Cuyamaca College Reform the Welfare System in United States Paper

Question Description

1. Reform the welfare system: Library

. This alternative is identical to the last paper,

except that the focus is welfare reform. That is, you must come up with three inter-

related proposals to reform the welfare system. You must support these reforms with

evidence, footnote your sources, etc. Here are some web sources that should be helpful

in finding information about welfare.

a.The Bureau of the Census

b.Institute for Research on Poverty (University of Wisconsin)

c.Brookings Institute

d.Bureau of Labor Statistics

e.Urban Institute

f.Center on Budget and Policy Priorities

g.RAND

h.Russell Sage

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University of California San Diego Global Inequalities Food and Hunger Paper

Question Description

12 point, Times New Roman font, and 1” margins, 7-FULL pages , double spaced ,

I attached detailed paper instructions in the files, please read it carefully!!!!!!!

PAPER INSTRUCTIONSFor this PAPER you will explore the websites for various organizations that deal with issues of this course – development and underdevelopment, global inequalities, and the struggle for social justice. You should explore at least fivewebsites. At least one of these sites should be considered “pro” global capitalism/conservative. Below are some suggestions, but you are not limited to these suggestions.

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PAPER INSTRUCTIONS For this PAPER you will explore the websites for various organizations that deal with issues of this course – development and underdevelopment, global inequalities, and the struggle for social justice. You should explore at least five websites. At least one of these sites should be considered “pro” global capitalism/conservative. Below are some suggestions, but you are not limited to these suggestions. Those considered “PRO” are indicated as well: World Development Movement: http://www.wdm.org.uk/ The Dawn, http://www.thedawn-news.org/ “50 Years is Enough! Campaign, http://www.50years.org/ The Global Exchange, http://www.globalexchange.org/ The Maquila Solidarity Network, http://www.maquilasolidarity.org/ Zianet, http://www.zmag.org/ZNETTOPnoanimation.html International Forum on Globalization, http://www.ifg.org/, Focus on the Global South: http://www.focusweb.org/ Third World Network: http://www.twnside.org.sg/ Transnational Institute: http://www.tni.org/ Institute for Policy Studies: http://www.ips-dc.org/ World Trade Organization: http://www.wto.org/ (PRO) Open Society Institute (George Soro’s website) http://www.soros.org/about/bios/a_soros (PRO) Globalizaton Research Center: http://www.cio.com/research/global/ (PRO) Global Research: http://www.globalresearch.ca/about. Global Issues: http://www.globalissues.org/ World Bank homepage: http://www.worldbank.org/ (PRO) The Globalist: http://www.theglobalist.com/ (PRO) World Economic Forum: http://www.weforum.org/ (PRO) International Monetary Fund: http://www.imf.org (PRO) International Relations Center: http://www.irc-online.org/ Food First: http://www.foodfirst.org/ MADRE: http://www.madre.org/ AllAfrica: http://allafrica.com/ Center for Civil Society (South Africa): http://www.nu.ac.za/ccs/ Green Left: http://www.greenleft.org.au/ Toward Freedom: http://www.towardfreedom.com/home/ Upside Down World: http://upsidedownworld.org/main/ Monthly Review: http://mrzine.monthlyreview.org/ The Real News Network: http://therealnews.com/t2/ AlterNet: http://www.alternet.org/ World War 4 Report: http://www.ww4report.com/taxonomy/term/17 Truthout, http://www.truth-out.org/ Rebelion (in Spanish), https://www.rebelion.org/ The Dawn, http://www.thedawn-news.org/ Socialist Alternative, https://www.socialistalternative.org/ Organizing Upgrade, https://organizingupgrade.com/ Food First (Institute for Food and Development Policy), http://www.foodfirst.org/ Los Despojados (most entries are in English): http://losdespojados.tumblr.com/ http://avispa.org/ You will need to spend a number of hours on the web exploring these websites, reading some of the articles and commentaries, and gaining an understanding of some of the popular literature and features on the web that have to do with the theme of development and global inequalities. Then you will write up a report, 12 point, Times New Roman font, and 1” margins, 7-FULL pages , double spaced , on your analysis of the exercise. GENERIC GUIDELINES FOR PAPER 1. Your assignments should have strong, coherent thesis statements at the beginning of the paper. The thesis statement should be specific and clear. It should tie together the different points you will address in the paper. 2. Description is necessary, but not sufficient. You are advised to include a brief but specific summary of what you are writing about (eg, a film, a book, a website) that introduces the features on which your analytical arguments will focus. There is relevant and irrelevant information about your topic of discussion (e.g, a film); make sure that the information you include in your summary is relevant to a) explain the overall premise of what you are discussing in relation to the course and (I already attached my course PPT) b) ground your analytical argument. DO NOT let description and summaries dominate your paper! 3. Instead, the bulk of your papers should be comprised of a serious analysis of the particular topic in relation to the course. Here you will want to employ the terms, concepts, theories, and insights garnered from the course in your analysis. a. What insights into globalization does the film, or website, or reading reflect? b. What concepts or terms doe the it illustrate, and how? 4. Citations should always include the author’s last name, year of publication, AND PAGE NUMBER. GLOBAL INEQUALITIES, CREATION OF WORLD CAPITALIST SYSTEM: EASTERN EUROPE AND RUSSIA ◼ EASTERN EUROPE & LATIN AMERICA INCORPORATED EARLIEST INTO EMERGING WORLD CAPITALIST SYSTEM ◼ BOTH AS PERIPHERAL AREAS SUPPLYING RAW MATERIALS ◼ BOTH THROUGH COERSED FORMS OF LABOR (SLAVERY AND FEUDAL/SERF-TYPE LABOR – “COERSED CASH CROP LABOR”) IN LATIN AMERCA, & THE “SECOND SERFDOM” IN EASTERN EUROPE STAVRIANOS: “THE THIRD WORLD COMMONLY IS THOUGHT OF AS COMPRISING OVERSEAS TERRITORIES, YET IT MADE ITS FIRST APPEARANCE IN EASTERN EUROPE. THE ECONOMY AND SOCIAL ORGANIZATION OF THE EAST EUROPEAN LANDS WERE THE FIRST TO BE SUBORDINATED AND REMOLDED TO MEET THE NEEDS OF THE NORTHWEST EUROPEAN MARKET” YET EASTERN EUROPE NOT FORMALLY CONQUERED OR COLONIZED EARLY DIVERGENCES EASTERN AND WESTERN EUROPE: 1300s-1500s ◼ 1300s/EARLY 1400s – WESTERN AND EASTERN EUROPE SIMILAR ◼ WHAT WOULD BE KEY DIFFERENCE SENDING THEM DOWN SEPARATE PATHS? ◼ MARX: “CLASS STRUGGLE IS THE MOTOR FORCE OF HISTORY” ◼ KEY DIFFERENTIATING FACTOR: TATAR, MOGHOL [1240-1480] AND OTTOMAN EXPANSION AND CONQUEST OF EASTERN EUROPE WEAKENS CENTRAL STATES, STRENGTHENS LOCAL LANDLORDS AND LOCAL COMMERCIAL AGENTS