activation-synthesis

2.   Knowing that Dr. Mallet, a clinical psychologist, is interested in the latent and manifest content of his client’s dreams, it’s safest to suspect that Dr. Mallet embraces _______ theory.
 

  A. activation-synthesis
  B. dreams-for-survival
  C. repressive-activation
  D. unconscious wish-fulfillment
3.   Which of the following statements regarding REM sleep is true?
 

  A. Dreaming causes major muscle contractions and tossing and turning.
  B. Roughly 20 percent of adult sleep time is accompanied by REM.
  C. REM sleep occurs during stage 3 sleep.
  D. REM sleep occurs only during stage 4 sleep.
4.   If a person sleeps for 8 hours in one night, about how many times do they cycle through the stages of sleep?
 

  A. 6 ½ times
  B. 5 ½ times
  C. 8 times
  D. 10 times
5.   Celia has a boyfriend who wears a certain cologne all of the time. After Celia and her boyfriend break up and she smells that cologne on someone else, she winces at the smell. Celia is undergoing the effects of _______ conditioning when she smells the cologne.
 

  A. classical
  B. operant
  C. negative
  D. positive
6.   A casino slot machine has a random chance of paying out a prize each time a wager is made. This would be an example of
 

  A. random-variable ratio schedule.
  B. fixed-ratio schedule.
  C. non-variable-ratio schedule.
  D. variable-ratio schedule.
7.   There’s evidence that sudden infant death syndrome is related to
 

  A. narcolepsy.
  B. sleep apnea.
  C. insomnia.
  D. night terrors.
8.   A common repetitive technique for moving new information from short-term memory to long-term memory is called
 

  A. reduction.
  B. selective reduction.
  C. elaboration.
  D. rehearsal.
9.   After taking the drug, Rupert reported vivid hallucinations, altered perception of sounds and colors, and distorted time perception. It’s most likely that the drug Rupert took was
 

  A. LSD.
  B. marijuana.
  C. cocaine.
  D. MDMA.
10.   I reward your behavior after I observe you correctly following a product assembly procedure six times. In operant conditioning, this kind of partial reinforcement is based on a _______ schedule.
 

  A. fixed-ratio
  B. variable-ratio
  C. fixed-interval
  D. variable-interval
11.   Which of the following is a specific technique used in behavior modification?
 

  A. Training a subject in helpful weight-loss strategies
  B. Selecting a behavior-change strategy
  C. Reinforcing drug-related behaviors
  D. Keeping no records as the program is implemented
12.   A stimulus that, before conditioning, doesn’t naturally bring about the response of interest is called a/n _______ stimulus.
 

  A. unconditioned
  B. paired
  C. neutral
  D. conditioned
13.   A _______ reinforcer satisfies some biological need and works naturally, regardless of a person’s prior experiences
 

  A. positive
  B. primary
  C. secondary
  D. negative
14.   According to information provided in your text, circadian rhythms are associated with
 

  A. the time of month that pregnant women are likely to go into labor.
  B. cycles of waking and sleeping.
  C. the occurrence of anxiety attacks.
  D. attacks of sleep apnea.
15.   The process by which a stimulus increases the probability that a preceding behavior will be repeated is called
 

  A. likelihood.
  B. satiety.
  C. aversive.
  D. reinforcement
16.   You help Cameron learn to play a guitar by guiding him through a sequence of reinforced behaviors, such as holding the guitar, tuning the guitar, and properly fingering simple chords. In the operant conditioning perspective, this is called
 

  A. shaping.
  B. gradual reinforcement.
  C. latent learning.
  D. graded reinforcement.
17.   After Kate’s visit to Paris, her memories about what she saw and learned were influenced by music in the background, by the comments of her traveling companion, and by the light reflecting off the Seine, reminding Kate of her childhood home on the banks of the Wabash. Psychologists would say Kate’s memories of Paris are influenced by the meanings she gave to aspects of her experience through
 

  A. implicit memories.
  B. constructive processes.
  C. flashbulb memories.
  D. episodic memory.
18.   During which stage of sleep does most dreaming occur?
 

