A standard convention for the

A standard convention for the  quark-mixing matrix has become

with the angles i j in the first quadrant and δ in . Chau and . Keung, Phys. Rev. Lett. 53, 1802 (1984).] The hierarchy  is a useful idealization of experimental information. A compact parameterization, informed by the rough magnitudes of the elements, aids in anticipating and integrating experimental results.

(a) Note that the quark-mixing matrix is in first approximation diagonal, symmetrical, and with a hierarchical structure for the mixing between generations.

Now take us as an expansion parameter for deviations from the identity matrix. Express ub2, where [cf. (7.1.28)] A ≈ 0.808 is of order unity. Set ub , and use the requirement of unitarily,   I, to solve for the diagonal elements. Show that, to 2,

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