WHO BENEFIT FROM NEW PERIPHERAL RELATION TO WESTERN EUROPEAN CORE ◼ LATE MIDEAVAL PERIOD: DEVELOPMENT OF BALTIC SEA REGION – FIRST MASS TRADE IN NECESSITIES/BULK GOODS & FIRST INT. DIVISION OF LABOR: EASTERN EUROPE [POLAND, LITHUANIA, HUNGARY] SENDS LUMBER (FOR SHIPBUILDING), RYE, WHEAT, OTHER GRAINS (FOR MASS CONSUMPTION), CATTLE, FURS, HEMP, POTASH, COPPER NORTH-WESTERN EUROPE SENDS: TEXTILES AND OTHER MANUFACTURES “SECOND SERFDOM”, 1500s-1600s, INCOMPLETE CAPITALIST DEVELOPMENT, 1700s-1800s ◼ LANDLORDS REIMPOSE SERFDOM ON PEASANTS TO EXTRACT SURPLUS FOR TRADE WITH N.W. EUROPE ◼ STAVRIANOS: “IN POLAND, FOR INSTANCE, PEASANTS HAD BEEN REQUIRED BEFORE 1500 TO GIVE ONE DAY TO SIX DAYS OF LABOR SERVICE PER YEAR. BY 1550, THIS HAD BEEN RAISED TO THREE PER WEEK. AND BY 1600 TO SIX DAYS….PEASANTS WERE MADE COMPLETELY SUBJECT TO THE WILL OF THE LORD RATHER THAN TO THE JURISDICTION OF THE STATE” ◼ IN SUBSEQUENT CENTURIES, E. EUROPE FOLLOWS PATTERN SIMILAR TO RUSSIA – INCREASING PENETRATION BY CAPITALISM THAT DOES NOT FULLY DEVELOP EASTERN EUROPE 20TH & 21ST CENTURIES ◼ ◼ ◼ ◼ ◼ WWI: BREAKUP OF AUSTRIO-HUNGARIAN & OTTOMAN EMPIRE 1919-1939: MASS INTER-WAR REVOLTS SOVIET OCCUPATION AFTER WWII SINCE 1989 – MASSIVE INTEGRATION INTO GLOBAL CAPITALISM, NEO-LIBERAL GLOBALIZATION PRECIPITIOUS DROP IN LIVING CONDITIONS, NEW EASTERN EUROPEAN CAPITALIST CLASS AND MIDDLE STRATA LEGACY OF SOVIET ERA: CHEAP AND EFFICIENT MASS PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION MEDIEVAL CHARLES BRIDGE OVER THE VLTAVA RIVER IN PRAGUE. PRAGUE CASTLE IN BACKGROUND, DATING BACK TO 870. PRAGUE WAS A COMMERCIAL CENTER IN MEDIEVAL EUROPE. TELL-TALE SIGNS OF CAPITALIST GLOBALIZATION E. EUROPE: MALLIFICATION IN PRAGUE, SOCIAL POLARIZATION T.N. CORPORATE CAPITAL INVADES E. EUROPE CURIOUS STORY: ARCHITECTURE AND HISTORY RUSSIA ◼ RUSSIA REMAINS OUTSIDE EMERGING SYSTEM, 1400s-1500s [MOSCOW PRINCIPALITY] “IVAN THE TERRIBLE” EASTERN EXPANSION INTO ASIA, RUSSIAN TRIBUTARY/FUEDAL EMPIRE ◼ DEVELOPS INTO LARGELY SELF-SUFFICIENT INTERNAL ECONOMIC UNIT – REGIONAL SPECIALIZATION AND INTER-REGION TRADE SIBERIA: FURS, FOREST PRODUCTS, METALS UKRAINE: FOODSTUFFS MOSCOW AND OLD CENTERS: MANUFACTURED GOODS COMMERCE WITH IRAN, OTTOMAN EMPIRE, CHINA, UZBEK AND CENTRAL ASIA ◼ NOTE: (1) UNTIL 1700s, CAPITALISM HAS MINIMAL IMPACT; (2) MERCHANT CLASS NEVER VERY POWERFUL, DUE TO POWER OF CENTRAL STATE AND LANDED NOBILITY AND GENTRY; (3) NEW SERFDOM IMPOSED ON PEASANTS BUT DUE TO ITNERNAL TRADE, KNOWN AS “FORBIDDEN DECREES”, THROUGHOUT 1500, 1600s INTO 1700s ◼ UNDER “PETER THE GREAT” (1689-1725) BEGINNINGS OF CAPITALIST DEVELOPMENT & INDUSTRIALIZATION ◼ BY 19TH CENTURY, RUSSIA MAJOR ECONOMIC PLAYER….WOULD IT BECOME CAPITALIST CORE OR PERIPHERALIZED? RUSSIA PERIPHERALIZED ◼ KEY TURNING POINT: CRIMEAN WAR (1854-56), CZARIST REGIME LOSES TO WESTERN ARMIES ◼ RUSSIA FORCED TO OPEN UP TO WESTERN CAPITALISM & INTEGRATE INTO WORLD MARKET, RAPID DEPENDENT INDUSTRIALIZATION ◼ EMANCIPATION DECREE 1861 – SERFS EMANCIPATED, CAPITALIST ORIENTED AGRICULTURE (GRAINS), AND MINING RAW MATERIALS FOR W. EUROPE [SAME TELL-TALE THIRD WORLD PATTERN] ◼ “DEVELOPMENT OF UNDERDEVELOPMENT” IN RUSSIA STAVRIANOS ON RUSSIAN BECOMING PART OF THIRD WORLD “THE INSTITUTIONAL AND POLICY CHANGES FOLLOWING THE CRIMEAN WAR QUICKENED THE RUSSIAN ECONOMY AND IMPELLED IT INTO THE INTERNATIONAL CAPTIALIST WORLD ORDER. THE GROWING DEPENDENCE OF RUSSIAN AGRICULTURE ON WESTERN MARKETS AND OF RUSSIAN INDUSTRY ON WESTERN CAPITAL AND TECHNOLOGY SIGNIFIED THE EXTENSION OF THE THIRD WORLD TO INCLUDE THE GREAT EUROASIAN LAND MASS BETWEEN THE BALTIC SEA AND THE PACIFIC OCEAN “FOREIGN INVESTORS BY 1914 OWNED 40 PERCENT OF THE RAILWAY MILEAGE, 40 PERCENT OF THE ENGINEERING PLANS, 42 PERCENT OF THE BANKING STOCK, 50 PERCENT OF THE CHEMICAL INDUSTRY, 50 PERCENT OF THE COAL AND OIL OUTPUT, 60 PERCENT OF THE COPPER AND IRON ORE OUTPUT AND 80 PERCENT OF THE COKE OUTPUT….ALSO, FOREIGNERS HELD ALMOST 50 PERCENT OF THE RUSSIAN NATIONAL DEBT OF 8.9 BILLION RUPLES IN 1914, MAKING RUSSIA EUROPE’S LARGEST DEBTOR FROM THIRD TO SECOND WORLD ◼ ◼ ◼ ◼ ◼ 1905 REVOLUTION 1917 BOLSHEVIK REVOLUTION, LENIN & SOCIALISM 1920s – COUNTERREVOLUTIONARY/CIVIL WARS & ISOLATION 1930s – RISE OF STALINISM – COLLECTIVE AGRICULTURE & RAPID INDUSTRIALIZATION AND DEVELOPMENT 1939-1945 – WWII, 20 MILLION RUSSIAN DEATHS. SOVIET UNION DEFEATS NAZIS LATE 1950s – DESTALINIZATION 1960s – RAPID DEVELOPMENT & ADVANCEMENT 1970s – STAGNATION, DEBT AND ECONOMIC REINTEGRATION INTO WORLD CAPITALISM ◼ 1980S – GLASTNOST AND PERESTROIKA ◼ 1992 – DISINTEGRATION OF USSR ◼ 1992 – 20012 – MASSIVE DE-INDUSTRIALIZATION & NEOLIBERAL “SHOCK” INTEGRATION INTO GLOBAL CAPITALISM: RISE OF NEW CAPITALIST AND STATE OLIGARCHY; MASSIVE DECLINE IN LIVING STANDARDS & SOCIAL FABRIC “THIRDWORLDIZATION” OF MOST ALONGSIDE NEW MIDDLE CLASSES AND CONSUMER SOCIETY ◼ ◼ ◼ Greek Orthodox Church in Kremlin compound, Moscow, Nov. 2003 Upscale Mall in Moscow. The global economy has arrived in Moscow as manifest in extreme inequalities and luxury shopping. McDonalds in Moscow – largest McDonalds in Europe, November 2003. GLOBAL INEQUALITIES, CREATION OF WORLD CAPITALIST SYSTEM: MIDDLE EAST & ASIA NEW WAVES OF EXPANSION ◼ 1492 – 1750: “ATLANTIC/EUROPEAN WORLD ECONOMY” PROGRESSIVE EXPANSION AFTER FIRST INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION (LATE 1700s) – LATIN AMERICA & EASTERN EUROPE ◼ THEN AFTER SECOND INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION (MID-LATE 1800s) APPLYING SCIENCE – STEEL, RAILROADS, CHEMICALS, ETC. – HYPER-EXPANSION AND NEW WAVE OF COLONIZATION – MIDDLE EAST, ASIA, AFRICA, RUSSIA ◼ WHY THIS EXPANSION? -NEW NEEDS (MOTIVES) AND -NEW MEANS (POSSIBILITIES) -NEEDS: INDUSTRIAL OVER COMMERCIAL (MERCANTILE) CAPITALISM REQUIRES NEW MARKETS, RAW MATERIALS, OUTLETS FOR INVESTMENT, ETC. -NEW MEANS OF EXPANSION = MILITARY & ECONOMIC POWER GLOBAL INEQUALITIES TAKE OFF FROM MID-1800s AND ON – RISING STANDARDS OF LIVING IN FIRST WORLD AND STAGNATION OR REGRESSION ELSEWHERE QUOTES FROM CECIL RHODES AND ANDREW CARNEGIE CAPTURE THIS EPOCH CECIL RHODES (1882): “IN ORDER TO SAVE THE 40 MILLION INHABITANTS OF THE UNITED KINGDOM FROM A BLODDY CIVIL WAR, WE COLONIAL STATESMEN MUST ACQUIRE NEW LANDS TO SETTLE THE SURPLUS POPULATION, TO PROVIDE NEW MARKETS FOR THE GOODS PRODUCED BY THEM IN THE FACTORIES AND MINES” ANDREW CARNEGIE (1896): “ALWAYS WE ARE HOPING THAT WE NEED EXPAND NO FURTHER. YET EVER WE ARE FINDING THAT TO STOP EXPANDING WOULD BE TO FALL BEHIND, AND EVEN TODAY THE SUCCESSIVE IMPROVEMENTS AND INVENTIONS FOLLOW EACH OTHER SO RAPIDLY THAT WE SEE JUST AS MUCH YET TO BE DONE AS EVER. WHEN THE MANUFACTURER OF STEEL CEASES TO GROW HE BEGINS TO DECAY, SO WE MUST KEEP EXTENDING” ALSO, RISE OF SOCIAL DARWINISM AND SCIENTIFIC RACISM TO JUSTIFY NEW EUROPEAN EXPANSION AND DOMINATION….PERNICIOUS THEORIES OF RACIAL MANIFEST DESTINY. CECIL RHODES: “I CONTEND THAT WE ARE THE FIRST RACE OF THE WORLD AND THAT THE MORE OF THE WORLD WE INHABIT