  A. REM
  B. Stage 4
  C. Stage 3
  D. Stage 1
19.   Which of the following statements regarding latent learning is most accurate?
 

  A. Latent learning doesn’t require cognitive processes.
  B. Latent learning occurs without reinforcement.
  C. Latent learning suggests that environmental knowledge is genetically predetermined.
  D. Latent learning occurs in spite of negative reinforcement.
20.   In a lab devoted to sleep disorders, Julio points to the brain wave monitor, turns to Laura and says, “Subject is going into non-REM stage 2.” Laura looking at the monitor, says, “Got it; I’m recording the time.” What would Laura and Julio see on the monitor to assure them that the subject has entered stage 2 sleep?
 

  A. Brain waves are irregular and episodic.
  B. Brain waves are getting slower and more regular.
  C. Sleep disturbance is indicated by sharp wave spikes.
  D. Sleep spindles appear.
1.   According to Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, eating a hamburger would satisfy what need?
 

  A. Self-Actualization
  B. Physiological
  C. Safety
  D. Esteem
2.   A woman’s use of alcohol while pregnant can cause damage to the human fetus. In this circumstance, alcohol could be considered a
 

  A. teratogen.
  B. mutagen.
  C. zygote.
  D. risk factor.
3.   During middle adulthood, the most clearly marked biological change is related to
 

  A. the so-called midlife transition.
  B. reproductive capabilities.
  C. weight loss.
  D. memory loss.
4.   _______ is a behavioral treatment for anxiety in which people are confronted, either suddenly or gradually, with a stimulus that they fear.
 

  A. Classical conditioning
  B. Exposure
  C. Systematic desensitization
  D. Aversion therapy
5.   The original purpose in constructing the MMPI-2 was
 

  A. screening college applicants.
  B. screening job applicants.
  C. identifying psychological disorders.
  D. identifying a client’s optimal choices among occupations.
6.   I’m not all that happy, but when I smile I feel better. This idea might best be expressed by the
 

  A. facial-affect program.
  B. theory of universal affect programming.
  C. emotional similarity theory.
  D. facial feedback hypothesis.
7.   _______ disorder is the experience of long-term, persistent anxiety and worry.
 

  A. Panic
  B. Generalized anxiety
  C. Phobia
  D. Obsessive-Compulsive
8.   If you support the idea that physiological arousal and the experience of an associated emotion will occur simultaneously, you’ll agree with the
 

  A. biological emotion-activation theory.
  B. Cannon-Bard theory of emotion.
  C. James-Lange theory of emotion.
  D. Schachter-Singer theory of emotion.
9.   Having been attacked and bitten by a German shepherd, Sam reacts with fear on spotting any large dog. According to recent developments in brain research, the linking role of the _________ is paramount in the recall of this sort of fear-evoking stimulus.
 

  A. hippocampus
  B. left temporal lobe
  C. amygdala
  D. visual cortex
10.   According to your textbook’s treatment of Kohlberg’s theory of moral development, a focus on rewards and punishment in respect to a moral dilemma is characteristic of
 

  A. children who haven’t grasped the principle of object constancy.
  B. adolescents who have reached the formal operational stage of moral development.
  C. adolescents who have reached the conventional level of moral development.
  D. children who haven’t reached the conventional stage of moral development.
11.   An irresistible urge to repeatedly carry out some act that seems strange and unreasonable is known as a/an
 

  A. phobia.
  B. obsession.
  C. compulsion.
  D. fear.
12.   _______ therapy seeks to bring unresolved past conflicts and unacceptable impulses from the unconscious into the conscious, where patients may deal with the problems more effectively.
 

  A. Humanistic
  B. Behavioral
  C. Cognitive
  D. Psychodynamic
13.   If you agree with B.F. Skinner as to the nature of personality, you would also agree that
 

  A. personality is shaped by people’s thoughts, feelings, expectations, and values.
  B. humans are infinitely changeable because they can learn new behavior patterns.
  C. human personality is largely shaped through observational learning.
  D. traits like sociability arise from unconscious wishes to be liked by others.
14.   Treatment approaches that teach people to think in more adaptive ways by changing their dysfunctional cognitions about the world and themselves are known as _______ treatment approaches.
 

