# Module 1 – Case

## ACCOUNTING COST SYSTEMS AND COST BEHAVIOR

### Assignment Overview

Preparation of an Income Statement for The Serious Reader Company

The first case of this course provides an opportunity to prepare a segmented variable costing (contribution margin, behavioral) income statement and analyze the information. This is a very small company and the information may seem simplistic at first glance. Don’t forget that numbers and hands-on practice best illustrate many basic accounting concepts.

The Serious Reader Company is a small online retailer operating out of a garage apartment. The owner buys books at garage sales, thrift shops, library sales, and whenever an opportunity arises. The company classifies all books into five categories based on cost of acquisition and estimated sales price. See below for details about books purchased and sold during the last year (20XX).

Price CategoriesABCDEUnits Sold4,0001,000500400400Unites Purchased6,0001,2001,0001,0001,000Resale Price\$4.00\$12.00\$20.00\$45.00\$60.00Cost\$0.50\$4.00\$10.00\$20.00\$20.00

In addition to purchasing inventory (used books), the company incurs some operating expenses.

Variable Operating Expenses  Shipping per book\$1.50Common fixed expenses  Internet-related costs\$10,000  Travel, etc.\$4,000  Advertising\$1,000  Other overhead\$5,000

### Case Assignment

Required:

Computations (use Excel)

• Prepare a segmented variable costing (behavioral) income statement for the company in good format.
• Prepare a second variable costing statement assuming 90% of all the books in each category purchased were actually sold.
• Prepare a third variable costing statement assuming that the price is increased by 50% for all five categories (use original sales information).
• The owner enjoys the used-book business. Any suggestions as how to turn this into a full-time business venture so the owner can quit his other job? Prepare another income statement to support your idea.

Memo (use Word)

Interpret the results from the computations and explain how the information is useful. Write a 4- or 5-paragraph memo to the owner of the business. Start with an introduction and end with a recommendation. Each of the four or five paragraphs should have a heading.

Short essay to comment on the questions below (use Word). Start with an introduction and end with a summary or conclusion. Use headings. Maximum length of two pages.

• Why do many organizations make the effort to prepare a different type of income statement for internal purposes?
• Variable costing is not just about preparing income statements. Provide at least three scenarios in which understanding how costs behave is useful.

### Assignment Expectations

Each submission should include two files: (1) An Excel file; and (2) A Word document. The Word document shows the  memo first and short essay last. Assume a  knowledgeable business audience and use required format and length. Individuals in business are busy and want information presented in an organized and concise manner.

# Module 1 – Background

## ACCOUNTING COST SYSTEMS AND COST BEHAVIOR

### Modular Learning Objectives

Keep the following objectives in mind as you work through the material in this module:

• Define managerial accounting.
• Describe the role of managerial accounting.
• Differentiate between variable and fixed costs.
• Prepare a contribution margin (variable costing) income statement.
• Recognize various approaches to categorizing costs.
• Prepare and analyze a segmented income statement.

Begin this module by familiarizing yourself with the following sections pertaining to managerial accounting while keeping the above six objectives in mind. Click on the three arrows to explore each topic in more detail.

Check your understanding to make sure that you have a good grasp of the background material. If you are not comfortable with the concepts, review some of the material again or go to the optional resource for more examples.

Click on the quiz icon for an ungraded, 20-question true-or-false self-study quiz to check your progress. If you are not satisfied with the score, review some of the material again. For more in-depth information, review materials listed under optional reading at the bottom of this page.

Final Thoughts

Contribution margin income and absorption income are two distinct approaches to assess operating profit. Many companies use both approaches. The two approaches have benefits and limitations.

Multiple descriptive names exist for the two methods of costing and computation of income. For example, the contribution margin approach is also known as variable costing, direct costing. or marginal costing. Absorption income and costing are also known as full costing, GAAP income, financial accounting income, or traditional costing.

Management mostly uses the information provided by variable costing method for estimates and internal decision-making purposes. Variable costing is appropriate for detailed analysis of a product or service. GAAP is required for publicly released and audited financial statements. Management uses both approaches for internal decision-making.

Cost behavior refers to the way different types of production costs change when there is a change in level of production.