THE BETTER IT IS FOR THE HUMAN RACE…IF THERE BE A GOD, I THINK THAT WHAT HE WOULD LIKE ME TO DO IS TO PAINT AS MUCH OF THE MAP OF AFRICA RED AS POSSIBLE…” MIDDLE EAST • FLOURISHING ARAB CIVILIZATION (7TH – 13TH CENTURIES) DURING EUROPE’S “DARK AGES”; (CENTERED CAIRO AND BAHGDAD, IBERIAN PENINSULA), IBN KHALUN (1332-1406) – GREAT PHILOSOPHER, SOCIOLOGIST, AND POLITICAL ECONOMIST • PRE-WWI – OTTOMAN EMPIRE, HISTORIC SUMMARY: -RISE OF EMPIRE, 1280-1453 -ZENITH – 16TH CENTURY (TODAY’S IRAQ, EGYPT, TURKEY, SYRIA, LEBANON, ISREAL/PALESINE, JORDAN [LATTER FOUR “GREATER SYRIA”], NOT IRAN/PERSIA -DECLINE – 17TH – 18TH CENTURIES -“THIRD-WORLDIZATION, PERIPHERALIZATION – 19TH CENTURY -WWI – BREAKUP OF EMPIRE AND EUROPEAN COLONIZATION OF MIDDLE EAST • ZENITH IN 16TH CENTURY (MIDDLE EAST, NORTH AFRICA, SOUTH-EASTERN EUROPE). VENETIAN AMBASSADOR IN ISTANBUL, 1525: “I KNOW OF NO STATE WHICH IS HAPPIER THAN THIS ONE; IT IS FURNISHED WITH ALL GOD’S GIFTS. IT CONTROLS WAR AND PEACE WITH ALL, IT IS RICH IN GOLD, IN PEOPLE, IN SHIPS AND IN OBEDIENCE; NO STATE CAN BE COMPARED WITH IT. MAY GOD LONG PRESERVE THE MOST JUST OF ALL EMPORERS” MIDDLE EAST, CONT… WHY DECLINE BEGINNING 18TH CENTURY ? • – BY 18TH CENTURY, INFLUENCE OF EUROPEAN COMMERCIAL EXPANSION PULLS MIDDLE EAST – LIKE AFRICA – INTO GRADUAL RELATIONS OF SOCIOECONOMIC AND POLITICAL SUBORDINATION – FROM REGION OUTSIDE SYSTEM TO GRADUAL PERIPHERALIZATION 4 FACTORS STAND OUT: 1) POWERFUL RULING CLASS DID NOT REST ON CAPITAL ACCUMULATION AND COMMERCE, BUT ON LAND AND TRIBUTE; GREEKS, JEWS, ARMENIANS CONTROL DOMESTIC TRADE…. LATER RISE OF LEVANT COMPANIES (FRENCH, DUTCH, ENGLISH) MARX’S FAMOUS DICTUM: “CLASS STRUGGLE MOTOR FORCE OF HISTORY” HENCE, OTTOMAN EMPIRE LACKS INTERNAL AGENT OF INDEPENDENT CAPITALIST DEVELOPMENT 2) SHIFT IN GLOBAL TRADE ROUTES FROM MIDDLE EAST TO OCEANIC – M.E. FROM CENTER OF GLOBAL TRADE TO MARGINAL BACKWATER 3) WESTERN EUROPE APPLIES POLITICAL AND MILITARY PRESSURE TO BLOCK INDUSTRIALIZATION AND INDEPENDENT DEVELOPMENT 4) EXPANDING EUROPEAN COMMERCIAL PENETRATION IN WORDS OF ONE TURKISH HISTORIAN (STARIANOS): “THE IMPACT OF NEW WORLD BULLION AND OF WESTERN MANUFACTURED GOODS REPRESENTED THE INTRUSION OF ‘HIGH PRESSURE ATLANTIC ECONMY’ INTO THE ‘LOW TENSION OTTOMAN ECONOMY’.” MIDDLE EAST, CONT… • BY 18TH CENTURY, OTTOMAN EMPIRE BECOMES RAW MATERIALS PROVIDER FOR EUROPE – WHEAT, MAIZE, COTTON, WOOL, SILK, TOBACCO, DIE-STUFFS: – TELL-TALE STRUCTUAL RELATIONSHIP – TURKISH HISTORIAN: “THE COMMERCE OF THE LEVANT CHANGED TO A ‘COLONIAL COMMERCE’, TURNING TURKEY INTO A CLIENT FOR THE EUROPEAN INDUSTRY WHICH WAS ITSELF TO FURNISH ONLY PRIMARY MATERIALS, NO LONGER TO EXPORT FINISHED GOODS” – ALSO, SERIES OF LOANS AND DEBT PEONAGE – EAROPEANS CONTROLING FINANCE: FAMOUS 1830 – “ANGLO-TURKISH COMMERCIAL CONVENTION” – FORCED OPEN EMPIRE TO WESTERN FINANCE AND COMMERCIAL CONTROL. THIS IS BEGINNINGS OF EUROPEAN COLONIALISM, BEGINNINGS OF BREAKUP OF EMPIRE. • 18TH AND 19TH CENTURIES SEE EUROPEAN ANNEXATION OF NORTH AFRICA, SPAIN IN MOROCCO, FRENCH IN ALGERIA AND TUNISIA, ITALIANS IN LYBIA, ETC. • BREAKAWAY PROVINCES OF EGYPT, YUGOSLAVIA, BULGARIA, GREECE, RUMANIA BRITISH COLONIALISM IN EGYPT: MOHAMMED ALI (1769-1849), OTTOMAN OFFICIAL, COMES TO POWER 1813, WAKE OF 1798 NAPOLEANIC INVASION LEADS BREAKAWAY PROVINCES FROM OTTOMANS, TURNS EGYPT INTO REGIONAL POWER 1838, ALI DECLARES INDEPENDENCE FROM OTTOMANS, TRIES TO LAUNCH INDEPENDENT MODERNIZATION (INDUSTRY, ETC.) ALI DEFEATED IN EGYPT, DIES 1849, EGYPT OCCUPIED BY BRITISH …SEMICOLONY UNTIL 1956, NASSER AND SUEZ CANAL • MIDDLE EAST: FROM OTTOMAN COLLAPSE TO POSTWWII • WWI: BREAKUP OF EMPIRE – BRITISH AND FRENCH COLONIZE REGION, WESTERN VICTORS CONCERNED WITH: 1) NEW BOLSHEVIK REVOLUTION; 2) VAST OIL WEALTH; 3) BRITISH LOOKING FOR “ROAD TO INDIA” • LEAGUE OF NATIONS MANDATE SYSTEM, ESTABLISHES ARTIFICIAL BORDERS, FICTITOUS STATES, INC. KUWAIT • FRENCH TAKE CONTROL OF SYRIA AND LEBANON, BRITISH OF IRAQ, JORDAN, PALESTINE, BAHRAIN, EMIRATES KNOWN AS UAR, OMAN [EGYPT PREVIOUSLY SEMICOLONIZED BY BRITISH] • BRITISH, FRENCH, U.S. ORCHESTRATE INSTALLATION OF HOUSE OF SAUD IN SAUDI ARABIA, AND HUSSEIN MONARCHIES IN IRAQ AND JORDAN IN THIS WEAY, WESTERN COLONIALIST PLACE IN POWER FEUDAL MONARCHIES • FORMAL INDEPENDENCE AFTER WWII – REGION INCORPORATED WITH DEPENDENT ECONOMY AND FEUDAL STRUCTURES INTO WORLD CAPITALIST SYSTEM • PALESTINE COLONIZED AND DENIED NATION-HOOD: BRITISH, 1921, DIVIDE TRANSJORDAN INTO “JORDAN” AND “SMALLER PALESTINE”… ALLOW JEWISH IMMIGRATION IN “SMALLER PALESTINE” 1936-1939: PALESTINIAN GENERAL STRIKE AND ARMED UPRISING AGAINST BRITISH COLONIALISM, DEMANDING INDEPENDENCE BRITISH SUPPORT ISREALI STATE IN 1947 [UN PARTITION PLAN] PALENSTIAN EXPELLED, ISREALI TERROR, ALLIANCE OF ZIONISTS AND WESTERN CAPITALIST STATES MIDDLE EAST: NATIONALIST STRUGGLES TO 21ST CENTURY GLOBALIZATION SUMMARY: POST WW II: RISE OF NATIONALIST REGIMES, ARABISREALI WARS, ISREALI EXPANSIONISM, INCREASED U.S. PENETRATION; CONTRADICTION BETWEEN CAPITALIST DEVELOPMENT AND FEUDAL POLITICAL STRUCTURES • GAMIL NASSER IN EGYPT, 1956 SUEZ NATIONALIZATION, BRITISH, FRENCH, ISRAELIS ATTACK (ISREALI ROLE AS SUB-IMPERIALIST POWER) • 1960s – RISE OF BATHIST REGIMES IN IRAQ AND SYRIA, 1963, 1968, 1973 CIA COUP D’ETAT AND PUTCH TO SUPPORT SADAM • IRAN – AFTER BREAKUP OF PERSIAN EMPIRE, 1953 CIA COUP D’ETAT, SHAH UNTIL 1979 • 1948, 1967, 1973 ARAB-ISREALI WARS, FOLLOWED BY ISREALI EXPANSION AND OCCUPATION • 1991 – IRAQI INVASION OF KUWAIT • 2003: INVASION AND OCCUPATION OF IRAQ SPEARHEAD OF NEW U.S.ORGANIZED POLITICAL-MILITARY CAMPAIGN TO BRING MIDDLE EAST MORE FULLY INTO GLOBAL CAPITALISM PROGRESSIVE ISREALI EXPANSION, 1947 – 21ST CENTURY 4,000+ YEARS OF HISTORY IN TURKEY, FROM HITTITE TO ROMAN/BYZANTINE, TO OTTOMAN TO REPUBLICAN ERA GLOBALIZATION ASIA • • • • • • • • DUTCH, FRENCH , BRITISH PRINCIPAL COLONIALISTS, ALSO SPAIN, PORTUGAL, U.S. AND JAPAN IN 19TH CENTURY EUROPEAN EXPANSION FACES POWERFUL EMPIRES: CHINESE, INDIAN, INDONESIAN CIVILIZATIONS, KINGDOMS OF KOREA & JAPAN – STRONGER THAN EUROPEAN 15TH TO 18TH CENTURIES: BEST EUROPEANS MERCHANT AND MILITARY FLEETS COULD ACHIEVE = TRADING BEACHHEADS AND SEACOAST FORTS 17TH AND 18TH CENTURIES – GROWING MILITARY AND ECONOMIC STRENGTH OF EUROPE, CRISES OF ASIAN TRIBUTARY EMPIRES; 18TH AND 19TH CENTURIES: DECISIVE 200 YEARS OF CONQUEST AND COLONIZATION ROLE OF EAST INDIAN TRADING COMPANIES (DUTCH, ENGLISH, FRENCH, IN PARTICULAR) BY LATE 1800s – ASIA SUBORDINATED AND BROUGHT INTO WORLD CAPITALISM WHAT DOES WESTERN COLONIALISM IN ASIA INVOLVE? -DIRECT OR INDIRECT POLITICAL CONTROL -DESTROYING LOCAL INDUSTRY -NEW ROUND OF SLAVERY -SYSTEMS OF COERSED LABOR -REPRODUCING PLANATION SYSTEM FROM AMERICAS TO ASIA, GENERATING NEW RAW MATERIALS FOR WORLD MARKET INDIA • • • • • INDIA MAINTAINS STATUS UNTL LATE 18TH CENTURY – MOGHUL EMPIRE DETERIORATING SINCE 1740s – WARFARE THROUGHOUT SUB-CONTINENT GRADUAL ENGLISH ENCROACHMENT 1757 – DECISIVE MILITARY BATTLE IN PLASS …

