1. Reread chapter 3. Then read the article “Outcome Evaluation of Pennsylvania’s Boot Camp: Does Rehabilitative Programming within a Disciplinary Setting Reduce Recidivism?”(Kempinen & Kurlychek, 2003). In a narrative format of 750 or more words, identify: (a) the research problem (what the authors were studying), (b) research design, (c) data-gathering strategy, (d) any hypotheses, (e) dependent variable(s), (f) independent variable(s), and (g) how key dependent and independent variables were operationalized (defined and measured).2.Were any causal assertions made or implied in the hypotheses or in subsequent discussion? What approach was used to demonstrate the existence of causal effects? Were all 3 issues in establishing causal relationships addressed (temporal order, correlation, removing rival causal factors)? What, if any, variables were controlled in the analysis to reduce the risk of spurious relationships and rival causal factors?3. Which of the 8 possible variables (factors) listed on page 68 of your textbook that affect the internal validity of the conclusions concern you the most as it relates to this research article? Explain and justify your response.4. Briefly describe the difference between a cross-sectional and longitudinal design. What are the pros and cons of using each? Describe the longitudinal aspect of Kempinen & Kurlychek’s (2003).5. Your police department has received a grant to set up a program of in-house counseling services in an effort to reduce officer stress. You have been hired to evaluate the program. To do so, you must set up a classic experiment to see if officers who participate in the counseling services report less stress than those who do not. You have access to 100 officers and decide to put 50 in the experimental group and 50 in the control group. Describe the following: (a) your hypothesis and the null hypothesis; (b) the independent and dependent variables and how they will be operationalized, including how you will measure officer stress; (c) how equivalence of the groups will be ensured including minimizing selection bias and why this is important; (d) how pretest and posttest will be administered; (e) at least two potential rival causes and how you will control for them; (f) how you will know if the program is a success.