There are two main types of costs according to their behavior:

Fixed Costs:

Fixed costs are those, which do not change with the level of activity within the relevant range. These costs will incur even if no units are produced. For example rent expense, straight-line depreciation expense, etc. Fixed cost per unit decreases with increase in production.

Variable Costs:

Variable costs change in direct proportion to the level of production. This means that total variable cost increase when more units are produced and decreases when less units are produced. Although variable in total, these costs are constant per unit.

For further detail refer to Dr. Walther’s accounting text and videos.

Walther, L. (2017). Chapter 17: Introduction to Managerial Accounting.

VIDEOS

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# Module 3 – SLP

## TRANSFER PRICING AND RESPONSIBILITY CENTERS

Third part of the presentation. See background information for the Module 1 SLP.

Required:

Include the following items in your presentation.

• The organization is currently centralized, but is reviewing options to put a decentralized structure in place.
• You are asked to comment on responsibility centers and their functions.
• Cost centers can be a drain on an organization. Could internal charge backs be implemented? Present specific ideas.
• Comment on the role of business analytics in a growing decentralized organization.

### SLP Assignment Expectations

Submit a PowerPoint presentation or a Word Document. A PowerPoint presentation should have no more than six slides and a Word document cannot exceed two pages. Use words, tables, and graphs to make a succinct presentation. Document all sources and provide links at the end. It is acceptable to add another slide or page to list the sources.

# Combine the submissions from prior module(s) into one file before uploading to the SLP 3 Dropbox.Module 3 – Background

## TRANSFER PRICING AND RESPONSIBILITY CENTERS

### Modular Learning Objectives

Keep the following objectives in mind as you work through the material in this module:

• Define the role of responsibility accounting.
• Differentiate between controllable and uncontrollable costs.
• Analyze structure of a decentralized organization.
• Define profit centers, cost centers, and investment centers.
• Compute transfer prices.
• Identify three main transfer pricing approaches.

This module covers the role of responsibility accounting and responsibility centers. Explore these topics further while keeping the above six objectives in mind. Click on the three arrows to explore each topic in more detail:

Check your understanding to make sure that you have a good grasp of the background material. If you are not comfortable with the concepts, review some of the material again or go to the optional resource for more examples.

 Click on the quiz icon for an ungraded, 20-question true-or-false self-study quiz to check your progress. If you are not satisfied with the score, review some of the material again. For more in-depth information, review materials listed under optional reading at the bottom of this page.
 Final Thoughts A responsibility center is a part or subunit of a company for which a manager has authority and responsibility. The company’s detailed organization chart is a logical source for determining responsibility centers. The most common responsibility centers are the departments within a company.When the manager of a responsibility center can control only costs, the responsibility center is referred to as a cost center. If a manager can control both costs and revenues, the responsibility center is known as a profit center. If a manager has authority and responsibility for costs, revenues, and investments the responsibility center is referred to as an investment center. The existence of responsibility centers necessitates the setting of an internal price for the transfer of parts, goods, and services among units and responsibility centers. Transfer prices are contentious because management intervenes by creating policies which have an effect on the income of a responsibility center or unit. Transfers among international jurisdictions involve additional considerations. Not only accounting rules, but income taxation and duties affect pricing strategies. Most countries have regulations to help prevent the use of this pricing method as a means of evading taxes or similar unethical and illegal activities.

For further detail refer to Dr. Walther’s accounting text and videos.

Walther, L. (2017). Chapter 23: Reporting to Support Managerial Decisions.

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# Module 3 – Case

## TRANSFER PRICING AND RESPONSIBILITY CENTERS

### Assignment Overview

Coffee Maker’s Incorporated (CMI)

Three divisions of a CMI are involved in a dispute. Division A purchases Part 101 and Division B purchases Part 201 from a third division, C. Both divisions need the parts for products that they assemble. The intercompany transactions have remained constant for several years.

Recently, outside suppliers have lowered their prices, but Division C refuses to do so. In addition, all division managers are feeling the pressure to increase profit. Managers of divisions A and B would like the flexibility to purchase the parts they need from external parties at a lower cost and increase profitability.