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Walden University Morality and Social Responsibility & Cultural Genogram HW

Question Description

Philosophical perspectives and theories on morality contribute to an understanding of the deep-rooted human need to question the role human beings play in society. Whether your views align with those of Aristotle, Kant, or Mill, you can explore the reasons behind your inherent motivation to act responsibly. At the outset of your life, you develop habits of thought based on what you are exposed to, where you live, with whom you live, and your experiences. In this Application Assignment, you critically examine these experiences as well as theoretical perspectives on morality and assess how they impact your moral and cultural identity. You also assess how these experiences influence your concept of social responsibility.

  • Read the articles by Brink (2014), Johnson (2014), and Kraut (2014) in this week’s resources. Summarize the key points of each theory. Does one theory resonate with you more than another? Why or why not?
  • Make connections to your own culture. Consider whether these three theories are reflected in your own culture.
  • Review the Cultural Genogram: Dimensions of Culture document in this week’s Resources. Think about the ways different dimensions of culture inform your moral identity (e.g., how your national, ethnic, and/or gender identity informs your moral identity).
  • Consider how different dimensions of culture inform your concept of social responsibility.

https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/mill-moral-political/

https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/aristotle-ethics/

https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/kant-moral/

https://class.content.laureate.net/e1ff1fa4a8f0a7b0f5fbd19111d1141e.pdf

Write a 2-page analysis connecting the three theories of morality to your own cultural identity.

Explain how the theories align or do not align with your cultural identity. Include how cultural identity impacts social responsibility.

Provide at least three references using proper APA format.

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SOCI 4080C: Social Responsibility Cultural Genogram: Dimensions of Culture For each of the Identity Factors below, enter three characteristics that symbolize or define that Identity Factor from your perspective based on cultural norms. Then consider how these values influence your thoughts on social responsibility. {Enter your name here} Identity Factor: Family How would you describe your family? Culturally Defined Characteristics  Identity Factor: Country of Origin/Residence Identity Factor: Race/Ethnicity Where did you grow What up? symbols/values represent your culture? Culturally Defined Characteristics  Culturally Defined Characteristics  Identity Factor: Gender What roles, responsibilities, and/or expectations are associated with gender in your experience? Culturally Defined Characteristics  Direct or Indirect Influence on Orientation to Social Responsibility  © 2016 Laureate Education, Inc. Page 1 of 1 …
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University of Mississippi Extreme Male Makeup Research Paper

Question Description

– The five-paper minimum means five full pages – a cover page does not count as one of these pages, nor does a reference page, and getting a paragraph onto the fifth page does not count as a full page.

– You should use double spacing, a common font, and size 12 font size

– You should have a reference page – you don’t have to include your annotated bibliography, but include all the sources you used.

– Here’s a guide for how to cite different types of sources – notably, don’t simply post a URL without giving the title, author (if any), etc. – http://www.citationmachine.net/mla/cite-a-website; you can use either Chicago or MLA style

 You should have citations from your sources in your paper whenever you are using information that you gained from these sources. Do not use any direct quotes or working from the articles without placing them in quotation marks and citing where you got the quotes. Otherwise this is a clear case of plagiarism. Summarizing someone else’s argument or rewording it is likewise something for which you need to provide a citation.

 In your introductory section you should have some sort of statement aimed at the reader that states clearly what you are going to be doing in the paper. Don’t simply jump into the paper – let the reader know what to generally expect from your approach, and there’s no need to hint at your conclusion. Ex. “In this paper I will be examining the issue/problem of X. I will do so by examining elements of this issues including A, B and C.”