  A. psychodynamic
  B. behavioral
  C. humanistic
  D. cognitive
15.   In Piaget’s model of cognitive development, a child’s tendency to view the world entirely from his or her own perspective is referred to as
 

  A. egocentric thought.
  B. the sensorimotor stage.
  C. the concrete operational stage.
  D. metacognition.
16.   Treatment approaches that build on the basic processes of learning, and assume that normal and abnormal behavior are both learned, are called _______ treatment approaches.
 

  A. behavioral
  B. humanistic
  C. psychodynamic
  D. cognitive
17.   Nick is terrified of spiders. If he sees a picture of a spider, he starts to sweat and tremble. Nick is likely suffering from a _______ involving spiders.
 

  A. mania
  B. phobia
  C. bad dream
  D. fear
18.   It’s becoming increasingly apparent to researchers that infants are born with
 

  A. developed personalities.
  B. innate temperaments.
  C. high self-esteem.
  D. low self-esteem.
19.   As discussed in your textbook, which statement best illustrates fluid intelligence?
 

  A. Caldwell critically evaluates the likely causes of kidney stones.
  B. Dylan scribbles the draft of a poem onto the back of an envelope.
  C. Alex recalls the wiring pattern and deftly reconnects the power lead to the battery.
  D. Gavin the spy quickly memorizes the 12-digit code.
20.   In the research conducted by Hans Eysenck, factor analysis was used to identify ________ basic personality dimensions. Of these, the tendency to distort reality was labeled:
 

  A. three; psychoticism.
  B. five; conscientiousness.
  C. three; extraversion.
  D. five; neuroticism.

2.

Knowing that Dr. Mallet, a clinical psychologist, is interested in the latent and

manifest content of his client’s dreams, it’s safest to suspect that Dr. Mallet embraces

_______ theory.

A.

activation

synthesis

B.

dreams

for

survival

C.

repressive

activat

ion

D.

unconscious wish

fulfillment

3.

Which of the following statements regarding REM sleep is

true?

A.

Dreaming causes major muscle contractions and tossing and turning.

B.

Roughly 20 percent of adult sleep time is accompanied by REM.

C.

REM sleep occurs during stage 3 sleep.

D.

REM sleep occurs only during stage 4 sleep.

4.

If a person sleeps for 8 hours in one night, about how many times do they cycle

through the stages of sleep?

A.

6 ½ times

B.

5 ½ times

C.

8 times

D.

10 times

5.

Celia has a

boyfriend who wears a certain cologne all of the time. After Celia and

her boyfriend break up and she smells that cologne on someone else, she winces at the

smell. Celia is undergoing the effects of _______ conditioning when she smells the

cologne.

A.

classical

B.

operant

C.

negative

D.

positive

2. Knowing that Dr. Mallet, a clinical psychologist, is interested in the latent and

manifest content of his client’s dreams, it’s safest to suspect that Dr. Mallet embraces

_______ theory.

A. activation-synthesis

B. dreams-for-survival

C. repressive-activation

D. unconscious wish-fulfillment

3. Which of the following statements regarding REM sleep is true?

A. Dreaming causes major muscle contractions and tossing and turning.

B. Roughly 20 percent of adult sleep time is accompanied by REM.

C. REM sleep occurs during stage 3 sleep.

D. REM sleep occurs only during stage 4 sleep.

4. If a person sleeps for 8 hours in one night, about how many times do they cycle

through the stages of sleep?

A. 6 ½ times

B. 5 ½ times

C. 8 times

D. 10 times

5. Celia has a boyfriend who wears a certain cologne all of the time. After Celia and

her boyfriend break up and she smells that cologne on someone else, she winces at the

smell. Celia is undergoing the effects of _______ conditioning when she smells the

cologne.

A. classical

B. operant

C. negative

D. positive