The current pattern is that

• Division A purchases 2,700 units of product part 101 from Division C (the supplying division) and another 1,300 units from an external supplier.
• Division B purchases 1,100 units of Part 201 from Division C and another 700 units from an external supplier.
• Note that both divisions A and B purchase the needed supplies from both the internal source and an external source at the same time.

The managers for divisions A and B are preparing a new proposal for consideration.

• Division C will continue to produce Parts 101 and 201. All of its production will be sold to Divisions A and B. No other customers are likely to be found for these products in the short term, given that supply is greater than demand in the market.
• Division A will buy 2,000 units of Part 101 from Division C at the existing transfer price; and
• 2,000 units from an external supplier at the market price of \$900 per unit.
• Division B will buy 900 units of Part 201 from Division C at the existing transfer price; and
• 900 units from an external supplier at \$1,800 per unit.

Division C Data Based on the Current Agreement

 Part 101 201 Annual volume (units) 2,700 1,100 Transfer price/unit \$1,000 \$2,000 Variable expenses/unit \$700 \$1,200

The fixed overhead for Division C is \$1,200,000.

### Case Assignment

Required:

Computations (use Excel)

• Set up a table similar the one below to compute the difference between the current situation and the proposal for Divisions A and B.
 Division A Current Situation Proposal No. of Units Purchase Price Total Purchases No. of Units Purchase Price Total Purchases Internal purchases 2,700 \$ 2,000 \$ External purchases 1,300 2,000 Total cost for Part 101 \$ \$ Savings to Div. A \$
• Compute the operating income for Division C under the current agreement and the proposed agreement.
• Is the revised agreement a good idea? Support your answer with computations.

Memo (use Word)

Write a 4- or 5-paragraph memo to the division manager explaining the analysis performed. Start with an introduction and end with a recommendation. Each of the four or five paragraphs should have a heading.

Short Essay (use Word)

Evaluate and discuss the implications of the following transfer pricing policies:

• Transfer price = cost plus a mark-up for the selling division
• Transfer price = fair market value
• Transfer price = price negotiated by the managers

Why is transfer pricing such a significant issue both from a financial and managerial perspective?

### Assignment Expectations

Each submission should include two files: (1) An Excel file and (2) a Word document. The Word document shows the memo first and short essay last. Assume a knowledgeable business audience and use required format and length. Individuals in business are busy and want information presented in an organized and concise manner.

# Module 3 – Background

## TRANSFER PRICING AND RESPONSIBILITY CENTERS

### Modular Learning Objectives

Keep the following objectives in mind as you work through the material in this module:

• Define the role of responsibility accounting.
• Differentiate between controllable and uncontrollable costs.
• Analyze structure of a decentralized organization.
• Define profit centers, cost centers, and investment centers.
• Compute transfer prices.
• Identify three main transfer pricing approaches.

This module covers the role of responsibility accounting and responsibility centers. Explore these topics further while keeping the above six objectives in mind. Click on the three arrows to explore each topic in more detail:

Check your understanding to make sure that you have a good grasp of the background material. If you are not comfortable with the concepts, review some of the material again or go to the optional resource for more examples.

 Click on the quiz icon for an ungraded, 20-question true-or-false self-study quiz to check your progress. If you are not satisfied with the score, review some of the material again. For more in-depth information, review materials listed under optional reading at the bottom of this page.
 Final Thoughts A responsibility center is a part or subunit of a company for which a manager has authority and responsibility. The company’s detailed organization chart is a logical source for determining responsibility centers. The most common responsibility centers are the departments within a company.When the manager of a responsibility center can control only costs, the responsibility center is referred to as a cost center. If a manager can control both costs and revenues, the responsibility center is known as a profit center. If a manager has authority and responsibility for costs, revenues, and investments the responsibility center is referred to as an investment center. The existence of responsibility centers necessitates the setting of an internal price for the transfer of parts, goods, and services among units and responsibility centers. Transfer prices are contentious because management intervenes by creating policies which have an effect on the income of a responsibility center or unit. Transfers among international jurisdictions involve additional considerations. Not only accounting rules, but income taxation and duties affect pricing strategies. Most countries have regulations to help prevent the use of this pricing method as a means of evading taxes or similar unethical and illegal activities.