– Have clear sections in your paper – I already suggested that you divide the main part into three sub-sections. If, for instance, you were writing a paper on the expansion of Nascar’s audience , you might write, “In this paper I will be examining a transition in the audience for NASCAR by focusing on 1) Nascar’s efforts to attract females, 2) Nascar’s efforts to attract African Americans, and 3) Nascar’s strategies on social media. Then proceed to write a bit about the background of the issue – its founding, that Nascar was traditionally a largely white, male, Southern audience, and that more recently it’s grown, and then proceed to the main section. After going over the three subsections, then have a conclusion.

Basic information

The term paper, which should be a minimum of five full pages long (not including a cover or bibliography pages) and is due during the last week of regular class, is your opportunity to apply some of the ideas that you’ve learned about popular culture in this course, and apply these insights to a topic that you want to investigate.

The main idea behind the paper is to investigate how a particular cultural issue has changed over time – earlier in the course we saw dramatic examples in the articles about Shakespeare and Boston. I certainly don’t expect anything on the scale of those, but instead want you to discover some of the basic processes underlying cultural change.

You can look at things such as new trends, the emergence and transformation of subcultures, how the cultural status of various phenomenon change over time—in other words a very wide variety of topics, and I hope that you’ll be imaginative in picking them. Please consider choosing something that you’re very interested in rather than simply picking something from the suggested list below!

The topic is on extreme makeup and the sources are attached in the annotated bib.

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This research meant to explore the rise of extreme male makeup and the controversial views of it. Extreme male makeup is the new trend of males using full face makeup. These sessions are done flawlessly and catch the attention of millions on social media. I, for one, love makeup products and applying makeup on others and myself. I am a big fan of the work of many popular extreme male makeup artists. On the other hand, others have views and opinions on the trend that are much more controversial. My hopes are that the reader learns of the start of the trend of extreme makeup and the controversies of it as well. https://www.cbsnews.com/news/male-makeup-is-catching-more-mens-eyes-in-the-u-s/ The major idea presented in this web article is the emergence of male makeup in the U.S. The relevance of this source is also purposed to give us a look at why many males are following the trend. This is a good source because it gives us many subsections on the topic of male makeup and there are no conflicting opinions within the article. This leads me to believe the author supports the trend and the credibility of the source is good because it is a published CBS article. https://www.npr.org/2019/11/12/776744697/my-journey-into-the-world-of-mens-beauty The major idea presented in this web article is also on the emergence of male makeup but with a twist. It gives more ideas of how different the use of makeup on men can be and the norms that are clearly disregarded. The relevance of the article is to give a more personal perspective of a male who entered the trend and gave it a try. This is a good source because it gives us a lot of different ways men put makeup to use in today’s time. The site credibility seems to be good and I believe the author’s standpoint supports the trend and shows interest by his research of the market and willingness to emerge himself in the trend. https://fashionmagazine.com/beauty/the-new-beauty-ideal-is-a-completely-new-face-accordingto-instagram/ The major idea presented in this article is the view the extreme makeup has become increasingly popular on the social media platform, Instagram. The relevance of the source is purposed to give us a look at how extreme makeup started with many alteration and additions of makeup techniques. For instance, the technique of contouring was introduced through Instagram tutorials and spread like wild fire across the net. This appears to be a good source because the fashion magazine is purposed to keep up with the latest trends in all sections of beauty. The author’s standpoint is supporting the addition of the new techniques and emergences as it is mentioned it is a better alternative than permanent surgeries. https://www.theguardian.com/fashion/2019/aug/27/extreme-makeup-girls-boys-generation-znew-subculture The major idea presented in this article is the view of the trend being a cultural change in beauty and its subcultures. The relevance of the source is also purposed to give us a look at many adjacent effects of the trend, rises in makeup prices in the market to media use and exposure. This appears to be a good source because it gives us a look at how the market is affected by this. The credibility of the article is good because it comes from a popular article webpage. The standpoint of the author seems as if they were very interested and supporting of the topic, only brief stated about the critic opinion. https://www.wired.co.uk/article/avoid-facial-recognition-software The major idea presented in this article is the view of how the government is implementing face recognition technology. The relevance of the source is purposed to show how extreme makeup can be used as an avoidance in this government project. The use of extreme makeup is so outstanding with its’ outcome, that it can be used in avoiding recognition. This appears to be a good source because of the implement of extreme makeup in a controversial topic. The credibility of the article is good because it comes from a popular technology article web page that seems to keep up with the latest information. The author’s standpoint seems against the idea presented in the article simply because there are many ways listed in how to avoid the face recognition technology. 2 …
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Grantham University Psychopathology Social Work Discussion Paper

Question Description

A diagnosis is powerful in the effect it can have on a person’s life and treatment protocol. When working with a client, a social worker must make important decisions—not only about the diagnostic label itself but about whom to tell and when. In this Discussion, you evaluate the use and communication of a diagnosis in a case study.

To prepare: Focus on the complex but precise definition of a mental disorder in the DSM-5 and the concept of dimensionality both there and in the Paris (2015) and Lasalvia (2015) readings. Also note that the definition of a mental disorder includes a set of caveats and recommendations to help find the boundary between normal distress and a mental disorder.

Then consider the following case:

Ms. Evans, age 27, was awaiting honorable discharge from her service in Iraq with the U.S. Navy when her colleagues noticed that she looked increasingly fearful and was talking about hearing voices telling her that the world was going to be destroyed in 2020. With Ms. Evans’s permission, the evaluating [social worker] interviewed one of her closest colleagues, who indicated that Ms. Evans has not been taking good care of herself for several months. Ms. Evans said she was depressed.

The [social worker] also learned that Ms. Evans’s performance of her military job duties had declined during this time and that her commanding officer had recommended to Ms. Evans that she be evaluated by a psychiatrist approximately 2 weeks earlier, for possible depression.

On interview, Ms. Evans endorsed believing the world was going to end soon and indicated that several times she has heard an audible voice that repeats this information. She has a maternal uncle with schizophrenia, and her mother has a diagnosis of bipolar I disorder. Ms. Evans’s toxicology screen is positive for tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). The evaluating [social worker] informs Ms. Evans that she is making a tentative diagnosis of schizophrenia.

Source: Roberts, L. W., & Trockel, M. (2015). Case example: Importance of refining a diagnostic hypothesis. In L. W. Roberts & A. K. Louie (Eds.), Study guide to DSM-5 (pp. 6–7). Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing.

