment is worth 90 points.

  • Your medical experience paper is worth 40 points.
  • The facilitation of the discussion on your medical experience paper is worth 10 points.
  • The discussion on your classmates’ medical experience papers is worth 10 points each (40 points total).

You can find the grading rubrics in the instruction attached above.

The selection of a topic for the medical experience paper is not graded, but failure to submit your topic forfeits the 50 points (your paper plus the facilitation of the discussion on your paper), this assignment will not be accepted late.

Section 2

Unit 3: Medical Experience – Discussion about Unit 2 Topics

No unread replies.No replies.

Unit 3 Table of Contents

Directions

The medical experience paper and class responses have different due dates. Please find the due dates in the Course Summary section of the Syllabus.

Medical Experience Paper

If the medical problem you selected and accepted by your instructor is related to cells, tissues, or the integumentary system, please write your medical experience paper and share it with the class following the directions below.

Submission

You need to submit your paper in two different places.

  1. Submit – Save your medical experience paper as a .doc or .docx file. Submit it in the Medical Experience Paper Submission module.
  2. Share – Copy your paper and paste it into the discussion forum by clicking the Reply button below. Please make sure to put the title of your paper in the first line of your post. Don’t submit your paper as an attachment in the discussion forum.
  3. Lead – Please facilitate the discussion around your paper by answering questions and sharing information.

All Class Responses

All of the students, including those who submit a paper in this unit, are required to read the medical experience papers shared by the classmates and comment on at least two of them. Your responses should be substantive (pertain to content and are not comments such as “That was very interesting” or “I never heard of this before”) and explain what you have learned.

Please scroll the screen down to find the postings in this forum.

Submission:

Post your responses to the medical experience papers as replies in the discussion forum.


Grading

  • Your medical experience paper is worth 40 points.
  • The facilitation of the discussion on your own medical experience paper is worth 10 points. All responses and comments you posted under your paper to move the discussion forward will be graded as the facilitation of the discussion. Please check with your instructor about the different types of postings you may be required to post here. These points are part of the rubric for your medical experience paper. They are not included in the discussion points for each unit.
  • The discussion on your classmates’ medical experience papers in Units 3-6 is worth 10 points each (40 points total). Discussion participation refers to all of the comments and responses you posted under your classmates’ papers. You are required to do this even during the unit in which you also facilitate a discussion. However, your instructor may require alternate participation approach here. Please check with your instructor. You can find the grading rubric for this discussion activity by following the directions on how to view the rubric for a graded discussion.
  • Section 3
    Unit 4: Medical Experience – Discussion about Unit 3 TopicsNo unread replies.No replies.

    Unit 4 Table of Contents

    Directions

    The medical experience paper and class responses have different due dates. Please find the due dates in the Course Summary section of the Syllabus.

    Medical Experience Paper

    If the medical problem you selected and accepted by your instructor is related to the skeletal system, please write your medical experience paper and share it with the class following the directions below.

    Submission

    You need to submit your paper in two different places.

    1. Submit – Save your medical experience paper as a .doc or .docx file. Submit it in the Medical Experience Paper Submission module.
    2. Share – Copy your paper and paste it into the discussion forum by clicking the Reply button below. Please make sure to put the title of your paper in the first line of your post. Don’t submit your paper as an attachment in the discussion forum.
    3. Lead – Please facilitate the discussion around your paper by answering questions and sharing information.

    All Class Responses

    All of the students, including those who submit a paper in this unit, are required to read the medical experience papers shared by the classmates and comment on at least two of them. Your responses should be substantive (pertain to content and are not comments such as “That was very interesting” or “I never heard of this before”) and explain what you have learned.Please scroll the screen down to find the postings in this forum.

    Submission:

    Post your responses to the medical experience papers as replies in the discussion forum.


    Grading

    • Your medical experience paper is worth 40 points.
    • The facilitation of the discussion on your own medical experience paper is worth 10 points. All responses and comments you posted under your paper to move the discussion forward will be graded as the facilitation of the discussion. Please check with your instructor about the different types of postings you may be required to post here. These points are part of the rubric for your medical experience paper. They are not included in the discussion points for each unit.
    • The discussion on your classmates’ medical experience papers in Units 3-6 is worth 10 points each (40 points total). Discussion participation refers to all of the comments and responses you posted under your classmates’ papers. You are required to do this even during the unit in which you also facilitate a discussion. However, your instructor may require alternate participation approach here. Please check with your instructor. You can find the grading rubric for this discussion activity by following the directions on how to view the rubric for a graded discussion.
    • Section 4
      Unit 5: Medical Experience – Discussion about Unit 4 TopicsNo unread replies.No replies.

