1. Managers who use reinforcement must do all of the following EXCEPT __ decide whether to use condi

1. Managers who use reinforcement must do all of the following EXCEPT __decide whether to use conditioned or unconditioned stimuli


a. choose whether to use continuous or partial reinforcement

b. decide whether to use conditioned or unconditioned stimuli

c. identify the correct behavior to reinforce

d. exercise caution so as not to too extensively reinforce a behavior

2. The performance of a desired behavior is reinforced on a(n) _continuous basis_______ when partial

reinforcement is used to encourage learning.

a. timely basis

b. continuous basis

c. sequential basis

d. intermittent basis

3. Which of the following is NOT one of the four schedules of partial reinforcement?fixed-interval schedule


a. fixed-interval schedule

b. sequentially-set schedule

c. fixed-ratio schedule

d. variable-ratio schedule

4. With a ___fixed-ratio_____ schedule, a certain number of desired behaviors must occur beforereinforcement is provided.

a. fixed-interval

b. variable-interval

c. fixed-ratio

d. variable-ratio

5. Fred Friend sometimes rewards his workers by ordering out for pizza. He usually does this afterhe has received three to five compliments on his department’s performance, but over time, itaverages out to every four compliments. Fred is using a _variable-interval _______ schedule.

a. fixed-interval

b. variable-interval

c. fixed-ratio

d. variable-ratio

6. If a worker is unable to learn to perform a complicated task all at once, _operant conditioning _______ would be theMOST effective in encouraging employees to gradually acquire the skills and expertise needed to

perform at an adequate level.

a. positive reinforcement

b. shaping

c. operant conditioning

d. extinction

7. The law office of Smith and Smith is one of safety and comfort. Co-workers are friends and

there are several office parties. However, everything is not perfect. June has a large family and

her salary is just not enough to cover everything. Bill makes the same salary but because he is

single and doesn’t have many expenses, his needs are met. Sam, a new employee, appreciates

the office parties but still feels out of the loop. According to Maslow, who is most likely to be

motivated by interesting projects and opportunities for growth?Bill


a. June

b. Bill

c. Sam

d. any of the employees may be equally motivated by interesting projects

8. Mick Box was recognized as Salesperson of the Year because of his outstanding sales record.

Maslow would assert that Mick’s _esteem _______ needs were met by this award.

a. ego

b. psychosocial

c. esteem

d. psychological

9. Regis Marzoni is hunting for a house that will impress his neighbors and colleagues, and thus

show them that he has “made it big.” Maslow’s hierarchy of needs theory would classify his

house hunting as being motivated by _ belonging ______needs.

a. physiological

b. safety

c. belonging

d. esteem

10. In ERG theory __, growth ______ needs involve self-development and creative, productive work.

a. growth

b. existence

c. relatedness

d. physiological

Unit 2 Examination


BAM 515 Organizational Behavior

11. According to ERG theory, _ existence _______ needs include food, water, clothing, shelter, safe and secure environment.

a. growth

b. existence

c. relatedness

d. physiological

12. Mark Ludwig’s attempts at becoming a commercial illustrator have led to frustration, despite

his desire to improve his creative skills and be productive as an artist. According to Alderfer’s

ERG theory, once Mark accepts that he will be unable to become an illustrator, he is MOST

LIKELY to _focus more on his workplace relationships


a. focus more on his workplace relationships

b. start taking bookkeeping classes at the local community college

c. increase his level of persistence

d. begin displaying dysfunctional behaviors

13. Possible disadvantages of job enrichment include all of the following EXCEPT _repression of intrinsic motivation _______.

a. unwanted additional responsibility

b. expensive and impossible to do

c. reduced efficiency

d. repression of intrinsic motivation

14. The primary focus of the job characteristics model is identifying which job characteristics

contribute to _ skill variety of workers _______.

a. work that is extrinsically motivating

b. intrinsically motivating work

c. skill variety of workers

d. growth-need strength of workers

15. In the job characteristics model, the extent to which a job involves performing a whole piece of

work from beginning to end is referred to as _task identity _______.

a. job crafting

b. task identity

c. autonomy

d. task significance

Unit 2 Examination


BAM 515 Organizational Behavior

16. Jerry finds his job as an intensive care nurse very rewarding and challenging. No day is ever

the same. Jerry’s one complaint is that he does not always find out how his patients do after

leaving his unit. On a whole, he is satisfied with his schedule. Jerry will MOST LIKELY rank low

in what core job dimension?task significance


a. task identity

b. task significance

c. autonomy

d. skill variety

17. George is a mail carrier for the post office. While George enjoys his job and recognizes that

he is making an important difference to people’s lives—delivering their mail to them—he is

bored with his job and wishes that he has more opportunities to learn new things and then use

what he learned. George would be happier if he had more _ feedback

_______ in his job.

a. task significance

b. feedback

c. skill variety

d. autonomy

18. In the job characteristics model, the extent to which a job has an impact on the lives or work

of other people in or out of the organization is referred to as _ task significance _______.

a. feedback

b. task variety

c. skill identity

d. task significance

19. One way to view personal stressors is by categorizing them as _sources of positive or negative affectivity _______.

a. sources of positive or negative affectivity

b. major or minor work-life linkages

c. overload or underload factors

d. major or minor life events

20. _Serious illnesses_______ are not job-related stressors.

a. Arguments with a boss

b. Increased job responsibilities

c. Serious illnesses

d. Angry customers

Unit 2 Examination


BAM 515 Organizational Behavior

21. __Role conflict ______ occurs when the set of behaviors or tasks a person in an organization is expected to

perform are at odds with each other.

a. Role ambiguity

b. Role conflict

c. Work-life linkage

d. Role dissension

22. David Nichols is a quality assurance manager at one of the ABC Company’s manufacturing

plants. His job requires him to head up the plant’s quality committee. This committee has

recently become critical of the job being done by the instrumentation lab, a department that

reports to David. His need to deal with the committee’s criticism of the lab and his

management role at the lab may generate stress that would be due to _ role tension _______.

a. role conflict

b. work-life balance stress

c. role tension

d. overload

23. A company hires two new employees. While Ellen is training Seth, she gives him a detailed

explanation of what he has to do and what he should do if he wants to be promoted in the

company. Jenny, who has been working at the company for years, has a very different position

than Thomas, the new employee whom she is training. She tells him all about her job and

expectations, but has little information to give him on what his job will entail. What is Thomas

MOST LIKELY to feel?role ambiguity

a. role ambiguity

b. work-life linkage stress

c. role tension

d. role dissension

24. Not having enough work to do, known as _underload_______, can be stressful for employees.

a. underload

b. slack time

c. break time

d. job rotation

25. Why do organizations use emotion-focused coping strategies?They equip employees with ways to better handle the stress.

a. They equip employees with ways to better handle the stress.

b. They lessen the workload for employees.

c. They make the problems go away.


d. They solve some problems but also introduce new ones.

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