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Copyright 2015. Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher, except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law. PA R T I DIAGNOSTIC PRINCIPLES EBSCO Publishing : eBook Collection (EBSCOhost) – printed on 12/4/2019 1:26 PM via WALDEN UNIV AN: 939818 ; Paris, Joel.; The Intelligent Clinician’s Guide to the DSM-5® Account: s6527200.main.eds EBSCO Publishing : eBook Collection (EBSCOhost) – printed on 12/4/2019 1:26 PM via WALDEN UNIV AN: 939818 ; Paris, Joel.; The Intelligent Clinician’s Guide to the DSM-5® Account: s6527200.main.eds Copyright 2015. Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher, except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law. Copyright 2015. Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher, except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law. 1 Introduction The year 2013 marked the publication of DSM-5, the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM), published by the American Psychiatric Association (APA). This was the first major revision in more than 30 years. Prior to 1980, diagnostic classification of mental disorders was an abstruse subject, of interest only to researchers and a few experts. But if mental disorders are medical diagnoses, they require a scientifically based classification. Moreover, since 1980, the DSM system has had a profound influence on all the mental health professions. The public, some of whom have been on the receiving end of a diagnostic process, also finds the subject fascinating, so revisions of psychiatry’s manual are front-page news. This book is a guide to the main features of the latest version of the manual. It will focus on three questions. First, what are the most important changes? Second, what are the implications of these changes for practice? Third, is DSM-5 better, worse, or equal to its predecessors? This book, as a critical guide for the intelligent clinician, will applaud the positive aspects of DSM-5 but underline its limitations. It will be supportive of some changes but be critical of others. What DSM-5 Can and Cannot Do The first two manuals published by APA, DSM-I (1952) and DSM-II (1968), did not have a great impact on psychiatry. They were used for statistical purposes, but they were not guides to clinical practice. 3 EBSCO Publishing : eBook Collection (EBSCOhost) – printed on 12/4/2019 1:26 PM via WALDEN UNIV AN: 939818 ; Paris, Joel.; The Intelligent Clinician’s Guide to the DSM-5® Account: s6527200.main.eds Copyright 2015. Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher, except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law. 4 | Part I Diagn ostic P ri n cip l e s In contrast, the third edition of the manual, DSM-III, published in 1980, was a major break with the past, as well as a best-selling book. The ideas behind this edition reflected a new paradigm for psychiatry, and the politics that made a radical revision possible are a fascinating story in their own right (Decker, 2013). DSM-III moved classification from clinical impressions to some degree of rigor. It increased reliability by taking an “atheoretical” position—that is, making diagnoses based on what clinicians can see and agree on as opposed to the abstract theories used in DSM-I and DSM-II. DSM-III, and its successors, found a place on the shelf of almost every psychiatrist, psychologist, and mental health professional. There were no major changes in the manual during the next 30 years. DSM-III-R, published in 1987, allowed a greater degree of overlap between diagnoses, and DSM-IV, published in 1994, added some important new diagnoses, including bipolar II disorder and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in adults. In 2000, a slightly edited version, DSM-IV-TR, appeared. The absence of major changes for so long could be seen as suggesting a need for a new system that could radically revise the diagnosis of mental disorders. This was the mandate given to the editors of DSM-5 by the APA. The work lasted 10 years, with a result that was initially claimed to be a “paradigm shift.” Is the DSM-5 system an improvement over previous editions? The answer has to be yes and no. One would like to believe so, but there are reasons for doubt. Some problems derive from the concept that psychopathology lies on a continuum with normality, making it difficult to separate mental disorders from normal variations and leading to a danger of overdiagnosis. Other issues derive from a strong attachment to the principle that mental disorders are brain disorders, even though knowledge is insufficient to develop a classification based on neuroscience. Although great progress has been made in research on the brain, the origins of mental illness remain a mystery. When one does not know enough, one should not invest in change for change’s sake. Sometimes it is better to keep a known system, however faulty, than make modifications with unpredictable EBSCO Publishing : eBook Collection (EBSCOhost) – printed on 12/4/2019 1:26 PM via WALDEN UNIV AN: 939818 ; Paris, Joel.; The Intelligent Clinician’s Guide to the DSM-5® Account: s6527200.main.eds Copyright 2015. Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher, except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law. 1 I n t ro d u c t i o n | 5 consequences. Moreover, even the smallest changes to diagnostic criteria can have profound effects on research and practice. Finally, revisions with good intentions can still lack clinical utility. Revising DSM is an enormous job, and each edition has grown larger, more complicated, and thicker. Yet much of what is written in the manual may never be applied in practice. The Validity of Psychiatric Diagnosis DSM-III aimed to make diagnosis more reliable, but reliability is not validity. During the next 33 years, constant use of the manuals gave clinicians the impression that their categories were valid. That was not true. The DSM system lacks the data to define mental disorders in the way that physicians conceptualize medical illnesses. Diagnoses in medicine can also be vague, but psychiatry is far behind other specialties in grounding categories in measurements that are independent of clinical observation. Almost all DSM-5 diagnoses are based entirely on signs and symptoms. Although some disorders have support for their validity, and although observation can be made more precise through statistical evaluation and expert consensus, most other areas of medicine use blood tests, imaging, or genetic markers to confirm impressions drawn from signs and symptoms. Psychiatry is nowhere near that level of knowledge. No biological markers or tests exist for any diagnosis in psychiatry. For this reason, any claim that DSM-5 is more scientific than its predecessors is unjustified. In 1980, I was a strong supporter of the paradigm shift introduced by DSM-III. It was progressive to make diagnosis dependent on observation rather than on theory. But this provisional stance became frozen in time, and progress during the succeeding decades has been slow. Radical changes in classification would require much more knowledge about the causes of mental disorders. And that is just what we do not have. EBSCO Publishing : eBook Collection (EBSCOhost) – printed on 12/4/2019 1:26 PM via WALDEN UNIV AN: 939818 ; Paris, Joel.; The Intelligent Clinician’s Guide to the DSM-5® Account: s6527200.main.eds Copyright 2015. Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher, except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law. 6 | Part I Diagn ostic P ri n cip l e s Psychiatry and Neuroscience Psychiatry has bet on neuroscience as the best way to understand mental disorders, to solve problems in diagnosis, and to plan treatment interventions. Only time will tell how this wager will pan out. Some psychiatrists claim that the field is on the verge of a great breakthrough. If one were to believe the hype, a biological explanation—and a biological cure—for mental illness lies just around the corner. (Or as one wag put it, every few years we are told that answers are just a few years away.) Although progress in brain research has been rapid and impressive, its application to psychiatry has thus far been very limited. Brain scans are impressive (even if one keeps in mind that the colors are artificial), but all they tell you is that activity is different at different sites. The precise meaning of these changes is unclear, and none are specific to any diagnosis. We do not know enough about the brain, or about the mind, to develop a truly scientific classification, and it could be 50–100 years before we can even get close. It is understandable that psychiatry, so long the Cinderella of medicine and desperate for respectability, wanted to plant its flag on the terrain of neuroscience. But the promise of the 1990s (“the decade of the brain”) for research on mental disorders has not been fulfilled. Neuroscience has shed much light on how the brain functions, but we do not understand the etiology or the pathogenesis of severe mental disorders. We know that most are heritable, but we have no idea about which (or how many) genes are involved. Although some disorders are associated with abnormalities on brain imaging, the findings are neither specific nor explanatory. Although psychopathology can be associated with changes in neurotransmitters, the theory that chemical imbalances cause mental disorders is too simple or plain wrong. Ultimately, it may be impossible to fully explain mental disorders as brain disorders. The neuroscience model attempts to reduce every twisted thought to a twisted molecule, but it devalues studying the mind on a mental level. Considering that it will take many decades to unravel these mysteries, the current situation is nothing to be ashamed of. The DSM-5 EBSCO Publishing : eBook Collection (EBSCOhost) – printed on 12/4/2019 1:26 PM via WALDEN UNIV AN: 939818 ; Paris, Joel.; The Intelligent Clinician’s Guide to the DSM-5® Account: s6527200.main.eds Copyright 2015. Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher, except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law. 1 I n t ro d u c t i o n | 7 task force, as well as the leaders of the National Institute of Mental Health, believe that psychiatry should give up its traditional mission, which was both scientific and humanistic, and redefine itself as the clinical application of neuroscience. To paraphrase a famous line from the Vietnam War, they want to destroy psychiatry in order to save it. It is of course true that mental phenomena reflect the activity of the human brain. But the brain is the most complex structure known in the universe. There are more synapses in the brain than stars in the galaxy. This is a project for a century, not a decade, and its results may never provide a full explanation of mental illness. Unsolved Problems in Psychiatric Diagnosis Lack of Knowledge About Mental Disorders: DSM-5 is not “the bible of psychiatry” but, rather, a practical manual for everyday work. Psychiatric diagnosis is primarily a way of communicating about patients. This function is essential but pragmatic—categories of illness can be useful as heuristics without necessarily being “true.” The DSM system is a rough-and-ready classification that brings a degree of order to chaos. But it describes categories of disorder that are poorly understood and that will be replaced with time. Moreover, current diagnoses are syndromes, not true diseases. They are symptomatic variants of broader processes defined by arbitrary cutoff points. Thus, although classifications serve a necessary function, psychiatrists can only guess how “to carve nature at its joints.” That phrase (attributed to Aristotle) describes an impossible task. We do not know if it is possible to find joints to be carved. Even in medicine, diagnoses are not always cleanly defined or related to a specific etiology. In contrast, mental disorders greatly overlap with each other—and with normality. The Need for Biological Markers: In the absence of a more fundamental understanding of disease processes, DSM-5, like its predecessors, had no choice but to continue basing diagnostic criteria on signs and symptoms. But observation needs to be augmented by biological markers, as has been done in other medical specialties. EBSCO Publishing : eBook Collection (EBSCOhost) – printed on 12/4/2019 1:26 PM via WALDEN UNIV AN: 939818 ; Paris, Joel.; The Intelligent Clinician’s Guide to the DSM-5® Account: s6527200.main.eds Copyright 2015. Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher, except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law. 8 | Part I Diagn ostic P ri n cip l e s In the absence of independent measures of this kind, we cannot be sure that any category in the manual is valid. We should not therefore think of current psychiatric diagnoses as “real” in the same way as medical diseases. Also, listing them in a manual does not make them real. For example, broad categories such as “major depression” in no way resemble diseases. Even the most “classical” concepts in psychiatry, such as the separation of schizophrenia from bipolar disorder, have not fully stood up to scrutiny. In summary, psychiatrists must make diagnoses, but they do not need to reify them. They are best advised to stay humble and to avoid hubris. Boundaries Between Mental Disorder and Normality: This is one of the most nagging problems in psychiatric diagnosis. Every edition of DSM has expanded this frontier, taking on increasingly more problems of living as diagnosable disorders. Psychiatric classification has become seriously overinclusive, and the manual grows ever larger with each edition. DSM-5 also errs on the side of expanding boundaries—mainly out of fear of “missing something” or not including problems that psychiatrists treat in practice. The result is that people with normal variations in emotion, behavior, and thought can receive a psychiatric diagnosis, leading to stigma and inappropriate and/or unnecessary treatment. Diagnostic Validity and Research: Because we have to live with a diagnostic system that is provisional—and that will almost certainly prove invalid in the long run—much of the research on mental disorders has to be taken with a grain of salt. For example, although a massive amount of data has been collected on the epidemiology of mental illness, almost all its findings are dependent on the current diagnostic system. Similarly, studies of treatment methods in psychiatry that target specific disorders are sorely limited by the problematic validity of categories. Most treatments, from antidepressants to cognitive behavioral therapy, have broad effects that are not specific to any diagnosis. Comorbidity: One of the most troubling problems with the DSM system is that it yields multiple diagnoses in the same patient. That is not the way medicine usually works. It is possible for patients to suffer from more than one disease. But in psychiatry, if you follow EBSCO Publishing : eBook Collection (EBSCOhost) – printed on 12/4/2019 1:26 PM via WALDEN UNIV AN: 939818 ; Paris, Joel.; The Intelligent Clinician’s Guide to the DSM-5® Account: s6527200.main.eds Copyright 2015. Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher, except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law. 1 I n t ro d u c t i o n | 9 the rules, the same symptoms can be used to support two or three diagnoses. Thus, “comorbidity” is little but an artifact of an inexact system in which criteria overlap. The sicker a patient, the more mental disorders will be identified. DSM-5 considered severity ratings and diagnostic spectra to address this problem, but these procedures could not resolve underlying questions about boundaries. Algorithmic Diagnosis: Another source of uncertainty is that diagnosis in psychiatry does not depend on “pathognomonic” signs and symptoms that define specific diseases. The algorithmic approach of the DSM system has been rightly popular: It uses “polythetic” criteria—making a list and then requiring a given number to be present. These quantitative thresholds are superior to asking clinicians to determine whether the patient’s condition resembles a prototype. But if a typical DSM diagnosis requires, for example, five out of nine criteria, nobody knows whether four or six criteria would have been more or less valid. Few categories have absolute requirements for any criterion, and no system of weighting takes into account the most characteristic features. The DSM system has been jocularly called a “Chinese menu” approach to diagnosis. But most clinicians need to consult the menu, and they would be hard put to remember all criteria for any category. Dimensionalization: The editors of DSM-5 thought that the solution to the comorbidity problem is to view disorders as dimensions—spectra of pathology that can be scored in terms of severity. All previous editions have classified mental disorders as specific categories, much like general medicine. One of the main ideas behind DSM-III was the revival of a model based on the work of the German psychiatrist Emil Kraepelin (1856–1926). Categories are consistent with the view that psychiatry concerns itself with mental illness, not with unhappiness or life itself. They also imply that psychopathology falls into a set of categories or natural kinds, much like tuberculosis or most forms of cancer. DSM-5 sought to overthrow this “neo-Kraepelinian” approach and replace it with a model in which normality and illness lie on a continuum. The rationale is that research suggests the underlying biology of mental disorders is more dimensional than categorical. But measuring the EBSCO Publishing : eBook Collection (EBSCOhost) – printed on 12/4/2019 1:26 PM via WALDEN UNIV AN: 939818 ; Paris, Joel.; The Intelligent Clinician’s Guide to the DSM-5® Account: s6527200.main.eds Copyright 2015. Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher, except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law. 10 | Part I Diagn ostic P ri n cip l e s severity of depression is not like taking blood pressure. The definition of dimensions is based on observation rather than biological markers, and it can only be provisional. Dimensional diagnosis also runs the risk of being overinclusive. Even normal people have some symptoms of disorder but do not deserve a formal diagnosis. Because differences in degree can become differences in kind, categories are necessary. Expert Consensus: DSM-5 is not a scientific document but, rather, a product of consensus by committees of experts. Sometimes the outcome depends on who was put on these committees. Where experts disagree, there is a way to “fix” results in advance—by ensuring that membership reflects a preexisting point of view. There are many scientific disputes affecting diagnosis, but most reflect a lack of basic knowledge. As the American physician Alvan Feinstein once remarked, the consensus of experts is the source of most medical errors. In summary, DSM-5 was a noble attempt at a revision in line with current research, and it can …
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Ohio State Bare Foot Revolution of Burkina Faso Documentary Discussion