      Unit 5 Table of Contents

      Directions

      The medical experience paper and class responses have different due dates. Please find the due dates in the Course Summary section of the Syllabus.

      Medical Experience Paper

      If the medical problem you selected and accepted by your instructor is related to the muscular system or nervous tissue, please write your medical experience paper and share it with the class following the directions below.

      Submission

      You need to submit your paper in two different places.

      1. Submit – Save your medical experience paper as a .doc or .docx file. Submit it in the Medical Experience Paper Submission module.
      2. Share – Copy your paper and paste it into the discussion forum by clicking the Reply button below. Please make sure to put the title of your paper in the first line of your post. Don’t submit your paper as an attachment in the discussion forum.
      3. Lead – Please facilitate the discussion around your paper by answering questions and sharing information.

      All Class Responses

      All of the students, including those who submit a paper in this unit, are required to read the medical experience papers shared by the classmates and comment on at least two of them. Your responses should be substantive (pertain to content and are not comments such as “That was very interesting” or “I never heard of this before”) and explain what you have learned.Please scroll the screen down to find the postings in this forum.

      Submission:

      Post your responses to the medical experience papers as replies in the discussion forum.


      Grading

      • Your medical experience paper is worth 40 points.
      • The facilitation of the discussion on your own medical experience paper is worth 10 points. All responses and comments you posted under your paper to move the discussion forward will be graded as the facilitation of the discussion. Please check with your instructor about the different types of postings you may be required to post here. These points are part of the rubric for your medical experience paper. They are not included in the discussion points for each unit.
      • The discussion on your classmates’ medical experience papers in Units 3-6 is worth 10 points each (40 points total). Discussion participation refers to all of the comments and responses you posted under your classmates’ papers. You are required to do this even during the unit in which you also facilitate a discussion. However, your instructor may require alternate participation approach here. Please check with your instructor. You can find the grading rubric for this discussion activity by following the directions on how to view the rubric for a graded discussion.
      • Section 5
        Unit 6: Medical Experience – Discussion about Unit 5 and Unit 6 TopicsNo unread replies.No replies.

        Unit 6 Table of Contents

        Directions

        The medical experience paper and class responses have different due dates. Please find the due dates in the Course Summary section of the Syllabus.

        Medical Experience Paper

        If the medical problem you selected and accepted by your instructor is related to the brain and spinal cord, please write your medical experience paper and share it with the class following the directions below.

        Submission

        You need to submit your paper in two different places.

        1. Submit – Save your medical experience paper as a .doc or .docx file. Submit it in the Medical Experience Paper Submission module.
        2. Share – Copy your paper and paste it into the discussion forum by clicking the Reply button below. Please make sure to put the title of your paper in the first line of your post. Don’t submit your paper as an attachment in the discussion forum.
        3. Lead – Please facilitate the discussion around your paper by answering questions and sharing information.

        All Class Responses

        All of the students, including those who submit a paper in this unit, are required to read the medical experience papers shared by the classmates and comment on at least two of them. Your responses should be substantive (pertain to content and are not comments such as “That was very interesting” or “I never heard of this before”) and explain what you have learned.Please scroll the screen down to find the postings in this forum.

        Submission:

        Post your responses to the medical experience papers as replies in the discussion forum.


        Grading

        • Your medical experience paper is worth 40 points.
        • The facilitation of the discussion on your own medical experience paper is worth 10 points. All responses and comments you posted under your paper to move the discussion forward will be graded as the facilitation of the discussion. Please check with your instructor about the different types of postings you may be required to post here. These points are part of the rubric for your medical experience paper. They are not included in the discussion points for each unit.
        • The discussion on your classmates’ medical experience papers in Units 3-6 is worth 10 points each (40 points total). Discussion participation refers to all of the comments and responses you posted under your classmates’ papers. You are required to do this even during the unit in which you also facilitate a discussion. However, your instructor may require alternate participation approach here. Please check with your instructor. You can find the grading rubric for this discussion activity by following the directions on how to view the rubric for a graded discussion.

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