Question Description

Documentary: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0yWIakmSHIc

Editing instructions

All the changes/revisions made to improve the first draft must be highlighted in color in the final draft version.

Failure to integrate my comments, highlight the changes and follow the paper instructions will result in an F

Write grammatically correct sentences

Avoid vague sentences or pronouns/ be specific!

Avoid repetitive sentences/ ideas, be coherent, it’s a story!

Include subtitles/subheadings

Visit the writing studio and/or have someone read your paper.

To receive full credits, students must write five full pages following the guidelines spelled out on the syllabus.

NB: Plagiarized work and late submitted papers will not be graded.

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Running Head: BARE FOOT REVOLUTION OF BURKINA FASO Bare Foot Revolution of Burkina Faso Green 1 BARE FOOT REVOLUTION OF BURKINA FASO Green 2 The documentary is about what the commentator touts as the barefoot revolution. This is because the people of Burkina Faso mounted one of the most resolute and fierce struggles in the world to liberate themselves. The citizens of Burkina Faso were declared independent by Britain in 1960 but the independence of their country did not in any way improve their lives. The poverty levels remained at an all-time low. The illiteracy levels deteriorated. This is a country which is a former French colony and which though landlocked has substantial reserves of minerals which could go a long way in boosting the lifestyle of the citizenry. The country of Burkina Faso is located in West Africa and basically, the population is either semi-literate or illiterate. This could be attributed to the fact that the French colonial policy was not geared towards coming up with self-reliant and independent citizens who can independently run their affairs. For instance, the French did not in any way prepare their former colonies to be in a position to run their countries with little or no interference from any external power. This is by and large the very opposite of the former British colonies of Kenya, Nigeria and South Africa whose transition was not in any way in turmoil since the British government prepared their subjects to responsibly assume power and run their countries in their absence.(Schneider,1988). The justification could be in the fact that former British colonies like Nigeria, Kenya and South Africa exhibit stable governments independent of their former colonial masters. The British regime by large groomed responsible citizens with a notion of self-reliance and a clear cut transition, unlike their French counterparts who were bent on helping out their subjects throughout. The BARE FOOT REVOLUTION OF BURKINA FASO Green 3 better way to gauge the comparison is to carry out a case study between Burkina Faso and Kenya, The British government in Kenya ensured Africans received substantial education to self reliably run their countries and carve out their destiny, For instance the colonial regime in Kenya ensured that the founding fathers of Kenya received elementary, secondary and even university education to enable them to run their countries in a situation where the colonial government granted self-rule to the so-called natives. Unlike the French who only believed in compelling their subjects to embrace their culture in their assimilation policy. While the British colonialists were busy preparing the Africans in their colonies to take over after them, the French were grooming people to always be subservient and dependent on them. This, in a nutshell, could be attributed to the difference between the francophone subjects and the Anglophones. Countries like Kenya and Ghana got their independence from Britain in 1957 and 1963 respectively. Ghana had some stable running of its affairs under Kwame Nkrumah before a military takeover but it adjusted its governance strategies and is one of the most stable African countries presently. On the other hand, Kenya has enjoyed peace and tranquility since 1963 and has one of the most diverse and elaborates liberal democracies in the region. This is because the British prepared their subjects to assume leadership positions in the event of their exit. Both the founding fathers of Ghana (Kwame Nkrumah) and Kenya (Mzee Jomo Kenyatta) were holders of university degrees by the time their respective countries were granted independence by Britain. On the contrary, when Burkina Faso got its independence from France in 1960, the literacy levels were so low in the country such that they could not independently run their affairs. It is quite evident that the most stable democracies in Africa were former British colonies while the most unstable countries were former French colonies. BARE FOOT REVOLUTION OF BURKINA FASO Green 4 The Resistance of the Citizenry The French colony of Burkina Faso was granted its independence by France in 1960. The country was ill-prepared for self real since the literacy levels were very low with most of the citizens suffering from the three main handicaps of poverty, illiteracy and disease. There were no structures for the education system and the citizenry was by and l not ready for self-governance and determination of their lives. The discontent and deep-seated resentment of the citizens of Burkina Faso first led to the granting of independence in 1960. The dictatorial regime of the French colonial masters was emulated by the first native leaders of Burkina Faso. Though not well educated, Sankara remains one of the most progressive and development-oriented leaders of Burkina Faso. For instance, the president was a great admirer of the Cuban communist leader Fidel Castro. He came up with an elaborate development agenda which was to make Burkina Faso an economic powerhouse in Africa. He started development projects Cuban style with the sole objective of eradicating poverty in his country. But his great ideas and tenure in office were curtailed by Blaise Compaore who led a coup de tat against him. The military took over and all his great projects came into a halt.(Schneider,1988). Recycling of Leaders It is an incontestable fact that Blaise Comapore was the founding father of Burkina Faso when the country secured its independence from Britain in 1960. Compaore also assassinated Sankara alongside other top officials of the Burkina Faso government. This was a violent takeover BARE FOOT REVOLUTION OF BURKINA FASO Green 5 though he did not have a very easy ride since he could not control the masses and the living standards of the country deteriorated. Unlike Sankore who had the interests of masses at heart, Compaore collaborated with the foreign exploiters whose mission was to exploit the citizens of Burkina Faso. In collaborating with the mining companies, the country did not gain from the precious minerals emanating from the country even though the country was very rich in minerals. Social Justice The people of Burkina Faso could not stand the excesses of their very own dictatorial and exploitative regime. Poverty and disease had become so rampant in the society, People were being recessed by their very own leaders and it was quite evident that the citizens of Burkina Faso could not in any way benefit from the resources of their own country. The more than thirty opposition leaders teamed up to ensure they transform their government from the dictatorial and draconian regime of Compaore who wanted to change the constitution to ensure he extends his term in office.(Michener,1998) The Mass Exodus of the People Burkina Faso is a landlocked West African country of 18 million people. The poverty levels of the country are quite wanting with the IMF and World Bank projections indicating that it is one of the poorest countries on earth. This is even though the country is very rich in minerals but because of the corrupt and arrogant leadership of the former military and civilian regimes, the country’s citizenry lives below the poverty line. The country is also landlocked and borders Benin, Togo, Ghana and Ivory Coast. According to Englebert (2018) ,due to the poverty and hardships in the country, the citizens of Burkina Faso had to seek refuge in more robust and prosperous African BARE FOOT REVOLUTION OF BURKINA FASO Green 6 neighboring countries like Nigeria and Ghana which were principally former British colonies. As per the earlier analysis, the former British colonies were more robust and stable since the British government prepared their subjects for the transition to set up their governments. Illegitimate Regimes Since its independence, the country was rather unfortunate in its leadership. the country experienced several military coups .the the first president of the country was leading a very extravagant lifestyle which was beyond the means of his country, This led to the leadership of Sankara who was a very progressive leader..Compaore was a very progressive leader who wanted to run a very transparent government and transform the lives of his people. During his reign, the living standards of his people drastically improved and he even opened up his bank accounts for public scrutiny. This did not augur well with the corrupt leadership of Burkina Faso who organized for his exit. The leadership under Compaore wanted to change the constitution and succeeded in ensuring the country became very unfavorable for foreign investments and the welfare of its citizens. The assassination of sank more led to the leadership of Compaore who ruled with an iron fist and even wanted to change the constitution and extend his term in office, Conclusion It is quite evident that people will almost always resist a regime that subordinates and recesses them. Though the ruling class in Burkina Faso used the brute military force to ensure people did not resist them, the people organized a very successful revolution and with the help of the opposition leaders, they changed their destiny forever. The case of Burkina Faso is a very unique BARE FOOT REVOLUTION OF BURKINA FASO Green 7 one and should act as an eye-opener to other military juntas in Africa that their days of tormenting and molesting the masses are numbered. Whichever way we look at it, as the people’s rights and liberties should not be sacrificed for the sake of the big men syndrome in Africa.(Bouldon,2018) References BARE FOOT REVOLUTION OF BURKINA FASO Green 8 Boudon, L. E. (2018). Burkina Faso: The “Rectification” of the Revolution. In Political Reform in Francophone Africa (pp. 127-144). Routledge. Englebert, P. (2018). Burkina Faso: Unsteady Statehood in West Africa. Routledge. Michener, V. J. (1998). The participatory approach: contradiction and co-option in Burkina Faso. World development, 26(12), 2105-2118. Schneider, B. (1988). The barefoot revolution. Paris: Club of Rome. Grade: 15% Write full 5 pages You must watch the documentary and strictly follow the guidelines Write about issues mentioned in the documentary such as organized protests, musical activism, coup d etat, political campaign, youth leadership, political leaders, transitional government, economic issues, election campaign, etc…. Avoid repetitions, there are many issues discussed in the documentary Have a story line and explicit and organized subheadings Summarize the documentary in a way that your paper makes sense to someone who did not watch the documentary …
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Glendale Community College UN Human Trafficking Report Article Analysis

Question Description

Throughout the semester, you will find and then analyze articles that exemplify any 10 concepts (or 5, if you’re doing Service Learning) from our list of options, which are drawn primarily from Best’s book. If there is a concept that you want to explore that isn’t on this list, please consult with me to see if we can make it a possibility!

An article can only be used once, and are ideally from this calendar year. Articles should be found in newspapers; in news magazines such as Time, Newsweek, and U.S. News and World Report; or on online news sites such as CNN.com, FoxNews.com, and ABCNews.com.

Note that you can select a troubling condition of interest to stick to all semester, or you can switch it up constantly and have each of your analyses be on different troubling conditions. Whichever approach you choose, I recommend that you find a troubling condition, or multiple troubling conditions, that you’re passionate about and want to learn more about during your internet searches for articles!

For each analysis, please be sure to explain/define the concept and make clear connections between the concept and the article. Quoting should be kept to a minimum, and each analysis should be about 1.5-2 pages double-spaced. Check out this sample analysis to get a sense of what’s expected for each of these analyses.

Article: https://www.cnn.com/2019/01/07/world/un-2018-globa…

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De Anza College Michelle The New Jim Crow book & Racial Discrimination Discussion

Question Description

  1. How did racial hierarchy adapt once racial discrimination became illegal?
  2. What is the “new Jim Crow”?
  3. According to Alexander, what is the public perception about who represents the majority of drug users and dealers? What is, in fact, the reality? What primary reason does she offer for the misconception?
  4. Explain the meaning of this finding, “Studies consistently indicate that drug markets like American society generally, reflect our nation’s racial and socioeconomic boundaries.” By citing these studies, what larger point is Alexander trying to prove?

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University of Phoenix Leadership and Conflict Management Presentation

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Assignment Content

  1. Conflict may occur in many different aspects of people’s lives, and how individuals respond to conflict may differ depending on the situation. This assignment provides the opportunity to apply what you have learned about team leadership and conflict resolution and management to a situation you may have encountered in your own life.Review the Microsoft® PowerPoint® resources to enhance your presentation.Consider a time you encountered a workplace situation in which there was conflict within a team.Create a 6- to 8-slide Microsoft® PowerPoint® presentation on leadership and conflict management. Include the following:

    • Provide a brief summary of the conflict situation.
    • Describe the response of leaders to the situation, and based on their response, determine the leadership theory that they most likely employ. Provide a justification for your determination.
    • Describe how leaders can contribute to conflict resolution in this situation.
    • Describe methods of conflict resolution and management that either were utilized, or could be utilized in this situation.

    Include detailed speaker notes for each slide.Submit your assignment.

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2019FS HDFS 1610 University of Missouri – Columbia Intimate College Relationships Case Study

Question Description

Now that you all are budding experts in the field of relationship science, consider the following situation. Mizzou has selected you as a guest panelist to discuss intimate relationships among college students. What will you discuss? The organizers of the event would like for you to include in your discussion relevant information on the types of relationships that are common among college students, issues that may make intimate relationships difficult, as well as what couples can do to keep their relationship strong and satisfying. For this final case study, you have flexibility in your approach, however here is a guideline to consider:

Paragraph 1: What is something that incoming freshman should know about intimate relationships among college students? (Examples: what makes relationships intimate? how does hooking up/hook-up culture influence that?) Again these are examples, feel free to discuss what you think is important to know).

Paragraph 2: What might make pursuing or maintaining a relationship challenging?

Paragraph 3: What advice would you give to keep the relationship strong/healthy/satisfying?

Grading: 1 full double-spaced page, Times New Roman, 12pt. font. Each paragraph should contain a citation, or citations from either lecture notes and or the textbook. For citations you can include just the page number from the textbook or date of lecture. You can also use information from anywhere in the textbook (this assignment is not limited to a specific chapter). This is not a group assignment, however you have the option to work with one or two other classmates. If you choose that route, then each person should still submit the completed assignment and include each persons name (just a single horizontal line is fine).

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